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^r«tttr    ^ 


t 


^SRASi^- 


THE  NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 

ENC Y  C  LO  P^  DI  A 


EDITORS 
DANIEL    COIT    GILMAN,   LL.  D. 

PEBSIDBNT  OP  JOBMS  HOP&INS  UNITBRSITT  (187(^-1901) 
APTKEWAEDS  PESSIDEIfT  OP  THE  CAENIOIB  INSTITUTION  OP  WA8BINGT0N 

HARRY  THURSTON  PECK,  Ph.  D.,  L.  H.  D 

PE0PE880E   IN   COLUMBIA   UNIVBESITT 

FRANK   MOORE   COLBY,  M.  A 

LATE   PEOPB880E  OP   ECONOMICS 
IK  NEW  TOEK  UNITEE8ITT 


VOLUME  XII 


NEW  YORK 
DODD,  MEAD  AND  COMPANY 

1906 


1 


V.I?- 


Copyright,  190S,  190i,  1906,  1906 

Bt  Dodd,  Mead  and  Company 


AU  rights  reserved 


pRBsswoKK  BY  Trb  Uniybssxtv  Pkos,  CAmxisoiy  U.S. A. 
Binding  by  Boston  Bookundino  Co.,  Cambridgs,  U.  S.  A. 


ILLUSTRATIONS  IN  VOLUME  XIL 

COLORED  PLATES 

Fifflxa  Paos 
liUdACJLM 268 

Fblid^ 804 

Thbbb-Colob  Pbockss 884 

LiZAKPS 860 

Mammatja 766 


MAPS 

Tjoifuoff  AND  Vicinity 422 

Louisiana 482 

louibtellb .•     .     .  490 

LtrzoN,  Centbal 662 

Magnetic  Declination  in  the  United  States 688 

Magnetic  Inclination  IN  THE  United  States 690 

Maine -708 

CoBN  [Maize]  in  the  United  States 720 

Manitoba 804 

ENGRAVINGS 

Lee,  RobebtE 74 

Lbguhes,  Useful 100 

Lbland  Stanfobd  Juniob  Univebsity    ....  * 114 

Lemubs • 122 

LiBBABY  of  Congbbss 206 

Lichens 210 

Life-Saying  Sebyice 234 

Life-Saying  Sebyice    . 286 

LiGHTNIlVG ••....  262 

Locust  and  Linden •    •    •     • 276 

Lincoln  Cathedbal 280 

Lincoln,  Abbaham • 282 


164892 


Facoxo  Paqi 

Lippi,  >^cA  FiLippo  ("  The  Coronation  of  the  Virgin  **) 808 

LiQUIDAMBAB  AND  MuLBEBBT '. 814 

LiZABDS ,       .  860 

Lobster 8T0 

Locomotives •     •     •  890 

LoMBASDY — ^Renaissance  Abchitectubb 420 

London — ^Thb  Houses  op  Pabliambnt 424 

LouvBB — ^Pavillon  Sully 494 

Lucebnb 514 

LuTHEB,  Mabtin 548 

Luzemboubo  Palace 658 

LuxoB — Pylon  and  Obelisk  of  Bajcbsbs  II • 660 

Lyons — The  Cathedbal  op  Saint  Jean 678 

Lybe-Bibd,  etc 680 

Lysippus 684 

Mackebels 680 

Magnolia  and  Mangboys 692 


KEY  TO  PRONUNCIATION. 


f 

I 

A 


ftS 

in 

•4 

tt 

U 

tt 

tt 

tt 

it 

tt 

tt 

tt 

tt     tt 


§ 

« 

« 

i 

« 

« 

■ 
< 

M      M 


<«      « 


1 

M 

tt 

• 

X 

«< 

tt 

I 

<C 

tt 

6 

«« 

tt 

6 

tt 

tt 

6 

tt 

M 

5 

tt 

tt 

tt 

tt 

o 

ol 

tt 

«* 

, 

tt 

tt 

oo 

oa 

tt 

tt 

ft 

tt 

tt 

A 

tt 

tt 

ft 

It 

tt 

n 

tt 

tt 

ft 

y 

B 


ch 


:t 
u 
tt 


tt 
tt 
tt 


tt     tt 


ale,  fate.    Also  see  V,  below. 

senate,  chaotic.    AUo  see  ^,  below. 

glare,  care. 

am,  at. 

arm,  father. 

ant,  and  final  a  in  America,  armada, 
etc.  In  rapid  speech  this  vowel  read- 
ily becomes  more  or  less  obscured  and 
like  the  neutral  vowel  or  a  short 
^u  (ft). 

final,  regal,  where  it  is  of  a  neutral  or 
obscure  quality. 

all,  fall. 

eve. 

elate,  evade. 

end,  pet.  The  characters  9,  A,  and  A 
are  used  for  o  in  German,  as  in  Gftrt- 
ner,  Gr&fe,  HUhnel,  to  the  values  of 
which  they  are  the  nearest  English 
vowel  sounds.  The  sound  of  Sw^ish 
d  is  also  indicated  by  i, 

fern,  her,  and  as  t  in  sir.  Also  for  d, 
oe,  in  German,  as  in  GMthe,  Goethe, 
Ortel,  Oertel,  and  for  eu  and  oeu  in 
French,  as  in  NeufchAtel,  Crftveooeur; 
to  which  it  is  the  nearest  English 
vowel  sound. 

agency,  judgment,  where  it  is  of  a  neu- 
tral or  obscure  quality. 

ice,  quiet. 

quiescent. 

ill,  fit.  ^ 

old,  sober. 

ob^,  sobriety. 

orb,  nor. 

odd,  forest,  not. 

atom,  carol,  where  it  has  a  neutral  or 
obecure  quality. 

oil,  boil,  and  for  eu  in  German,  as  in 
Feuerbach. 

food,  fool,  and  as  ti  in  rude,  rule. 

house,  mouse. 

us^,  mule. 

unite. 

cut,  but. 

full,  put,  or  as  oo  in  foot,  book.    Also 

.  for  U  in  German,  as  in  Mflnchen, 

Mllller,    and    u    in    French,    as    in 

Buchez,   Bud6;   to  which   it  is  the 

nearest  English  vowel  sound. 

urn,  bum. 

yet,  yield. 

the  Spanish  Habana,  Cordoba,  where  it 
is  like  a  v  made  with  the  lips  alone, 
instead  of  with  the  teeth  and  lips. 

chair,  cheese. 


K 

Q 


tt    tt 
tt    tt 


H 

• 


as  in  the  Spanish  Almodovar,  pulgada,  where 
it  is  nearly  like  th  in  English  then, 
this, 
go,  get. 

tiie  German  Landtag,  and  ch  in  Feuer- 
bach, buch;  where  it  is  a  guttural 
sound  made  with  the  back  part  of  the 
tongue  raised  toward  the  soft  palate, 
as  in  the  sound  made  in  clearing  the 
throat. 
aa  /  in  the  Spanish  Jijona,  g  in  the  Span- 
ish gila ;  where  it  is  a  fricative  some- 
what resembling  the  soimd  of  A  in 
English  hue  or  y  in  yet,  but  stronger. 

hw  ''  toh  in  which. 

K  "  eft  in  the  German  ich,  Albrecht,  and  g 
in  the  German  Arensberg,  Mecklen- 
burg; where  it  is  a  fricative  sound 
made  between  the  tongue  and  the 
hard  palate  toward  which  the  tongue 
is  raised.  It  resembles  the  sound 
of  h  in  hue,  or  j^  in  yet ;  or  the  sound 
made  by  beginning  to  pronounce  a  k, 
but  not  completing  the  stoppage  of 
the  breath.  The  character  K  is  also 
used  to  indicate  the  rough  aspirates 
or  fricatives  of  some  of  the  Oriental 
languages,  as  of  kh  in  the  word  Khan. 

n    as  in  sinker,  longer. 


Of 
R 


tt    tt 


tt    tt 


ih 
th 

TH 


((    tt 
<«     It 


«     It 


Sing,  long. 

the  French  bon,  Bourbon,  and  m  in  the 
French  Etampes ;  where  it  is  equivap 
lent  to  a  nasalizing  of  the  preceding 
vowel.    This  effect  is  approximately 
produced  by  attempting  to  pronounce 
'onion'  without  touching  the  tip  of 
the  tongue  to  the  roof  of  the  mouth. 
The  corresponding  nasal   of  Portu- 
guese is  also  indicated  by  n,  as  in  the 
case  of  Sfto  AntAo. 
shine,  shut, 
thrust,  thin, 
then,  this. 
sh  as  2r  in  azure,  and  8  in  pleasure. 

An  apostrophe  [']  is  sometimes  used  to  denote 
a  glide  or  neutral  connecting  vowel,  as  in  tA'b'l 
(table),  kAz"m  (chasm). 

Otherwise  than  as  noted  above,  the  letters  used 
in  the  respellings  for  pronunciation  are  to  receive 
their  ordinary  English  sounds. 

When  the  pronunciation  is  sufficiently  shown 
by  indicating  the  accented  syllables,  this  is  done 
without  respelling ;  as  in  the  case  of  very  common 
English  words,  and  words  which  are  so  spelled  as 
to  insure  their  correct  pronunciation  if  they  are 
correctly  accented.     See  the  article  on  pBornTN- 

CIATION. 


A  PARTIAL  LIST  OF  THE  LEADING  ARTICLES  IN  VOLUME  XH. 


LAUD,  WILLIAM.  LIQUEFACTION  OF  GASES. 

ProfeBsor  S.  M.  Jackson.  Profesgor  Joseph  Sweetman  Ames. 

LAW.  LISSAJOUS  FIGURES. 

Professor  Evander  Bradley  McGilvary,  Professor  William  Hallock. 

Professor  Munroe  Smith,   and  Dr.    LITERARY  PROPERTY. 

Frank  Hugh  Foster.  Mr.  George  Haven  Putnam. 

LEAD.  LITHOGRAPHY. 

Dr.  Marcus  Benjamin,  Mr.  Charles  Shat-  Mr.  Charles  Wilbelms. 
tuck  Hill,  Mr.  David  Hale  Newland,    LITURGY. 

and  Mr.  Martin  A.  Rosanoff.  Professor   L.   M.   Robinson. 

LEAF.  LIVER. 

Professor  John  Merle  Coulter.  Dr.  Albert  Warren  Ferris  and  Dr.  Fred- 

LEE,  ROBERT  E.  ®"ck  ^  Bailey. 

Professor  William  Peterfleld  Trent.  LIVY. 

LEGAL  EDUCATION.  Professor  George  N.  Olcott. 

Professor  Eugene  Wambaugh.  LOCOMOTIVE            „^  ,,    ,   „.„ 

^                     ^  Mr.  Charles  Shattuck  Hill. 

LEGISLATION.  ^^                   v.n«ri«ii  oimvvuc..  xxii 

Professor    George    W.    Kirchwey  and    ^^^^'       t  .    x        i.  r^            j         t      •       o 

Dr.  James  Wilford  Gamer.  LieutenantCommander     Lewis     Sayre 

Van  Duzer. 

LEGISLATURE.  LOGIC 

Dr.  James  Wilford  Gamer.  *  Professor  Evander  Bradley  McGilvary. 

LEIBNITZ.  LONDON"  ' 

Professor   Evander  Bradley  McGilvary  ^i^  Cyrus  C  Adams 
and  Professor  David  Eugene  Smith.        ^^^^.^t^^xxV^w 

TPTTMnTTV  LONGFELLOW. 

LEITMOTIV.  Professor  William  Peterfleld  Trent. 

Professor  Alfred  Remy.  Trimtr 

LEOPARDI.             T    T^    nr    X.    .1  Mr.  Louis  Wells  Clarke. 

LEPROS?  ^^^  SUPPER. 

LEPROSY.                 w            x.      •  I>r-  Reginald  H.  Starr. 

LESsmr  ^^u^^- 

L-iLBSiJNii.  Professor  Arthur  L.  Frothingham. 

T  iTVTTTPnq        '"""^  I^WELL,  JAMES  RUSSELL. 

LEVITICUS.            T^      .     T    ^  Professor  William  Peterfleld  Trent. 

Professor  Morns  Jastrow.  ,  »T^-r^«rw,xxT« 

T  im  APTFS  LUCRETIUS. 

LIBRARIES.                                         «  4  ^  n.                      Professor  George  N.  Olcott. 

Professor    James    Morton    Paton,  Mr.    ______  ^^.sxiwt  rw, 

Charles  Alexander  Nelson,  Dr.  Melvil    LUKE,  GOSPEL  01 .  ,„    t      u 

Dewey,  and  Dr.  James  Hulme  Can-                   Professor  Melanchthon  W.  Jacobua. 

field.  LUTHER. 

LIBRARY  OF  CONGRESS.  ^^-  '^ames  Maurice  Whiton. 

Mr.  Herbert  Putnam.  LUTHERANISM. 

LIFEBOAT.  Professor  Edmund  Jacob  Wolf. 

Captain  Worth  Gwynn  Ross.  LYRIC  POETRY. 

LIFE  INSURANCE.  ^r.  Richard  T.  Holbrook. 

Dr.  Allan  Herbert  Willett.  MACHIAVELLI. 

LIFE-SAVING  SERVICE.  Professor  Edwin  A.  Start. 

Captain  Worth  Gwynn  Ross.  MACHINE  GUN. 

LIGHT.  Lieutenant-Commander     Lewis     Sayre 

'  Professor  Joseph  Sweetman  Ames.  Van  Duzer  and  others. 

LIGHTHOUSE.  MAGIC. 

Mr.    Charles    Shattuck    Hill    and    Mr.  I>r.  H.  B.  Alexander. 

Moses  Nelson  Baker.  MAGNETISM. 

LIGHTNING.  Professor  Joseph  Sweetman  Ames  and 

Professor  Cleveland  Abbe.  Mr.  J.  B.  Whitehead. 

LINCOLN,  ABRAHAM.  MAGNETISM,  TERRESTRIAL. 

Professor  William  Peterfleld  Trent.  Professor  Joseph.  Sweetman  Ames. 

LINE   ENGRAVING.  MAHABHARATA.             ,  „,   „    ,  . 

Mr.  Russell  Sturgis.  Professor  Edward  W.  Hopkins. 

LINN^US.  MAIMONIDES. 

Professor  Francis  E.  Lloyd.  Mr.  Charles  C.  Sherman. 

LION.  MALFORMATION. 

Mr,  Ernest  Ingersoll.  Professor  John  Merle  Coulter. 


THE  NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 
ENCYCLOPEDIA 


LATimC  Ift^shl-ttm  (from  Lat.  latua,  the  tale  of  the  fixing  by  Poeeidon  of  the  floating 

OLBLttilatUB    broad).    Originally  island  of  Delos,  that  it  furnish  a  refu^.    This 

the  name  of  the  broad  plateau  on  later  version  also  made  Artemis  the  twin  sister 

the  western  coast  of  Central  Italy,  of  Apollo.     Leto  was   commonly   worshiped    in 

Ivina   southeast  of   the  Tiber  be-  conjunction  with  her  children,  but  we  hear  of 

tweSi  the  Apennines  and  the  sea,  separate  shrines   at  Delos,   Plataea,   and  other 

n«i.r  thm  Miitre  of  wWch  nses  the  isolated  Mons  places.     In   HeUwiistic   and   Roman   times   the 

AnL^I  S«  crater  of  an  ertinct  volcano.    When  name  was  given  to  the  nature-goddess  worshiped 

R^^'ti^e  p^^^^                    this  re«on  and  under  the  name  of  the 'Mother- throughout  much 

SaSed    hOT^  oonqueste    among   the   Volsci   and  of  Asia  Minor,  and  often  called  Artemis. 

Hemici  and  Aurunci,  and  other  tribes  that  dwelt  jj^  TOTJGHE-TB;tfVILLB^  U  tWfeh'trl'v^K, 

among  the  foothills  of  the  Apennines,  the  name  j^^^  j^^j^^  Vassob,  Viscount  de  (17451804). 

Latium  was  extended  to  include  all  the  country  ^  French  naval  officer,  bom  at  Rochefort.     He 

from   the   Tiber   to  the   Liris.    The  early   m-  entered  the  navy  in  1757,  and  distinguished  him- 

faabitanto  of  Latium— the  Latim— wiwe  »  ^nep-  ^^f  especially  in  the  American  Revolution.     In 

herd  people  of  warUke,  marauding  habits,  dwell-  j^gQ  ^^  ^^^    ^^  jjj  command  of  a  frigate  for  his 

ing  in  many  towns,  and  loosely  bound  mto  a  bravery  in  the  capture  of  a  British  vessel  off 

sort  of  federation,  with  a  common  worship  and  a  ^^wport,  R.  I.,  andT  in  the  next  year  was  wounded 

central    shrine    of    Jupiter    Latians    on    Mons  ^^  Y^rktown.    In  1786  he  took  part  in  the  fram- 

Albanus.     Their    earliest    towns    were  ■  Ardea,  ^^  ^^  ^^  Maritime  CJode,  and  three  years  later 

Lanuvium,    and   Lavinium    in    the    plain,    and  ^^^^^^  Deputy  to  the  States  (Jeneral  from  Mon- 

Tuflculum  on  the  Alban  slopes.    Alba  Longa  was  ^argis.    He  commanded  a  squadron  at  Brest  and 

also  an  early  settlement;  and  from  ^c'^*^^^'  met  Nelson  and  forced  him  to  retreat   (1801). 

ing  to  the  stoiy,  which  may  well  be  based  on  j^^  ^^^  ^^  ^f  ^^  ^^^  y^P  j^^  ^^s  put  in 

fact,  was  colonized  Rome  (q.v.).    In  the  course  command  of  the  fleet  at  Aix  destined  for  Santo 

of  time  Rome  destroyed  all  the  neighboring  towns  i>oniingo.    He  got  to  Port-au-Prince  in  time  to 

or  reduced  them  to  a  state  of  vassalage,  and  at  giyVthe  city  from  the  negroes;   fortifled  the 

length  became  the  recopiixed  head  of  the  Latm  pj^c^   und  ^th  it  as  a  base  made  several  suc- 

League.     One  by  one  the  powers  of  the  Latins  Jegg^ii  attacks  on  the  British  West  Indies  and 

wore  reduced,  their  duties  as  alliw    (but  not  Ungiigh  commerce.    He  succeeded  in  beating  off 

their  privileges)  were  increased,  and  Anally  toe  ^^^  ^^^  g^^.  ^  capture  him  (1803).    In  1804 

Latin  licague  was  formally  abolished.    Then  the  j^^  ^^j^  command  of  the   French  fleet  in  the 

towns  revolted  in  B.o.  340,  and  the  Latm  War,  Mediterranean,  but  died  in  the  same  year. 

which  lasted  for  two  years,  put  an  end  to  their  -.^t™     ia    *«r-    lur  ^ rk,„..«-«  «. 

Sde«mdent  political  existent.     Again,  in  B.o.  ^,1^  Tp^   ^^'  Maubice   Q^mj™  d^ 

S9fiw  Latin  towns  took  up  arms  against  Rome  (1704-88).     A  Pwnch  pastel   painter,  born  at 

in'the  Social  War.    Now,  however,  the  confeder-  Saint  Quentin.     He  may  be  called  self-taught, 

ates  were  thoroughly  crushed,  and  Latium  never  though  he  was  the  pupil  in  Pans  of  a  little-known 

aicain  thought  tcTrwist  the  power  of  Rome.    By  artist,  SpoCde  He  went  to  Cambrai  when  theoon- 

the  end  of  the  Republic,  all  the  Latin  towns  en-  gress  was  held  there  m  1724,  and  attracted  so 

O^^Ao^:  ttf  ^^^'m'  A^^li,-  aid    began  to  exhibit  at  ^e  8a,o     ^ 

^traS^Zeuf    The  oldest  version  of  the  """^i***  «^^  li«*'''^™**L?5*',A^J^?^'^^?„^!^ 

to^is  &  the  Homeric  Hymn  to  Apollo.    All  he  became  Cwrt  papter   vnth  lodgings  to  the 

SSrtSnse  to  receive  the  goddew  in*her  need.  louvre. T»here Ms subjectemcluded  all  tiie notable 

^eept  Deloe,  and  the  isUnd  yield,  only  when  oharacterB  of  the  day.    He  founded  a  flOB  school 

Lrt?iw«tf.  it  shall  be  the  spedally  favored  seat  of  design  at  Saint  Quentin.  and  left  to  the  Bcole 

of  worship  for  the  new  god.    Later  legend  made  des  Beaux-Arts  three  prlaes,  which  are  still  dis- 

th«  Jealou^  of  Hera  more  pnnninent,  and  added  tributed.    Especially  fine  were  his  portraits  of 


I.A.  TOXm.                               2  IiATBOBE. 

women,  and  among  these  must  be  mentioned  having  banqueted  them.  In  1495  he  distin- 
seven  of  Queen  Marie  Leszczynska;  the  Madame  guished  himself  in  the  victoiy  of  Fomovo.  By 
de  Pompadour,  in  the  Louvre;  the  Dauphine  Louis  XII.  he  was  placed  in  command  of  the 
Marie  de  Saxe;  and  Mile.  Fel.  His  best  portrait  Army  of  Italy.  He  took  Milan  in  1500,  and  was 
of  a  man  is  that  of  the  Abb6  Hubert,  and  there  appointed  admiral  of  Guienne  (later  of  Brit- 
is  an  interesting  one  of  himself.  His  'prepara-  tany),  and  Governor  of  Burgundy.  In  1503  he 
tions,'  or  sketches  for  his  finished  picutres,  are  fought  unsuccessfully  against  Gonsalvo  de  C6r- 
among  the  best  of  his  works.  Consult  Goncourt,  dova  in  the  Neapolitan  territories.  In  1513  he 
in  UArt  du  diw-huiti^me  sUcle.     (Paris,  1873).  was  defeated  by  the  Swiss  at  Novara,  in  1515 

PHUJiM^CoBiiicrDE  (1743^1800).    A  hero  of  lf,fS«frTl^22T^     H^^^^ 

the  French  Revolution,  bom  at  Carhaix,  Finis-  KJJ^'/^  A?  \Koi                                               *  ' 

tfere,  of  an  illegitimate  branch  of  the  family  *«»ruary  Z4,  15^5. 

of  the  dukes  of  Bouillon.    He  entered  the  army  ULTBOBE,  lA-ti^^.    A  borough  in  Westmore- 

in  1767,  and  in  1782  served  under  the  Duke  of  land  County,  Pa.,  41  miles  east  of  Pittsburg;  on 

Crillon  at  Port  Mahon.    During  the  early  years  the  Loyalhanna  Creek,  and  on  the  Pennsylvania 

of  the  Revolution  Latour  fought  ih  the  armies  and  other  railroads  (Map:  Pennsylvania,  B  3). 

of  the  Alps  and  of  the  Pyrenees.     Refusing  all  It  is  the  centre  of  a  fertile  agricultural  district 

advancement  in  rank,  he  led  on  foot  and  in  a  which  has  valuable  deposits  of  coal  and  iron  ore. 

simple  captain's   uniform   his   column   of   8000  Several  coal-mines  are  worked.  There  are  large  coke 

Senadiers,  known  on  account  of  their  murderous  ovens,  steel-mills,  paper,  lumber,  and  flour  mills^ 

yonet  charges  as  the  Infernal  Column.    Having  and  manufactories  of  glass,  bricks,  farm  machinery, 

left  the  army  in  1795,  he  reSnlisted  in  1799  as  etc.    Population,  in  1890,  3589;  in  1900,  4614. 

a  substitute  for  the  only  son  of  an  old  friend,*       -  AnrD/wv    -d.^.      tt  /!»»/».•  iooav 

and  fought  with  Mass^na^ in  Switzerland.    Wheil  .  ^?!^??L,^r-'l^  w   ^'^^    ^^l^'l^^V' 

he  was  subsequently  with  the  Army  of  the  Rhine  ^  ^i'A'T''*^!^  British-American  architect    de- 

in  1800,  asTe  still  refused  all  promotion.  Bona-  ^^^^ed  from  the  Huguenot  Henry  Boneval  de  la 

pari^e  bestowed  on  him  the  title  of  'Thi  First  ^'^J^-,    °^l^*^  ^™   ?  ^""u^^J^'  England; 

^enadier  of  France.'     He  was  killed  on  June  5^^,4»^,.°"  *^«  Continent;  achieved  professional 

27th  of  that  year,  at  Oberhausen,  near  Neuburg,  J^!ji°^**?°  *,%*?  Yif^'Jf  t '?  If  "'*''"  5   and  m 

in  Bavaria.     When  he  died  the  whole  Frencli  U^  emigrated  to  the  United  States,  where  he 

army  mourned  for  him  three  days;   his  heart  became  eminent  both  as  an  engineer  and  as  an 

was  embalmed  and  placed  in  a  silver  vase  car.  "<^b'tect.    Among   the   works    wiUi    which   his 

ried  by  his  company;  his  sabre  was  placed  in  ??^!,J^*"??'''*Kif'Vt^^  ^"^^  ^'T^^  ^P" 

the  Church  of  thrinvalides ;  and  every  morning,  J?™*,*^'' .^f^*^J.  1^®  ium^*^.^^®  *^^  Delaware 

till  the  close  of  the  Empire,  at  the  mu^ter-roll  of  ganal,  and  the^Schuylkill  River  water-works  m 

his  rej 
eldest 

^^°^^'  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Cathedral  and'the'Cus- 

LA  TBAFPEy  1&  trAp.    A  narrow  valley  in  tom-House  in  Baltimore.     In  1803  he  was  ap- 

Normandy,  in  the  Department  of  Ome,  closely  pointed  by  Jefferson  surveyor  of  public  buildings 

shut  in  by  woods  and  rocks,  and  very  difficult  of  m  Washington,  and  .his  advice  had  much  to  do 

access.    In  these  woods  stands  the  famous  Bene-  .with  the  plans  and  decorations  of  the  Capitol, 

dictine  Monastery  of  La  Trappe,  or  La  Grande  He  was  engaged  to  rebuild  the  Capitol  after  it 

Trappe,  notable  as  the  place  in  which  the  Trap-  was  burned  in  1814.     In  1817  he  gave  up  his 

pist  Order  (q.v.)  originated.  connection  with  the  Government,  and  went  to 

LATBEILLE,  lA'trAy,  Piebbe  AwDRft  ( 1762-  ^®^  Orleans,  where  he  was  engaged  in  the  con- 

1833).    A  French  zoologist,  bom  at  Brives,  Cor-  ftruction  of  the  water-works,  until  his  death, 

rftze.    Although  he  was  ordained  as  a  priest  in  Jiv    ,m*^'*^~-^"^®??'  Benjamin  Henry  (1807- 

1786,  he  devoted  most  of  his  life  to  the  study  of  78),  likewise  a  distinguished  engineer  was  for 

insects  and  allied  animals.    In  1798  he  was  placed  twenty-two  years   chief  engineer   of  the   Balti- 

in  charge  of  the  entomological  collections  at  the  ^^^  ,*?d  Ohio  Railroad,  and  afterwards  was  a 

Museum  of  Natural  History  in  Paris,  and  in  consulting  ragmeer  of  the  Hoosac  Tunnel,  and  a 

1814  he  became  a  member  of  the  Academy  of  member  of  the  Advisory  Board  of  the  Brooklyn 

Sciences.  Latreille  wrote  voluminously,  his  works  Bridge.— ^e  son  of  the  second  Benjamin  Heniy, 

extending  over  the  entire  field  of  zoology;  but  it  Chables  Hazixhubst   (1833-1902),  was  also  a 

is  as  an  entomologist,  and  a  reformer  of  the  pre-  skillful  and  famous  engineer,  to  be  remembered 

vailing  systems   of   classification,   that  he  was  *or  his  construction  of  the  Arequipa  Viaduct  in 

mostfamous.    The  following  are  among  his  more  Peru  and  the  Agua  de  Vernegas  Bridge  in  Peru, 

important   works:    Precis   des   oaraot^ea   g4n4'  ^^d  for  his  authoritative  studies  of  Baltimore 

riques  des  inaectes  diapos^a  dans  un  ordre  naturel  sewerage. 

iim) ;  Histoire  naturelle  g^al^  et  par^  LATBOBE,    John    Hazlehubst     (1803-91), 

I                         lifre  des  cruatac^etvnaectes  (1802-06);  Cowrs  ^^  ^f  Benjamin  H.  Latrobe   (1764-1820),  bom 

d  entomologu!  (1831-33).  j^   Philadelphia.     He   became   a   cadet   in   the 
IiA   TBX&MDOHiIiE,    1&  trft'myy*,    or   TBil£-  United  States  Militery  Academy  at  West  Point, 
MOTJILIaE,  trA'mWy*,  Louis  II.  de,  Vicomte  and  subsequently  studied   law  with  Robert  G. 
I                        de  Thouars,  Prince  de  Talmont  (1460-1525).    A  Harper,  of  Baltimore,  and  was  called  to  the  bar 
I                        French   soldier.    In    1488,   in   coTnmand   of  the  in  1825.    His  services  as  counsel  were  soon  en- 
army  of  Charles  VIII.,   he  defeated  the  rebel  gaged  by  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  with 
forces  under  the  Duke  of  Brittany   at  Saint-  which   ne  remained   connected  until  his  death. 
Aubin  de  Cormier,  took  prisoner  the  Duke  of  He  was  also  engaged  by  Ross  Winans  in  certain 
Orleans,  and  massacred  the  other  captives  after  important  litigations  before  jbhe  Russian  eourts. 


his  regiment,  Latour's  Same  was  called,  and  the    ^Wlfdelphia.    He  was  the  architwt^  ^®  ?*?^ 

eldest  sergeint  replied,   'Dead  on  the  field   of    ^J^'^^^l]:'''^\^^\tT'^''?'^^^^^         ^^  ^^% 
hnnor '  **       »  Bank  of  the  United  States  in  Philadelphia,  and 


ItATBOBE.  a  LATUDE. 

rapcctins  the  eooEtnietioii  of  the  railroad  be-       LATTXGBLSAV  (OF.,  Fr.  latiit,  from  iatit, 
UtBta  BtLiat  Petersburg  and  Moscow.    The  well-    Ger.   Latle,   latii),   Laceleaf,  Wateb-Yau,   or 
koown  'Uitrobe  atoYe'  or  'Baltimore  heater'  wa«    OunKANDKAno,  Aponogeton  feneatrale.     A  curi- 
hie  inveotioD.   Aside  from  his  profeBsional  duties,    „,„  Mfldsgascar  aquatic  plant,  the  older  leaves 
he  waa  eonspicuoxiB  in  his  devotion  to  the  welfare    of  which  eeem  to  lose  all  their  green  tissue  and 
of  Baltimore.    Druid  Hill  Park  owes  much  to  his    to  leave  only  the  skeleton  of  the  leaf.     It  is  re- 
care.    He  was  one  of  the  founders  and  a  lifelong    (erred  by   some  botanists   to   the   natural  order 
promoter  of  the  Maryland  Institute.     For  raan^    Aponogetonaceie,  nearly  allied  to  Naiadacew,  with 
years  be  was  president  of  the  Maryland  Hieton-    „.hich  it  was  formerly  classed.     It  has  a  Hght- 
Oil   Society.     Among   the   advocates   of  African    |,„^  g^jbig  niotstock,  about  the  thicknesa  of  a 
colonization  he  was  perhaps  the  foremost.     For 
the  colony  of  Maryland  in  Liberia,   established 
at  Cape  Palmas,   he  prepared   a  charter   under 
which  a  prosperous  government  was  maintained 
for  many  yeftra.     After  the  death  of  Henry  Clay 
he  became  president  of  the  American  Colonization 
Bociety.      His   History   of   Ifarylond   in   Liberia 
was   published   in   1885.     Some   of   his   writings 
relating  to  local  history  have  a  permanent  value, 
as,    his   Life   of   OharUt   Carroll,   Personal   B«- 
collecliont  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad, 
and     Hi«Iory    of    Mason    and    Diwon't    Line.—- 
Bis  son,  FUDiNAHD  Claiborne    (1833 — ),  was 
bom  in   Baltimore,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
1860,   was  chosen  seven  times  Mayor  of   Haiti-    ' 
more,  and  was  repeatedly  sent  to  the  Maryland 
Legislature,    semng    twice   as    Speaker    of   the 
House  of  Delegates.     He  was  always,  whether  In 
office  or  out  of  office,  a  prominent  factor  in  the 
political  affaire  of  his  native  city  and  State. 

IiATBUlT'CUIil   (Lat.  nom.  pi.,  pawns,  fre«- 
hooters,  diminutive  of  lalro,  robber) .    An  ancient 


Roman  Rame,   played   on   a   board   divided   into 
^     ruled ■    ■-       ■ 

then  the  game.    The  details  of  play  are  unknown. 


■qnares  %y  ruled  lines  with  men  of  different 
colors.  The  name  properly  denotes  the  n"""  -~' 
■        ■■  -      •  laila  of  p-    - 


but  it  is  certain  that  one  object  of  each  player 
waa  to  capture  his  opponent's  pieces  by  inclosing 
them  between  two  of  bis  own  men.  A  similar 
game  was  known  to  the  Egyptians,  and  boards 
and  sets  of  men,  with  animals'  heads,  have  been 

found  in  tombs  of  that  country.    A  similar  board  „„.„_„     „„,„  .^^  „..™.^,™.,.     .„i  „„~„  ™ 

ha>  been  found  in  the  Mycen«ai)  palace  at  Cno-  the'plant  is'"under "water,  and  the'leavee "float 

sus,  in  Crete.     The  Greeks  also  had  two  games  juBtT>eIow  the  surface;  the  flowera,  arranged  in 

{rtrrtlm,     petteia)     played    with    men,    one    the  forked  spikes,  rise  above  it.     The  young  leaves, 

gune  of  'Ave  linea.'  the  other  called  'cities';  the  „hi!e  in  the  bud,  are  not  lattice-like.   There  are 

men   were   called    'dogs.'      It   seem^   likely   that  about  a  doien  species  in  this  genus,  which  occurs 

while  some  of  the  games  were  purely  games  of  in  Africa,  Asia,  and  Australia. 

ridll,  analogous  ^rf^^^K^X'-^^^:.!^  '^^«        LATTKANN.  ISt'mAn,  Jmjoa  (IB18-98).    A 

varieties  dice  were  used,  se  m  bacKgammon.     the  „  ,       ,   *    ,  j.   ^     i  it       i   j.  i 

i«4«._«.i.-  n»r.  vorv  imniilar   onH  are  frannantiv  German  educator,  born  at   Ooslar.     He  studied 

SS3^£  rrS  KSSi  • "  '"  '"""*  ?~'«  "I  p-zJiT  ;*.,"■•  """■?!■  '<  <* 

'■'"Gen-     From  1847  to  1870  he  was  a  teacher  m 

I^TTBH    [OF.    laton,    Fr.    laiton,    from    Sp.  the  gymnasium  at  GOttingen ;  from  1870  to  1890 

lata,  lath.  Port,  lata,  tin-plate,  from  OHG.  lata,  director   of   that   at   Clausthal.      Besides   many 

latta,  Ger.  Latte,  Eng.  lath;  connected  with  Ir.  schemes  for  linguistic  reforms,  he  also  published 

ilal^  Bret,  lax,  rod,  and  with  Ger.  Laden,  shut'  a   number   of    school    text-books,    among   them: 

ter).     A  term  applied  to  a  mixed  metal  made  of  Komiination    der    m«thadi»chen    Prindpien    im 

copper  and  zinc,  and  practically  the  same  as  sheet  laleinischen  Vnlerricht   (1882-88);  ComeUi  Ne- 

brass.    There  are  three  varieties  of  tatten  known  potta   Liber   Emendatua    et   Suppletut    (1880); 

— black,   thaven,   and   roll.     The   first   is   rolled  Auagleichende  Ldeung  der  Reformbeipeffitngen  de» 

bnue  about  the  thickness  of  ordinary  pasteboard,  hiheren  Bchulaieaens   (1880). 

^"p°SiS'ttMT,i';'','s;.",?.w"ffi  ,.j*T^',  "'""■'  frs  st  "/;;"'■ 

^li.i.^j  ™  \.^n.  .ij».     IT,™  1  ■  ij  _  1805).     A  prisoner  m  the  Bastille,  horn  at  Mon- 

polishea  on  both  sides,     ine  term  is  now  seldom  ,   ■_  >■        _        ti     i     a  /u     i :_  __  .* 

Wd.  and  is  restricted  to  brass  worked  into  oraa-  ^'^'^  '"  ""^""y      "''  'l"Tlt  ^nH  i™  t 

menta  for  ecclesiastical  purposes.  ""  apothecary   served  in  the  army    and  cameto 

'^     "^  Pans,   where   he   lived   for   some   time   in   great 

LATTBB-DAT  PAMPHLETS.    Violent  and  ™vertT.      In    17411    Latude    informed    Mme.    d« 

^^      F°     ]^[   ^"^^     "y    Thomas     Carlyle  Pompadour  that  an  attempt  would  be  made  upon 

( I8S0) ,  in  which  he  attacked  not  only  abuses,  her  life  through  poison  In  a  package.    He  did  not 

but  also  the  chief  instituUons  and  humanitarian  tell  that  he  himself  was  the  sender  of  the  pack- 

tneasurei  of  the  British  Oovemment.  ^ge.     Mme.  de  Pompadour  found  him  out,  re- 

IiAITEB-DAY  SAINTS.    See  Mobuorb.  fused  to  see  the  humor  of  the  situation,  and  sent 


LATXJDE.                                 4  IiAXJD. 

him  to  the  Bastille.     Thrioe  escaped?  he  was  published  at  Vienna  in  16  volumes   (1875-82). 

thrice  taken,  and  spent  twenty-ei^t  years  in  Ck>nsult  Gottschall,  ''Heinrich  Laube/'  in  Unaere 

prison.     Malesherbes  brought  about  his  release-  Zdt,  voL  ii.  (1884). 

in  1777,  but  he  was  again  arrested,  charged  with  lATJD,   William    (1673-1646).     Archbishop 

robbery  and  kept  m  the  Bicfitie  till  1784   when  of  Canterbury,  the  upholder  of  Church  authority 

he  was  freed  through  the  intercession  ot  Mme.  in  the  Ume  of  Charles  I.    He  was  the  son  of  a 

Legros.     During  the  early  years  of  the  Rev^u-  clothier  in  good  circumstances,  and  was  born  at 

tion  Latude  was  veiy  popular  in  the  character  Reading,  in  Berkshire,  October  7,  1573.    He  en- 

of  a  victim  of  the  old  rtgime.    In  1793  the  Con-  tered  Saint  John's  College,  Oxford,  in  1589,  be- 

vention  compelled  the  heirs  of  Mme.  de  Pompa-  game  a  fellow  in  1693,  and  took  his  degree  of 

1  ?nf  n^ JP*y  ^^  J?'?^?  r^^^  damagcs.     In  mj^..  in  1698.    Ordained  a  priest  in  1601,  he  soon 

1791-92  Tliieriy  published  Ledcajwfwmecr^  n,ade  himself  conspicuous  at  the  university  by 

ou  mfm<nre9  de  Latude,  which  attamed  great  hjs  antipathy  to  Puritanism;  but.  being  then  a 

notoriety.             person  of  very  little  consequence,  he  only  sue- 

UL^TJS  BECyrmC  (Lat,  straight  side).    In  ceeded  in  exciting  displeasure  against  himself, 

mathematics,  the  latus  rectum  of  a  conic  section  Yet  his  learning,  his  persistent  and  definite  eccle- 

is  the  double  ordinate  of  a  focus,  or  the  focal  siasticism,  and  the  genuine  unselfishness  of  his 

chord  parallel  to  the  directrix.    Its  length  in  the  devotion  to  the  Church,    soon    won    him    both 

ellipse  and  hyperbola   (q.v.)   is  ?*!  and  in  the  J"!?^  ^'^^  patrons.     In  1607  he  was  preferred 

'^                •^'^              ^-1     '          ^  to  the  Vicarace  of  Stanford,  in  Northamptonshire, 

parabola  y*  =  Apso  it  is  4p,  or  twice  the  distance  and  in  1608  obtained  the  advowson  of  North  Kil- 

of  the  focus  from  the  directrix.    See  Pabametbb.  worth  in  Leicestershire.     In   1609  he  was  ap- 

XATOAK,  lou'bta,    A  town  in  the  Province  ^^^  '***°'  «'  ^^^  tilbury,   in  E«|ex:    in 

of  Silesia,  Prussia,  on  the  Queis,  at  the  con-  ^}^;  ill?i*^„lii'^,„^SPt!STi'pSli!!H;^ 

verging  of  three  railway  linM.  40  miles  west-  ^Ti^^^^^I^Ti^   IJ^^Ji^^'^t^ftJI 

STd  a^'^^%s^s:^iS*Stri^s&?e  Kri^a'^r^^i^fecS^iSr^^ 

woolen,  linen.  Md  cottoi  weaving,  bleaching,  and  ?"  ]"Lil?f  J^X^^,  ^^^J^^lL^^Ji 

^9^0"^!^^ r«Lris'*z:tii^Ts^ii^ is  '^•c'^^^i^td^t^^i'o^^^^t'^^ 

of  the  six  towns  of  Lusatia.  j  j^^  ^^  translated  from  the  See  of  Saint  David's 

ULTTBE,  lou^e,  Heinbich  ( 1806-84) .    A  Ger-  to  that  of  Bath  and  Wells  ( 1626) ,  became  high  in 

man  novelist  and  dramatic  author.    He  was  bom  favor  at  Court,  was  more  than  ever  hated  by  the 

at  Sprottau  in  Silesia,  and,  after  studying  the-  Puritans,  and  was  denounced  in  Parliament.    In 

ology  at  Halle  and  Breslau,  made  his  home  at  1628  he  was  made  Bishop  of  London.    After  the 

Leipzig.    He  aroused  the  hostility  of  the  €rovem-  assassination     of     Buckingham     Laud     became 

ment  by  his  participation  in  the  liberal  move-  virtually   the    chief    minister   of   Charles,    and 

ment  of  the  time,  and  in  1834  was  expelled  from  undertook  to  carry  out  the  policy  which  he  be- 

Saxony  and  served  a  term  of  imprisonment  at  lieved  to  be  right  with  great  firmness  and  per- 

Berlin.    After  marrying,  getting  once  more  into  sistency.     It  was  not  in  accord  with  the  spirit 

prison,  and  traveling  through  France  and  Algeria,  of  the  times,  however,  or  suited  to  the  temper  of 

ne  returned  to  Leipzig  in  1839.    He  was  a  mem-  the  people.     In   1630  he  was  chosen  chancellor 

her  of  the  Frankfort  National  Assembly  (1848-  of  the  University  of  Oxford,  the  centre  of  High- 

49),  and  in  1849  became  director  of  the  Burg  Church  loyailv.     From  this  period  he  was  for 

Theatre  at  Vienna,  a  position  which  he  held  till  several  years  busily  but  fruitlessly  employed  in 

1867.     After  a  short  sojourn  at  Leipzig  ( 1869-  trying  to  repress  Puritanism.   In  the  High  Com- 

70),  he  returned  to  Vienna  and  acted  as  direct-  mission  and  Star  Chamber  courts  the  influence 

or  of  the   Stadt  Theatre  till   1879.     The   first  of  Laud  was  supreme;  but  the  penalty  he  paid 

period  of  his   literary  career  was   marked   by  for  this  influence  was  the  hatred  of  the  English 

the   rapid   output   of   novels   dealing  with   the  Parliament  and  of  the  people  generally.    In  1633 

history  of  Germany,  as  well  as  with  contem-  he  was  raised  to  the  Archbishopric  of  Canterbury, 

porary  social  and  political  conditions.     He  also  and  in  the  same  year  was  made  chancellor  of  the 

published   essays   and   books   of  travel.     After  University  of  Dublin.    The  famous  ordinance  re- 

1845  his  attention  was  directed  chiefly  to  the  garding    Sunday    sports,    which    was    published 

stage.     His  plays  are  well  wrought  and  clev-  about  this  time  by  royal  command,  was  believed 

erly  written,  and  show  a  remarkable  mastery  to  be  drawn  up  by  Laud,  and  greatly  increased 

of  the  technique  of  the  stage.     Of  his  novels,  the  dislike  felt  toward  him  by  the  Puritans.    His 

the   most    important   are:     Daa   junge   Europa  minute  alteration^  in  public  worship,  his  regula- 

(1833-37)  ;  Das  GlUck   (1837)  ;  Der  Pratendent  tions  about  the  proper  position  of  the  altar  and 

(1842)  ;  Die  Orafin  Chateaubriand  (1843)  ;  Der  the  fencing  of  it  with  decent  rails,  his  forcing 

deutache     Krieg     (1863-66) ;     Die     Bahmitiger  Dutch  and  Walloon  congregations  to  use  the  Eng- 

(1880)  ;  Louiaon  (1884).    On  the  stage  he  first  lish  liturgy,  and  all  Englishmen  to  attend  the 

attained  a  reputation  with  his  tragedy  Monal-  parish  church  where  they  resided,  are  character- 

deachi  (1845),  and  the  comedy  i2oA;oA;o   (1846).  istic  of  his  principles  and  policy.    During  1636-37 

These  were  followed  by  Siruenaee  (1847),  Ooit-  another  effort  was  made  by  him  to  establish 

ached    und    Oellert    (1847),    Die    Karlaschuler  episcopacy   in   Scotland;   but  the   first  attempt 

(1847),  Oraf  Esaew    (1866),  Montroae    (1869),  to  read  the  liturgy  in  Saint  Giles's  Church,  Edin- 

Bdae  Zun<7en  (1868),  and  Dem6frtu8  (1872) ;  the  burgh,     excited     a     dangerous     tumult.      (See 

last  was  an  attempt  at  completing  Schiller's  un-  Geddes,  Jennt.)     Proceedings  were  finally  taken 

finished  drama  of  that  name.     His  works  were  against  him,  and  on  March  1,  1641,  he  was,  by 


LAUD.                                   6  LAXJDEBDALE. 

• 

order  of  the  House  of  CommoBB,  conveyed  to  the  in  the  Seventy-ninth  Regiment  (Cameron  Hi^- 
Tower.  After  being  stripped  of  his  honors,  and  landers) .  On  the  death  of  hia  father,  in  1820,  he 
exposed  to  many  indignities  and  much  injustice,  succeeded  to  the  baronetcy.  For  several  years  he 
he  was  finally  brought  to  trial  before  the  House  was  secretary  to  the  Board  of  Scottish  Manufac- 
of  Lords,  November  22,  1643,  on  a  charge  of  trea-  turers,  and  to  the  Board  of  White  Herring  Fish- 
son  and  other  crimes.  The  Lords,  however,  did  ery.  He  became  known  as  the  author  of  several 
not  find  him  guilty;  but  iJie  Commons  had  pre-  romances  written  in  imitation  of  Scott:  Binum 
viously  resolved  on  his- death,  and  passed  an  Roy  { ISll ),  Lochindhu  (IB25) ,  a.nd  The  Wolf  of 
ordinance  for  his  execution.  To  this  the  Upper  Badenoch  (1827).  The  scenes  of  the  last  two 
House  gave  its  assent;  and,  in  spite  of  Laud's  are  laid   in  Morayshire,  just  before  the  wan 

Sroducing  a  royal  pardon,  he  was  beheaded,  of  Bruce.  Later  in  life  he  published  Highlatid 
anuary  10,  1645.  Laud  had  a  genuine  regard  Rambles  and  Legends  (3  vols.,  1837),  and  Leg- 
for  learning,  and  enriched  the  University  of  ends  and  Tales  of  the  Highlands  (3  vols.,  1841). 
Oxford,  in  the  course  of  his  life,  with  1300  MSS.  His  only  work  now  read  is  the  Account  of  the 
in  different  European  and  Oriental  languages.  Great  Moray  Floods  of  1829  (183Q).  This  has 
His  writings  are  few.  Wharton  published  his  survived  for  its  graphic  descriptions,  its  humor 
Diary  in  1694;  and  during  1857-60  Parker,  the  and  pathos.  He  died  May  29,  1848.  A  series  of 
Oxford  publisher,  issued  The  Works  of  the  Most  papers  written  during  the  last  two  years  of  his 
Rer-erend  Father  in  Ood,  William  Laud,  DJ).,  life  for  Tait's  Magazine,  and  entitled  Scottish 
sometime  Lord  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  Con-  Rivers,  was  edited  with  a  preface  by  Dr.  John 
suit  hia  biography,  by  Benson  (London,  1887;  Brown  (Edinburgh,  1874). 
new  ed.  1897) ;  by  Simpkinson  (London,  1894) ;  ULUDBB,  William  (  M771).  A  Scotch  Lat- 
and  by  Hutton  (London,  1885).  ij^i  and  impostor.  He  was  educated  at  Edin- 
LAU^AHTJIC  (variant  of  ladanum,  from  burgh  University,  and  became  a  tutor,  but  was 
Lat.  ladanum,  ledanum,  from  Gk.  X^aw,  leda-  unsuccessful  in  several  attempts  to  obtain  a  col- 
non,  resinous  juice  or  gum  of  a  certain  shrub,  le«iate  appointment.  He  was  a  good  Latin 
from  A»dov,  Udon,  mastich,  from  Pers.  Iddan,  scholar,  and  published  Poetarum  Sootorum  Musm 
sort  of  shrub),  or  Tiworumc  of  Opium.  A  fluid  Saorm  (2  vols.,  1739),  a  collection  of  Latin  poems 
preparation  of  opium,  made  by  macerating  the  by  Arthur  Johnston,  Ruddiman,  Ker,  and  others, 
slicid  or  powder^  drug  in  alcohol  and  filtering  the  ciroilation  of  which,  however,  was  dama^ 
the  resultant.  It  is  of  a  deep  brownish-red  color,  by  Lauder's  injudicious  praise  of  Johnston.  He 
and  possesses  the  peculiar  nutty  odor  and  smeU  went  to  London,  where  he  supported  himself  by 
of  opiumTFornierly  it  was  a  preparation  of  un-  teaching  and  literary  work.  In  1747  he  corn- 
certain  strength,  as  there  was  no  definite  rule  menced  the  series  of  articles  in  the  Oenileman's 
for  compounding  it.  But  the  United  States  If a^yimne  by  which  he  is  remembered,  owing  to 
Pharmacopoeia  of   1880  prescribed  that  it    (to-  his  indictment  of  Milton  for  plagiarism.   By  his 


and  lypnotic,  W  it  causes  constipation,  head-  (1760),  to  which  Dr.  Johnson  wrote  a  preface 
ache,  aid  occasionally  nausea.  It  is  too  fre-  "^d  postscript  The  nublication  of  a  more  ex- 
ouimtly  used  as  a  domestic  medicine  for  the  relief  tended  work  on  the  subject  was  arrested  by  John 
of  pain,  especially  in  cases  of  cramps  or  diar-  Douglas,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Salisbury,  who  ex- 
rhci,  wheiin  tie  majority  of  cases  a  brisk  P^sed  Lauder's  fraud  in  citing  excerpts  from 
cathartic  should  be  used.  'To  young  children  it  Alexander  Hog's  Latin  translation  of  Paradise 
must  be  given  with  extreme  ^utiim,  as  fatal  J-ost,  as  plagiarisms  of  Grotius,  Masenius,  Sta- 
resulta  have  followed  a  very  small  dose  admin-  phoristms,  and  others.  Dr.  Johnson  obtained  Lau- 
istered  to  an  infant  for  relief  of  supposed  pain,  der's  confession  of  the  forgery,  notwithstanding 
or  as  a  'soothing'  agency.  The  drug  is  used  in  ^b^b  Lauder  continued  his  attack  on  Milton 
widely  varying  lose?  in  adults,  according  to  the  and  published  The  Grand  Impostor:  or  K%ng 
indicitions,  ^interpreted  by  the  physician.  See  Charles  /.  Vxnduiated  from  the  Charge  of  Plor 
Ahtidotb*  Opium.  ^  ^  giansm  Brought  Against  Htm  by  Mtlton,  and 
*  ,  '  „  ,,^^«^  V  .  Milton  Himself  Convicted  of  Forgery  (1754). 
J^TJ^ISR,  RoBKBT  Scott  (1803-69).  A  Lauder  was  finally  obliged  to  emigrate  to  Bar- 
Scotch  historical  and  portrait  painter.  He  was  bados,  where  he  died  in  poverty. 
born   near  Edinburgh    June  25,    1803;    studied  lA^/dBBDALB,  Jamm   Maitland,  eighth 

a^rsf/mi^^'^Xa^^^^^^  ^r^i^'^'f^k  \,^'^^ '"^^"^""r:,' 

Edinburgh,  and  in  London,  after  which  he  speit  ^'^^J^^J'  ^™  at  Ratho,  Midlothian     He  was  ed- 

five  yea«  in  Italy.     From  1838  to  1849  heVe-  "f»*«d  at  the  Universityof  Edinburgh    studied 

sided  in  London,  and  after  that  time  until  his  »^«^  f  Trinity  College   Oxford,  and  at  Glasgow, 

y^^^     A«-5i  oo    TQAo    ;«  'G<^:^K.i«.««ii      TTSo  Yw».f  'cad  law  at  Lincoln's  Inn,  London,  and  became 

deaUi,  April  22,  1869,. m  ^uburgh.     His  ^st  ^^^^^^  •„  j^g^     j^  ^^^^           j,^'^^  ^1^  „, 

^^.f'^TlS.h'^rTTn^iSSmv'^      Z?h!«Kl  bv  turned  to  the  House  of  Commons  for  Newport, 

P*'*J!L J^  A    *^  Humility'    was  purchased  by  Cornwall.    From  1784  to  1789  he  sat  for  Malmes' 

the  Scottish  Association  for  the  Encouragement  r;       .     ,-q^  ^l^Z^i^^^\  ^.^.n^^  *«,  ♦>;« 

of  Art,  and  pUced  in  the  Scottish  National  Gal-  ^"'J'  *"  \^^^  T^  apnointed  a  manager  for  the 

i-JTlV  vAi^U^^S^  JXiAu  «io«  o/.««4<>i*n.  i»;o  ««a^«  conduct  of  the  impeachment  of  Warren  Hastings, 

^u-!^iWfM^^  and  in  1790  was  ilTcted  a  representative  peer  of 

tinels,    and  two  of  his  portraits.  Scotland.    While  a  member  of  the  CommSns,  he 

ULUDBB,   Sir  Thomas   Dick    (1784-1848).  spoke  against  the  persons  who  were  responsible 

A  Scottish   author,  eldest  son   of   Sir  Andrew  for    the    American    war.       He    was    strongly 

Lauder,  sixth  Baronet  of  Fountainhall,  Hadding-  opposed   to   the   French   war,    and   is    said   to 

tonahire,  Scotland.    For  a  short  time  he  served  have   made    his    appearance    in    the   Lords    on 


LATTDEBDALE.  6  LAUDONITIEBE. 

one  occasi(m  in  the  garb  affected  by  the  Jaco-  opposite  the  Greek.    The  portion  from  zxvi.  2d 

bin  organization.    His  attitude  toward  the  Min-  to  xxvii.  26  has  been  lost.     The  vellum  is  in- 

istry  prevented  his  reflection  in  1796  and  1B02,  ferior  and  the  ink  pale.    It  was  probably  written 

but  in  1806  he  became  a  peer  of  Great  Britain  in  the  west  of  Europe  and  about  the  sixth  cen- 

and  Ireland   (Baron  Lauderdale  of  Thirlestane,  tury.    It  is  now  in  tne  Bodleian  Library,  and  is 

Berwick),  Lord  High  Keeper  of  the  Great  Seal  numbered    35.      It   was    published   by    Thomas 

of  Scotland,  and  a  member  of  the  Privy  Council.  Heame  (Oxford,  1715). 

He  resigned  in  1807,  was  long  prominent  in  the  LATTDON,  lou'ddn,  or  IiOTJBON,  Gideon 
opposition  in  the  House  of  Lords,  and  the  leader  Ebnst,  Baron  von  (1717-90).  An  Austrian  gen- 
of  the  Scottish  Whigs.  Ultimately,  however,  he  eral,  bom  at  Tootzen,  Livonia,  of  an  old  Scotch 
be^me  a  To^.  His  attack  (with  the  Duke  of  family.  After  serving  in  the  Russian  army 
Bedford)  on  the  pension  of  Burke  was  answered  he  went  to  Austria  in  1742,  and  rose  to  be  colonel 
r^  ^""J^Saa^  the  wcll-known  Lett^  to  a  Noble  ^^  ^he  outbreak  of  the  Seven  Years'  War.  Within 
Lord  (1796).  His  writings  include  an  Inquiry  ^  y^ar  his  services  raised  him  to  the  rank  of 
Into  the  Nature  and  Orxgrn  of  Puhlio  Wealth  major-general.  He  was  present  at  the  battles  of 
(1804;  second  enlarged  edition,  1819;  translated  Ro^gbach  and  Hochkirch;  and  in  1759  his  forces 
into  Italian  and  French)  and  a  considerable  with  those  of  the  Russian  General  Soltikoff  over- 
list  of  pampniets.  whelmed  the  army  of  Frederick  the  Great  at 
LATTDEBDAIiE,  JoHK  Maitland,  Duke  of  Kunersdorf.  He  won  further  victories  at  Glatz 
(1616-82).  A  Scotch  statesman,  the  grandson  and  Landshut.  He  became  baron  (1768)  and 
of  John,  first  Lord  Thirlestane,  brother  of  the  Aulic  Councilor  (1766).  In  1769  he  was  corn- 
famous  Secretary  Lethington,  and  son  of  John,  mandant-general  in  Bohemia,  and  in  1778  became 
first  Earl  of  Lauderdale,  and  of  Isabel,  daughter  'field-marshal.  In  the  Turkish  War  of  1788-89 
of  Alexander  Seaton,  Earl  of  Dunfermline  and  he  captured  Belgrade.  In  1790  he  was  made 
Chancellor  of  Scotland.     He  was  bom  at  the  generalissimo. 

f??i®°*TT^*™^^^.  ^*^    ^^   Lethington,    May    24,        LATTDONNIAbE^  lA'dd'nyar',  Ren6  de    ( ?- 

1616.     He  received  an  excellent  education,  was  c.l686).     A  French  navigator  of  the  sixteenth 

carefully  trained  m  Presbyterian  principles,  and  century.     In  1562  he  was    with    Ribaut    (q.v.) 

Ta^^^  P^J?^'*!,  !;^!i,*V  ^^"^  Covenanter      In  ^y,^^  -^the    latter    made    hU    unsuccessful    at- 

1643  he  attended  the  Westminster  Assembly  of  tempt    to    establish    a     Huguenot    colony     at 

Divines  as  an  elder  of  the  Church  of  Scotland,  p^^t  Royal  in  South  Caroliia,  and  two  year* 

and  was  a  party  to  the  surrender  of  Charles  I.  j^ter  was  dispatched  at  the  head  of  a  second 

to  the  Enclish  army  at  Newcastle.    Shortly  after,  expedition    to   the    New    World.     On    June    25, 

however,  he  changed  his  politics,  and  tecame  a  15^4    ^e  arrived  off  the  mouth   of  the   Saint 

Royalist      When  Charles  II.  came  to  Scotland  j^^^n's    River,    Florida,    and,    sailing    up    the 

from  Ho  land,  Lauderdale  accompanied  him,  but,  ^i^^,  ^^^  ^  distance  of  five  miles,  began  the  erec- 

being  taken  at  the  battle  of  Worcester  m  1661,  tion  of  a  fort,  which  he  named  Caroline,  in  honor 

was  kept  a  prisoner  for  nine  years.    Set  at  liberty  ^f  Charles  IX.     Laudonnifere's  management  in- 

by  General  Monk  in  1660,  he  hastened  to  The  ^^j^^  ^^e  colonists  in  quarrels  with  the  Indians, 

Hague,  and  was    warmly    received   by    Charles.  „         ^h^n^  ^hey  were  dependent  for  supplies. 

After  the  removal  of  Middleton  m  1662,  and  of  g^^  ^^  ^^^  number, mostlyimpoverished |Sitle- 

Rothes  m  1667,  Lauderdale  was  practically  the  ^^^  ^^o  resented  the  hard  laliSr  to  which  they 

sole  ruler  of  Scotland,  and  for  wme  time  dis-  ^g^e  put,  revolted  against  the  rule  of  their  leader, 

played  a  spirit  of  moderation  and  an  apparent  ^nd  forced  him  to  wnction  a  marauding  expedi- 

regard  for  the  religious  feelings  of  his  country-  ^ion  to  pillage  the  Spanish  settlements  in  Cuba, 

men;  but  he  soon  became  a  bitter  persecutor  of  Affairs  went  from  bad  to  worse,  and  the  colony 

the  Covenantere.     In  1762  Charles  showed  his  ^^^^s  threatened  with  destruction  for  want  of  food, 

appreciation  of  Lauderdale  s  conduct  by  creat-  Qn  August  3,    1565,   Capt.   John  Hawkins,  the 

mg    him    Marquis    of    March    and    Duke    of  celebrated  English  slaver  and  privateer,  arrived 

Lauderdale ;     two    years    afterwards    he    was  ^q  the  mouth  of  the  river  and  supplied  the  colo- 

raised    to    the    English    peerage    as    Viscount  njg^g  with  provisions,  selling  them  also  one  of  his 

Petersham  and  Earl  of  Guilford,  and  received  a  g^ips,  on  which  Laudonnifere  intended  to  return 

seat  in  the  English  Privy  Council.    He  wm  one  to  jprance.    On  August  29th  Jean  Ribaut  arrived 

of  the  famous    cabal  ;  but,  by  his  domineering  ^^th  seven  ships  and  some  300  men,  and  super- 

arrogance,  excited  the  disgust  and  hatred  of  his  g^^^d  Laudonnifere  in  the  command,  the  latter 

colleagues,  as  well   as  of  the  nation,   fell   mto  y^^^  ordered  home  to   defend   himself    against 

disgrace,   wm  stripped   of  his  offices   and   pen-  accusations  of  tyranny  and  treason.    His  depar- 

sions   m    1682,   and   died   at   Tunbridge  Wells,  ture  for  France  was  delayed  by  the  appearance  of 

August  24  of  the  same  year.    Consu  t  the  articles  ^  Spanish  fleet  under  Menendez  de  Avil6s,  which 

^7^^^naR^^^9?''''Jir^y^^y^'iiy''^'?^^^^  had^been  dispatched  for  the  purpose  of  driving 

don,  1884),  and  mtYi^Enghsh  BisK^calRevxeic,  ^^t  the  French.    On  September  10th  Ribaut  set 

vol.  1.  (London,  1886);  and  a  selection  fr^^  out  in   his   ships   to  attack  the   Spaniards  at 

36  vols   of  Lauderdale  MSS.  in  the  British  Mu-  g^j^t  Augustine,   leaving  Laudonnifere   fn  com- 

seum,  edited  for  the  Camden  Society  m  3  vols.  ^^^^  at  the  fort.    About  ten  days  later  Menen- 

(London,  1884-85).  ^^2  de  Avil^s  stormed  the  fort,  and  a  massacre 

LATnyiAir   MAITCJSCBIFT    (Codex   Lau-  of    the     colonists     ensued.       Laudonniftre    suc- 

DiANUS).    A  valuable  manuscript  of  the  Acts  of  ceeded  in  effecting  his  escape.    With  the  rest  of 

the  Apostles,  named  after  Archbishop  Laud,  who  the  survivors  of  the  massacre  he  was  rescued  by 

in  1636  presented  it  to  the  University  of  Oxford,  the  remnant  of  the  French  fleet.    He  went  to  Eng- 

It  has  in  parallel  columns  and  uncial  letters  the  land,  and  did  not  return  to  France  until  1566. 

Greek  text  with  a  closely  literal  Latin  version.  Twenty  years  later  he  published  Uhiatoire  no- 

different  both  from  the  Vulgate  and  from  Je-  table  dela  Floride,  contenant  le3  trois  voyages 

rome's.     The  Latin  words  are  always   exactly  failes  en  icelle  par  dee  capitaines  et  des  piloteB 


IiAUDONKIEBE.                           7  LAUaHLZN. 

fran^i»,  translated  in  ^akluyVs  Principal  Navi-  whose  works  include  such  subjects  as  'llepaat 

gations  {i5Sd),»ndm  French's  HiatortcalColleo-  of    the    Mowers"     (1877),    "Poor    Blind    Man" 

tiwut  of  Louisiana.     The  last-named  book  also  (1881),  and  "The  First-Bom"  (1883). 

contains   other   original   documents  ^re^^^       to  lAxJOEL,    16'zh6K,    Auquste    (1830-).     A 

this  episode,  which  is  fully  treated  m  Parkman,  pjench   author    bom   in   Strassburir     For   sev 

Pioneers  of  France  in  the  New  World  (Boston,  ,              v      '           mining  enirinGer'  and  aftprl 

ISeS).    See  M«.ENDEZ  de  Avu±S;  RiBAUT/  wardr^kme  :^re^^^^      ?Sf Xc  S^luSJale. 

LAUZKBTTBQy  lou^en-b^rK.    A  circle  in  the  His  works,  on  scientific,  historical,  and  philo- 

Province  of  Schleswig-Holstein,  Pmssia.    Its  area  sophical  subjects,   include:   Etudea  sdentifiqiiea 

is   455   square  miles;    its   population,    in    1000,  (1859);    Science    et    philoaophie    (1862);    Lea 

51,833.      The    district    is    productive    and    well  Etata-Unis pendant  la  ffuerre  ilSQl-65) ;  L'Anffle- 

forested.     Agriculture  and  cattle-raising  are  the  tep-e  politique  et  aociale  (1873) ;  Grandea  figurea 

chief    industries.      There    are    numerous    lakes,  hiatoriquea    (1875);    Lord  Palmer aton  et  Lord 

Lauenburg  was  inhabited  by  Slavic  tribes  when  Ruaaell   (1876);  Louia  de  Coligny   (1877);  La 

Charles  the  Great  conquered  it  in  804.  It  formed  Prance  politique  et  aociale  (1877)  ;  and  Henri  de 

part  of  the  Duchy  of  Sasony,  and  in  the  thir-  Rohan,  aon  rdle  politique  et  militaire  aoua  Louia 

teenth  century  became  a  separate  State,  ruled  -T///.   (1889). 

by  the  dukes  of  Saxe-Lauenburg.    This  line  be-  LAUQEBIE  BASSE,  16zh'r^  b&s.    A  famous 

came  extinct  in  1689,  when  a  number  of  princes  prehistoric  station  in  the  valley  of  the  Vezfere, 

contested    the    succession.      Finally,    in    1702,  Dordogne,  France.     From  this  station  came  the 

Lauenburg  acknowledged   the   dominion   of   the  human  remains  forming  the  type  of  the  Laugerie 

Elector  of  Hanover.     In  the  course  of  the  Napo-  Basse  race,  a  long-headed  people  living  in  France 

iconic  wars  it  passed  to  France.    In  1815  Den-  in  the  Magdalenian  epoch,  near  the  close  of  the 

mark  obtained  possession  of  it,  but  had  to  cede  Quaternary.     CJonsult:     Deniker,  Racea  of  Man 

it  to  Prussia  and  Austria  after  the  War  of  1864.  (London,     1900) ;    Mortillet,    Le    pr4hiatorique 

By  the  Convention  of  Gastein  of  1865,  Austria  (Paris,  1900). 

gave  fuU  possjMsion  to  Pmssia,  and  the  latter  MTTOHINO-OAS.      See   Nitrogen;    An^s- 

has  possessed  it  since  that  time.     In  1890,  when  ^hetigs 

Bismarck  retired  from  office,  William  II.  con-  _  ATr^-rTT-w^  f±^rr-r  *  xi.  ha 
ferred  upon  him  the  title  of  Duke  of  Lauenburg.  I^uOHINQ  ^"^-«t„  A  rather  small  Ameri- 
Bismarck's  main  estate  (Friedrichsmh)  is  with-  ja?,  g?"  {Larua  atrtalla),  so  called  from  ite 
in  the  limits  of  the  old  duchy.  The  town  of  halloomg  cry.  It  is  gray  on  the  back  and  white 
Lauenburg,  founded  in  181 X,  is  situated  on  the  beneath,  with  the  head  black  in  mature  summer 
Elbe,  25  miles  southeast  of  Hamburg.  Its  popu-  plumage,  and  the  feet  reddish,  its  home  is  in 
lation,  IB  1900,  was  5346.  ^^e  tropics,  from  the  Amazon  northward;  but  m 
summer  it  strays  up  both  coasts  of  America  to 

ULXTEHBTTBG.     A  town  m  the  Province  of  Maine  and  central  California.    It  is  very  numer- 

Pomerania,   Pmssia,  situated  on  the  Leba,   38  ous  on  the  South  Atlantic  and  Gulf  coasts,  breeds 

miles  west-northwest  of  Danzig  (Map:  Prussia,  on  sandy  islets  and  beaches  from  the  Carolinas 

O  1).     There  are  manufactures  of  woolen  and  southward,    and    rarely    goes    inland.      Consult 

linen  cloth,  and  of  white  and  common  leather,  Coues,   Birda   of    the   Northweat    (Washington, 

matches,  machinery,  and  spirits.    Population,  in  1874). 

1900,  10,436.  LAUOHINa- JACKASS,  or  Giant  Kinq- 
ULUGEE,  Ib'zht,  Desibe  FBAN901S  (1823-  huktbb.  The  great  brown  kingfisher  (Dacelo 
96).  A  French  painter,  bom  at  Maromme,  Seine-  gigaa)  of  Australia,  about  17  inches  long,  and 
Inf^rieure,  pupil  of  Picot  and  of  the  Ecole  des  mostly  brown  in  color.  It  represents  the  sub- 
Beaux-Arts.  After  a  visit  to  Belgium  and  Eng-  family  Halcyonins,  which  differs  from  the  tme 
land,  he  began  to  exhibit  portraits  and  historical  kingfishers  most  markedly  in  that  it  does  not 
genre  scenes,  turned  from  romantic  subjects  to  frequent  waters  or  feed  on  fish,  but  preys  on 
delineations  of  popular  life,  and  subsequently  beetles,  reptiles,  and  small  mammals,  and  is  of 
produced  a  number  of  religious  paintings  for  great  use  m  preventing  the  excessive  multiplica- 
churches.  Among  his  most  noteworthy  works  tion  of  reptiles  and  other  pests.  It  is  a  common 
are:  "Assassination  of  Rizzio"  (1849,  Amiens  bird  in  Australia,  and  has  received  its  English 
Museum);  "Death  of  Zurbaran"  (1850);  "Le-  name  from  the  colonists  on  account  of  its  pe- 
«ueur  with  the  Carthusian  Monks"  (1855,  Lux-  culiar  cry.  It  lays  its  eggs,  which  are  pure 
embourg  Museum) ;  "Saint  Louis  Washing  the  white,  in  a  cavity  in  an  old  tree,  which  it  defends 
Feet  of  the  Poor"  (1863,  Ministry  of  State) ;  with  great  courage.  See  Kingfisheb;  and  Plate 
''*Bapti8m_of  Clovis/'  and  "Saint  Clotilde  Help-  of  Kingfishebs,  Motmots,  etc. 
ing  the 
Church 

^iadonna'  _  

Flora"  (1879),  decorative  painting  in  the  "Hotel  lATTOHLIN,  Iftflln,  James  Laubence  (1850 

Continental,  Paris;   "The  Servant  of  the  Poor"  — ).    An  American  economist,  bom  at  Deerfield, 

(1880,   Lille   Museum)  ;    "Victor  Hugo   on   His  Ohio.    He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  with  high 

Deathbed"     (1886);    "Palm    Sunday"     (1892);  honors  in   1873;  taught  in  Boston  schools,  and 

^'Martyrdom  of  Saint  Denis,"  mural  painting  in  became  instructor  in  political  economy  at  Har- 

the  Church  of  the  Trinity;  besides  several  deco-  vard   in   1878,   and   assistant  professor    (1883), 

rative  works  in  other  churches  and  in  the  Ex-  holding  this  chair  until  1887,  when  he  became 

change  in  Paris.     He  was  awarded  medals  in  president  of  the  Manufacturers'  Mutual  Insur- 

1850,  1855,  1859,  1861,  and  1863.  and  decorated  ance  Company  of  Philadelphia.     In  1890  he  was 

with  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1865. — ^His  son  and  appointed  professor  of  political  economy  at  Cor- 

pupil,  Gbobges  ( 1853 — ) ,  is  a  genre  painter,  who  nell  University,  and  in  1892  he  became  head  of 

studied  also  under  Pils  and  Henri  Lehmann,  and  the  department  of  political  economy  at  the  Uni- 


m  01  ^^lovis,"  ana  "oamt  uioiuae  neip-  or  ivingfishebs,  motmots,  etc. 

^"^^^  J^  i?/?.\%  "S'*^.  P^ln*'"5f  '"i  S®        LAUOHINO  PHILOSOPHEB,  The.    A  title 

of  Saint  Clotilde,  Pans;  "Candle  of  the  ^.,^^  .    t\^^^^^u„^  /«  ^  \ 

a"    (1877,   Luxembourg);    "Triumph   of  given  to  Democntus  (q.v.). 


LAUaHLIK.                               8  LAUITGESTON. 

Tenity  of  Chicago.  He  took  an  active  part  in  diflcharge.  The  overflow  takes  place  along  the 
the  work  of  the  Monetary  Commission,  and  wrote  easiest  and  most  used  routes,  i.e.  to  the  facial, 
the  important  report  of  that  body.  His  other  articulatorv,  and  respiratory  muscles.  The  laugh- 
writings  are  an  abridgment  of  John  Stuart  ter  at  the  ludicrous  (which  is  always  a  'deaamd- 
Mill's  PoUtioal  Economy  (1884) ;  History  of  Bi-  ing  incongruity/  a  drop  from  great  to  small) 
meiallism  in  the  United  States  (1885) ;  Elements  is  similarly  due  to  the  fact  that  *'a  large  amount 
of  Political  Economy  ( 1887 ) ;  Facts  About  Money  of  nervous  energy,  instead  of  being  allowed  to 
(1895).  expend  itself  in  producinff  an  e<][uivalent  amount 

loel.  hUeja,  Goth,  hlahjan,  OUQ.hlahhan  Uihhan,  jy^^  ^^;^^  ^^^^  discharge  itself  in  some  other 

Ger.    lachen,   U,   laugh;    probably   imitative   in  direction,  and  there  results  an  efflux  through  the 

ongm).     A  form  of  expression    (q.v.)    of  the  ^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^  various  muscles,  producing  the 

pleasurable  emotions.     In  the  smife.  which   is  half-convulsive  actions  we  term  laughter."    Dar- 

probably  genetically  a  feeble   successor  of  the  ^^^  concludes  that,  in  adult  laughter,  the  person 

laugh,  the  corners  of  the  mouth  are  drawn  up-  ^^^^  \^  in  s,  generally  pleasant  mood,  and  that 

ward  and  backward,  and  the  cheeks  are  raised,  usually   something   incongruous,   unaccountable, 

by    the    contraction    of    the    great    ^gomatic  exciting  surprise,  and  some  sense  of  superiority 

muscles;   the  upper  lip  is  slightly  raised;  the  ^^^  ^  the  cause.     He  finds  the  conditions  of 

upper  and  lower  eyelids  are  somewhat  approxi-  laughter  at  the  ludicrous  strikingly  analogous 

mated    by    the    contraction    of    the    orbicular  ^^  fj,^^  ^^  laughter  at  tickling, 

muscles;  the  eyes  are  brightened  owmg  to  their  Biblioge/lphy.    Bell,  The  Anatomy  and  Philos- 

greater  tenseness,  which  results  from  these  mus-  ^     ^^  Expression  as  Connected  ^th  the  Fine 

cular  contractions  or  from  the  increased  blood-  /^J  ^^^j^  ^    ^o^^^^    Igggj     j^^.^    j,^^  ^^. 

pressure  within  the  eveball.     The   'graduation'  pr^^^^i^  ^f  ^^e  Emotions  in  Man  and  Animals 

of  the  smile  into  the  laugh  is  characterized  by  ^j^^^  york,  1890)  ;    Mantegazza,    Physiognomy 

the  enhancement  and  spread  of  ^e  motor  phe-  ^^    Expression,    Contempofary    Science    Series 

nomena;   the  mouth  is  opened ;   there  are- deep  (London,   1884);    Spencer,   "The  Physiology  of 

inspirations,  followed  by  short,  spasmodic,  ex-  Laughter/'  in  Essa^:  Scientific,  Political^ and 

piratory    movements,    especially    of    the    dia-  gj^^iative  (New  York,  1864);  Titchener,  Out- 

phragm;  the  vocal  cords  are  contracted    giving  ^.Jj;   ^f  Psychology   (New  York,  1899)  ;  Hebker, 

the  typical  sounds^  of  laughter.    In  violent,  spas-  pj^y^^iog^ und  Psychologic  des  Lachens.  und  des 

modic  laughter,  the  respiratory  disturbances  are  K^liisc}^  (Berlin,  1873)  ;  Sully,  An  Essay  on 

increased;    there    are   also   circulatory   changes  i^auahter  (New  York    1902) 

(quickened  pulse,  congested  face) ;  glandular  dis-  v          y                  *          )' 

charges   (secretion  of  tears);  distortions  of  the  LAUOIBE^  lA'zhyft',  Paul  Auquste  Ernest 

whole  body,  usually  by  throwing  the  head  back  (1812-72).    A  French  astronomer.    He  was  bom 

and  curving  the  trunk  backward;  and  involun-  in  Paris  and  studied  at  the  Polytechnique  and 

tary  and  purposeless  movements  of  the  limbs.  at  the  Observatory  under  Arago.    He  was  elected 

The  causes  of  laughter  are  not  always  easy  member  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  in  1843,  and 

of  assignment.    It  seems  to  be  primarily  the  ex-  was  afterwards  attached  to  the  Bureau  of  Longi-' 

pression  of  mere  joy  or  happiness   (notably  in  tudes.    He  was  especially  well  known  for  his 

the  case  of  children),  yet  it  may  be  incited  by  work  on  the  sim-spots  and  on  the  solar  equator; 

what  seem  to  be  purely  physiological  agencies,  wrote  Recherches  sur  la  rotation  du  soleil  autour 

e.g.  tickling,  cold,  hysteria,  and  even  some  kinds  de  son  centre  de  gravity    (1841)  ;    studied   the 

of  acute  pain.     Furthermore,  in  the  adult  it  is  construction  of  a  portable  meridian  circle;  and 

also  provoked  by  'the  ludicrous,'  and,   indeed,  contributed  to  the  Comptes  rendus  of  the  Acad- 

is  so  far  dependent  upon  this  factor  that  some  emy  of  Sciences. 

writers  regard  laughter  as  always  and  intrinsic-  LAU'MONTITB  (named  in  honor  of  its  dis- 

ally  a  response  to  a  ludicrous  situation.    Thus  coverer,  Laumont).    A  hydrated  calcium  alumi- 

Hobbes  says  that  laughter  is  y  sudden  glory,  num  silicate  that  crystallizes  in  the  monoclinic 

arising  from  a  sudden  conception  of  some  emi-  system.  It  is  transparent  or  translucent  (beeom- 

nency  in  ourselves  by  comparison  with  the  in-  ing  opaque  and  pulverulent  on  exposure) ,  with  a 

firmity  of  others  or  with  our  own  formerly."  This  vitreous  lustre  that  is  pearly  on  the  faces  of 

may  satisfactorily  answer  Spencer's  question —  cleavage,  and  white  to  yellowish-gray  and  some- 

"What  induces  us  to  laugh  on  reading  that  the  times  red  in  color.  Laumontite  occurs  in  cavities 

corpulent  Gibbon  was  unable  to  rise  from  his  in  amygdaloid,  porphyry,  syenite,  trap,  gneiss, 

knees  after  making  a  tender  declaration  ?"— but  and  sometimes  in  veins  in  clay-slate.    The  prin- 

it  is  hard  to  believe  that,  as  some  assert,  we  cipal  localities  are  the  Faroe  Islands,  Greenland, 

laugh  at  the  'infirmity'  or  degradation  of  man-  Bohemia,  Switzerland,  the  Hebrides,  Nova  Sco- 

kind  when  we  are  told  that  the  Chinese  man-  tia,  and  in  the  United  States  at  Phippsburg,  Me., 

darin  who  committed  suicide  by  eating  gold-leaf  Bergen  Hill,  N.  J.,  and  the  northern  shore  of 

died  of  a  consciousness  of  inward  guilt.    Still  less  i^ke  Superior.    It  is  classed  with  the  zeolites, 

is  this  proposition  suited  to  the  explanation  of  _.  .----   ,         •«_                  rm.            j             * 

that  laughter  which  is  merelv  the  indication  of  ,^^^^'  ^°"'''  !>?^"?^- .  J^®.  pseudonym  of 

extreme  pleasure,  or  abundant  'animal  spirits.'  ^^^  German  novelist  Fnedrich  August  Scliulze 

To  explain  this,  Herbert   Spencer   invokes   the  (*1'^*)» 

principle  of  'dynamogenesis' ;  he  reduces  the  dis-  LAUNCESTON,  l^n^ston  or  lOn'son.     Until 

play  of  muscular  excitement  to  physiological  con-  1838  the  capital  of  Cornwall,  England,  on  the 

ditions,   in   terras    of  the    discharge   of   energy  Kensey,    a   tributary   of   the   Tamar,   21    miles 

through  the  pathways  of  the  nervous   system,  northeast  of  Bodmin  (Map:  England,  B  6).    It 

Laughter  may  be  produced  by  strong  feeling  of  is  a  very  old  town,  prominently  associated  with 

almost  any  kind ;  its  movemente  are  purposeless,  the  history  of  Cromwell,  and  has  remains  of  a 

and  thus  symptomatic  of  uncontrolled  nervous  Norman  castle  given  by  the  Conqueror  to  the 


XiATTHCBSTON. 

SMr]a  Of  HoretOD.  The  town  owni  a  One  water- 
nipply,  profiUble  markets,  a  public  librai?,  and 
Mwage  nrm.  Ito  erammar  sctioot  dates  from  the 
Kign  of  Edward  VI.     Population,  in  1901,  4000. 

LAirirCESIOn'.  The  seccnd  city  of  Taama- 
nia,  the  capital  o(  Cornwall  Count;,  and  the  chief 
port  of  entrr  and  mart  of  trade  for  the  north  of 
the  island  (Map:  Tasmania,  D  2).  It  stands  at 
the  junction  of  the  £sk  with  the  Tamar,  which, 
after  a  course  of  40  miles,  enters  Bass  Strait 
<q.v.)  at  Port  Dalrymple.  It  is  133  miles  by 
rail  from  Hobart,  the  capital.  It  is  accessible 
to  ships  of  considerable  burden,  and  carries  on 
m  thriving  commerce  with  the  States  of  Victoria 
and  South  Australia.  The  United  States  has  a' 
resident  consular  agent.  It  owns  its  water- 
works; was  incorporated  in  1858,  and  aa  a  city 
in  18S9.  In  the  surroundin);  district  rises  Ben 
Lomond  to  the  height  of  4500  feet.  Population, 
in  1391,  17,268;  in  1901,  21,046,  with  suburbs 
20,430. 

LAUITCH  (OV.  lanchier,  lander,  Fr.  laneher. 
It.  laneiare,  to  hurl  as  a  lance,  from  Lat.  lancea, 
lance).  The  largest  boat  carried  by  a  man-of- 
war;  there  are  both  steam  launches  and  sailing 
launches.  Large  launches,  40  to  60  feet  long,  are 
carried  by  tuittle-ships  and  large  armored 
emisers.  They  are  designed  for  use  as  picket 
or  Tedctte  boats,  to  guard  against  surprise  by 
torpedo-boats  when  operating  near  the  enemy's 
coast  or  fleet;  and  they  are  as  fast  ns  strength 
and  limited  size  permits,  some  steaming  eighteen 
«T  nineteen  knots  on  trial.  The  sailing  launch 
is  «  sloop-rigged  boat,  also  intended  for  rowing. 


S  LAUNDBY  KACHIirEBT. 

The  keel  of  a  ship  is  laid  upon  a  series  of  wooden 
blocks,  placed  fi  or  T  feet  apart,  and  built  up 
3  or  4  feet  from  the  ground,  tbe  tops  of  which 
lie  in  a  line  which  slopes  downward  to  the  water 
at  an  angle  of  about  flve-ei^ths  of  an  inch  to  the 
foot.  The  whole  ship,  therefore,  when  it  is  fin- 
ished, slopes  downward  with  this  inclination,  and 
rests  upon  the  blocks  just  mentioned,  and  upon 
suitable  timber  shores.  When  the  vessel  is  ready 
for  launching,  'ways'  of  timber  and  plankiufi  are 
laid  down  parallel  to  the  keel,  and  at  some  Tittle 
distance  on  each  side  of  it,  under  the  bilges  of 
the  ship;  they  extend  into  the  water  a  consider- 
able distance  below  high-water  mark.  A  'cradle' 
is  then  built  under  the  ship,  of  which  tbe  bottom 
is  formed  of  smooth  timbers  resting  upon  the 
ways.  Before  launching,  the  under  aides  of  these 
timbers  end  the  upper  sides  of  the  ways  are  well 
greased,  and  the  weight  of  the  ship  is  transferred 
from  the  keel -blocks  to  the  cradle  and  ways. 
Timbers,  called  'dog-shores,'  are  placed  so  as  to 
resist  the  tendency  of  the  ship  to  slide  down  un- 
til the  right  moment.  When  this  arrives,  at  high 
H-at«r,  the  ceremony  of  launching  and  naming 
the  ship  takes  place;  the  dog-shores  are  knocked 
anav,  and  the  vessel  glides  stern  foremost  into 
the  water.  As  soon  as  the  water  removes  the 
weight 'of  the  vessel  from  the  cradle,  the  latter 
breaks  up  into  pieces.  Many  large  battle-ships 
and  some  other  vessels  have  been  built  in  dry 
docks  and  floated  out  when  ready,  instead  of 
being  launched.  This  system  is  economical,  if 
the  dry  docks  are  not  needed  for  other  purposes. 
On  the  Great  Lakes  the  practice  of  launching 
ships  sidewise  is  very  common. 


poina  wusuo-uicBiiiB. 


She  is  a  heavy  boat,  with  good  carrying  ca- 
{Mcity;  is  coppered  as  a  rule,  and  is  generally 
used,  when  the  battalion  is  sent  away  from  the 
ship,  aa  the  artillery  boat. 

lAinrO^   LAUVCUINa.     The  process   of 
removing  a  vessel  from  the  land  to  the  water. 


ZiAUNDBT  KACEmEBT  (from  ME.  lauif 
dcr,  laundcre,  lander,  washerwoman,  from  OF. 
Uivendier,  lavandier,  washerman,  from  Lat,  lavan- 
daa,  gerundive  of  lavare,  to  wash).  The  mechani- 
cal appliances  used  In  steam  laundries  include 
tbe  wheeled  truck  for  carrying  the  clothes  from 


LAUNDBY  XACHINEBY.  10 

one  machine  or  appliance  to  another,  the  washing 
machine,  the  drying  apparatus,  mechanical 
sprinklers,  starching  machines,  and  in  addition 
to  the  mangle  and  ordinary  ironer,  a  multitude 
of  specially  shaped  machines  for  ironing  sleeves, 
collars,  and  cuffs,  for  finishing  the  edges  of 
collars  and  for  fluting  ruffles. 

The  quality  of  water  used  in  a  laundry  is  of 
great  importance.  If  the  water  is  hard,  muddy, 
or  colored,  a  special  plant  for  softening  or  filter- 
ing may  be  necessary.  A  large  amount  of  steam 
is  required,  both  for  motive  power  and  for  heat- 
ing the  water.  Two  general  types  of  washers  are 
in  use,  revolving  and  stationary.  In  the  first 
the  revolution  of  closed  cylinders  keeps  the 
clothes  in  motion;  in  the  second  the  cleansing  is 
performed  by  the  strokes  of  plungers.  The  boil- 
ing, rinsing,  and  bluing  may  all  be  performed 
in  the  washer,  or  in  another  tub.  The  water 
is  heated  by  steam-pipes  and  sometimes  the  boil- 
ing is  done  under  steam-pressure,  in  which  case 
the  boiler  must  be  especially  strong.  Drying  is 
effected  by  passing  the  clothes  through  a  wringer, 
then  placing  them  in  a  centrifugal  dryer.  (See 
Dbyino-Maghines.  )      The  drying  is  sometimes 


LAUNITZ. 


starching,  there  are  specially  constructed  jacket- 
ed starcn-cookers  to  make  the  starch.  Various 
types  of  machine  starchers  are  used  for  different- 
shaped  articles.  See  Sidney  Tebbutt's  paper  on 
^* Steam  Laundry  Machinery,"  read  in  1890  before 
the  Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers  of  Great 
Britain,  and  reprinted  in  Caasier'a  Mag<utine 
(London  and  l^ew  York)  for  Februaiy,  1899. 

IiAUNE^  or  LAULKE,  Idn,  Etienne  db 
(1518-C.1595).  A  French  Renaissance  engraver, 
bom  in  Paris,  or  perhaps  at  Orleans.  He  was 
a  goldsmith  and  medalist,  probably  a  pupil  of 
CJellini,  during  the  early  part  of  his  career.  After- 
wards he  joined  the  Reformers  and  spent  the  re- 
mainder of  his  life  at  Augsburg  and  then  at 
Strassburg,  where  he  died.  About  1560  he  took 
up  engraving  and  executed  several  plates  after 
pictures  by  the  Fontainebleau  School.  He  also 
made  some  copies  of  prints  by  Raimondif. 
Owing  probably  to  his  training  as  a  medalist,  his 
prints  are  all  small  and  hishlj^  finished.  His 
designs  for  goldsmith's  wonc  include  medals, 
money,  jewelry,  and  plate;  some  of  these  are  still 
to  be  seen  at  the  Louvre.  Androuet  du  Cerceau 
was  a  pupil  of  De  Laune. 


BBCTIONAL  VISW  OF  MANOLK. 

1.  Feed-Box.    2.  CoTer-RoUs.    8.  Steam-Closets.    4.  Scraper.    6.  Diecharging  Table. 


done  in  an  artificially  heated  drying-room.  Iron- 
ing-Machines, though  of  many  different  forms, 
generally  operate  upon  the  same  principle.  A 
hard  surface  of  polished  metal,  heated  by  steam, 
gas,  or  electricity,  revolves  close  to  a  second  hard 
surface,  which  is  usually  covered  with  a  felt 
padding  and  a  cotton  sheet.  On  the  latter  sur- 
face the  article  to  be  ironed  is  so  placed  that  it 
is  brought  into  close  contact  with  the  hot  revolv- 
ing cylinder  of  metal,  the  padded  cover  providing 
for  such  inequalities  of  surface  as  seams  and 
hems.  The  most  familiar  form  is  the  mangle, 
designed  for  ironing  sheets,  towels,  and  other 
articles  of  uniform  shape  and  thickness.  The 
principle  is  capable  of  endless  adaptations,  how- 
ever, which  fits  it  for  ironing  speciallv  shaped 
garments,  such  as  shirt  bosoms  and  bodies,  cuffs, 
collars,  and  sleeves.    For  such  pieces  as  require 


LAUN^AL,  Sib.  A  knight  of  the  Round 
Table  and  steward  of  King  Arthur.  His  story 
is  the  subject  of  a  metrical  romance  by  Thomas 
Chestre  in  the  time  of  Henry  VI.,  and  his  name 
appears  in  James  Russell  Lowell's  Vision  of  Sir 
Launfal, 

LAUNITZ;  lou^nlts,  Robert  Ebebhabd  ( 1806- 
70).  A  Russian- American  sculptor,  born  in 
Riga,  Russia.  He  was  the  pupil  of  his  father, 
also  a  sculptor^  and  studied  under  Thorwaldsen 
in  Rome.  He  emigrated  to  America  about  1828, 
and  settled  in  New  York  City,  where  he  became 
a  N.A.  in  1833.  His  works  include  the  battle 
monument  in  Frankfort,  Ky.;  the  Pulaski  monu- 
ment at  Savannah,  Cra. ;  the  monument  to  Gen. 
George  H.  Thomas  at  Troy,  N.  Y.;  and  some 
monuments  in  Greenwood  Cemetery,  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y. 


LAU&A.                                    11  LAUBEATE. 

IiAU'SA  (Gk.  Xai^M,    alley,  cloister;  possibly  Sassafras,    and    Litsea;    and    Lauroidese,    with 

connected  with  Lat.  lura,  mouth  of  a  bag,  or  with  Gryptocarpa,  Lindera,  Laurus,  and  Cassytha  as 

Lith.  2erti?a«,  narrow  stream  between  high  banks),  the   chief  genera.     Of  these  Persea,   Sassafras, 

A  name  given  to  a  collection  of  cells  in  a  desert,  Litsea,  and  Lindera  are  indigenous  to  the  United 

differing  from  a  monastery^  in  which  the  monks  States.  See  Colored  Plate  of  California  Shrubs 

all  lived  together.    Each  monk  in  the  laura  had  for  illustration  of  California  Laurel   (Umbellu- 

his  own  cell,  and  for  five  days  of  the  week  lived  laria  Calif omica) . 

alone,  his  only  food  being  bread  and  water.    On  LATTRANA,  lou-ra'ni,  Luciano  da.    An  Ital- 

the  other  two  days  the  monks  assembled  to  re-  ian   architect   of   the   Early   Renaissance.     The 

ceive  communion,  after  which  they  joined  in  a  dates  of  his  birth  and  death  are  unknown,  but 

light  repast.    They  were  subject  to  severe  rules,  there  is  record  of  his  activity  as  a  builder  be- 

A  meagre  diet,  silence,  and  solitude  were  required,  tween  1468  and  1482.    His  name  is  derived  from 

The  most  celebrated  lauras  mentioned  in  ecclesi-  his  birthplace  in  Dalmatia,  and  he  was,  perhaps, 

astical  history  were  in  Palestine,  as  the  Laura  of  a    pupil   of   Bruneleschi.      His    most   important 

Saint  Enthymus,  four  or  five  leagues  from  Jem-  works,  the  ducal  palaces  at  Urbino  and  Gubbio, 

salem ;  the  Laura  of  Saint  Saba,  near  the  brook  were  executed  for  Federigo  of  Urbino.     He  ex- 

Kidron;  and  the  Laura  of  the  Towers,  near  the  celled  his  immediate  contemporaries  in  the  sim- 

Jordan.    The  first  seem  to  have  been  founded  by  plicity  and  nobility  of  his  proportions,  his  work 

Saint  Charito,  of  which  the  oldest  is  that  after-  being  hard  to  distinguish  from  that  of  his  pupil 

wards  known  as  the  Laura  of  Pharan   by  the  Bramante  (q.v.). 

^^1^**     ...o.nx       mu     ,  .         ,u    ...  LAUBEATE    (Lat.   laureatus,   from   laurea, 

LATTBA    (M348).     The   lady  celebrated   in  laurel-tree,  from  «at*ru«,  laurel).  Poet.    A  title 

Petrarch  8  P<»in8.     She  is  continually  mentioned  received  from  the  English  Crown  by  letters  pat- 

with  such  definiteness  as  to  make  impossible  the  ent.    There  is  no  installation  ceremony,  but  the 

suggestion   of   Boccaccio   that   she   was   a   mere  ^g^i    appointed  laureate  is  expected  to  attend  a 

idealized     abstraction.       D'Ovidio      ("Madonna  levee  in  Court  dress.     It  was  formerly  his  duty 

-^"o^^^  io  yIt?^^.f"v^^^^*?^^i^.^'•:v^^x^®^®'  to  compose  an  ode  on  the  sovereign's  birthday,  on 
pp.  209-33,  377-406)  showed  further  that  Laura  the  birth  of  a  royal  infant,  on  a  national  victory, 
was  no  poetic  pseudonym  to  hide  some  other  ^nd  by  request  on  many  other  occasions.  The 
name,  because  of  Petrarch's  frequent  play  on  Q^igj^  ^f  ^he  title  has  given  rise  to  much  specu- 
the  word.  In  hiB  M^motres  pour  la  vie  de  i^^ion.  It  was  customiry  among  the  Greets  to 
Petrarque  (Amsterdam,  1764-67)  the  Abb6  de  c^own  with  the  laurel  a  popular  poet,  and  the 
Sade  set  forth  the  claim  of  his  wieestor,  Laura  practice  was  revived  in  the  Middle  Ages.  Pe- 
de  Saden^e  de  Noves,  to  be  Identified  with  her.  ^rarch,  for  example,  was  crowned  with  great 
Like  Petrarch's  Laura,  she  died  April  6,  1348,  solemnity  at  Rome  (1341).  At  Paris,  Oxiord, 
and  WW,  it  seems,  buried  on  the  same  day  (as  ^nd  Cambridge,  the  laurel  wreath  was  some- 
she  died  of  the  plague) ,  and  m  the  Franciscan  ^imes  placed  on  the  heads  of  scholars  distin- 
Church.  Besides,  both  were  married  and  had  guished  for  learning  or  poetry.  John  Skelton 
many  children— Petrarch  says  eleven.  The  ^^ied  1529)  received  the  honor  from  both  the 
identification  IS  fairly  well  established.  Much  English  universities,  and  accordingly  styled 
has  been  written  m  the  attempt  to  prove  it  by  himself  Poeta  Laureatus.  Attached  to  the  house- 
cipher  references  to  de  Sade,  di  Sado,  or  de  j^olds  of  the  medieval  English  kings  were  min- 
Noves.'  Consult:  Cesareo,  Gh  Amon  di  Pe-  gt^els  and  poets.  They  were  not,  however, 
trarca,"  (^ornale  Dantesco,  S,  1900,  pn.  1-21,  crowned;  instead  of  this  honor,  they  received 
and  Sicardi,  "Attomo  al  Pftrarca  e  a  Laura,  pensions.  Chaucer  -received  from  Edward  III. 
Rtvtsta  ditalta,  3,  pt.  3,  1900.  a  pension  of  twenty  marks  (1366),  and  after- 
IiAnRA^CE.fi  (Neo-Lat.  nom.  pi.,  from  Lat.  wards  (1374)  a  pitcher  of  wine  daily — one  of  the 
laurua,  laurel ) ,  The  Laubel  Family.  A  natural  subsequent  perquisites  of  the  laureateship.  But 
order  of  dicotyledonous  plants,  consisting  of  trees  Chaucer  never  received  an  official  appointment  to 
or  shrubs,  many  of  which  are  evergreen.  The  the  post,  and  his  pensions  were  for  diplomatic 
leaves  are  without  stipules;  fiowers  in  panicles  and  other  services.  There  was  no  English  poet 
or  umbels ;  perianth  is  4  to  6  cleft ;  stamens  twice  laureate  till  the  accession  of  the  House  of  Stuart, 
as  many  as  the  perianth  segments  and  opposite  By  virtue  of  his  pensions  in  1616  and  1630,  Ben 
them;  fruit  a  one-seeded  berry  or  drupe;  fruit-  Jonson  came  to  be  regarded  as  laureate;  but  the 
stalk  often  enlarged  and  fieshy.  This  order  con-  title,  so  far  as  is  known,  was  never  officially  con- 
tains about  40  genera  and  1000  species,  mostly  ferred  on  him.  On  December  11,  1638,  William 
tropical,  the  greatest  number  occurring  in  South-  D'Avenant  received  from  Charles  I.  a  pension  of 
eastern  Asia  and  in  Brazil.  The  laurel  (q.v.)  £100  a  year,  but  no  title  accompanied  the  grant, 
is  the  onlv  European  genus.  An  aromatic  and  He  was,  however,  assumed  to  be  laureate,  espe- 
fraffrant  character  pervades  the  order,  which  in-  cially  after  the  Restoration.  So  far  as  is  known, 
eludes  cinnamon,  cassia,  and  other  aromatic  the  first  English  poet  to  receive  the  title  of  poet 
plants.  Some  species  are  valuable  for  their  tim-  laureate  'by  royal  letters  patent  was  John  Dry- 
ber,  as  greenheart;  some  for  their  medicinal  den.  The  honor  was  conferred  on  him  August 
barks,  as  greenheart  (bebeeri)  and  sassafras;  18,  1670.  Dryden's  successors,  with  their  terms 
some  for  their  secretions,  of  which  camphor  is  the  of  office,  are:  Thomas  Shadwell  (1689-92),  Na- 
most  important ;  some  for  their  fruit,  as  the  avo-  hum  Tate  (1692-1715),  Nicholas  Rowe  (1715- 
cado  pear  (q.v.).  A  few  very  remarkable  species,  18),  Laurence  Eusden  (1718-30),  Colley  Cibber 
tropical  climbing  parasites  like  dodder,  forming  (1730-57),  William  Whitehead  (1758-85), 
the  genus  Cassytha,  have  been  united  with  this  Thomas  Warton  (1785-90),  Henry  James  Pye 
order  by  many  botanists,  although  others  sepa-  (1790-1813),  Robert  Southey  (1813-43),  William 
rate  them  as  a  distinct  order.  The  classification  Wordsworth  (1843-50),  Alfred  Tennyson  (1850- 
and  principal  genera,  according  to  Pax,  is:  92),  Alfred  Austin  (1896 — ).  Consult:  Malone's 
Persoidese,  represented  by  Cinnamomum,  Pereea,  essay  prefixed  to  Works  of  Dryden  (London* 
Vol.  XII.— 2. 


IiAUBEATS.  la 

1800)  ;  Hamilton,  The  PoeU  Laureate  of  Engliuid 
(ib.,  lS79t  ;  and  West,  The  Laureate*  of  EngUind 

(ib.,  isesj. 

LAUBEL  (from  OF.,  Fr.  laurier,  Frov.,  Sp. 
lavrel,  from  Lat.  taurua,  laurel),  i^aurua.  A  ge- 
nus of  Lauraceie,  which,  as  now  restricted,  cod- 


IlAUBSHB. 


■and  sweet  bay  (Lourus 
Asia  Minor,  but  widely  diffused  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean region,  often  bushes  of  16  feet  or  less,  but 
sometimes  tree^  of  30,  or  even  GO  feet  high.  The 
former  has  rather  large,  lanceolate,  leathery,  shin- 
ing leaves,  reticulated  with  veins,  and  axiUarj' 
dusters  of  yellowish- white  flowers  of  no  beauty. 
The  fruit  is  ova!,  bluish-black,  and  about  half 
an  inch  long.  The  leaves  and  the  fruit,  which 
are  bitter,  astringent,  and  agreeably  aromatic, 
were  formerly  much  used  in  medicine  as  a  stom- 
achic and  stimulant;  but  are  almost  out  ol  use. 
The  leaves,  however,  are  sometimes  used  in  cook- 
ery for  flavoring.  They  contain  a  volatile  oil  {oil 
of  aineet  bay)  and  a  bitter,  gummy  extractive.  By 
tne  ancient  Greeks  the  laurel  was  called  daphne. 
Mid  was  sacred  to  Apollo.    Berry-bearing  twigs 


1  LlUmiL  ttOITIH}. 

of  it  were  wound  round  the  foreheads  of  victori- 
ous heroes  and  poets;  and  in  later  times  the 
degree  of  doctor  was  conferred  with  this  cere- 
mony, whence  the  term  laureation.  The  noble 
laurel  is  common  in  shrubberies,  but  not  nearly 
80  common  as  the  cherry-laurel    (q.v.). 

Fossil  forms  of  the  genua  Laurus,  and  its  close 
allies,  Cinnamomum,  SassHfras,  and  Benzoin, 
have  been  found  abundantly  in  the  Cretaceous 
and  Tertiary  rocka  of  North  America  and  Europe, 
where  they  have  been  recognized  by  the  fossil 
leaves,  flowers,  and  fruits.  It  is  of  interest  to 
note  that  the  fossil  species,  which  resemble  closely 
those  modem  representatives  that  grow  in  warm 
climatea,  are  found  in  large  numbers  in  such  hifih 
northern  latitudes  as  Siberia,  Greenland,  and 
Vancouver  Island. 


LAtrSKL  TAHZLT.  Tropica]  shrubs  or 
trees.    Bee  LacbackiE. 

ZJIU'BSL  HTI.L.  A  range  in  southwestern 
Pennsylvania,  separating  the  counties  of  Fayette 
and  Westmoreland  from  Somerset  {Map:  Penn- 
sylvania, B  3).  in  the  South  the  range  extends 
over  the  border  into  West  Virginia.  It  is  a  ridge- 
of  the  Alleghany  Mountains,  and  its  average 
height  is  over  2000  feet;  it  contains  valuable  de- 
posits of  bituminous  coal. 

LAITREL-WATEB.  A  flavoring  for  medi- 
cines, obtained  by  distilline  a  mixture  of  chopped 
and  bruised  leaves  of  the  cnerry-laurel  and  water, 
after  twenty-four  hours'  maceration.    It  is  seldom 

K scribed  medicinally  in  this  country,  but  baa 
n  used  as  a  sedative  narcotic,  in  neuralgic 
Eaina,  apaamodic  cough,  and  palpitation  of  the 
eart;  in  short,  in  all  the  cases  in  which  hydro- 
cyanic acid  (q.v.)  is  applicable.  Death  has  oc- 
curred, with  all  the  symptoms  of  hydrocyanic- 
acid  poisoniag.  from  its  incautious  use  aa  a 
flavormg  ingredient  in  creams  and  puddings. 

UlirBEICBXlBa,  lou'rem-berK,  Johaks 
(Iseo-lflSS).  A  German  satirist.  He  was  bom 
and  educated  at  Rostock,  and,  after  travels  la 
Holland,  England,  France,  and  Italy.and  a  course 
of  medicine  at  Paris  and  at  Rheima,  became  pro- 
fessor of  poetry  at  Rostock  in  161S.  Five  years 
afterward  he  went  to  the  Danish  Academy  of 
SorOe  as  profesaor  of  mathematics.  He  wrote, 
in  Latin,  a  play,  Pompeina  Magnut;  in  Greek,  an 
epithalaminm,  Kiwpa  HX^Mva;  but  found  his 
proper  place  in  the  Low  German  dialect.  His 
most  famous  work  is  hia  witty  and  realistic 
Veer  olde  berdnmede  Bcherlegediehte. 

IlAU'SEN'CE,  Richabd  (1700-1838).  A 
Church  of  England  scholar.  He  was  bom  at 
Bath  in  1760;  graduated  at  Corpus  Christi  Col- 
lege, Oxford,  in  1TS2.  He  entered  the  ministry 
of  the  Church  of  England  and  delivered  the 
Hampton  lectures  in  1804,  after  which  he  became 
rector  of  Mersham,  Kent.  In  1814  he  was  ap- 
pointed regiua  profeaaor  of  Hebrew  and  canon  of 
Christ  Church,  Oxford.  In  1822  he  became  Arch- 
bishop of  Cassel,  and  died  in  Dublin,  December 
88,  1838.  It  was  largely  through  his  influence 
that  Oriental  studies,  Icmg  neglected  in  England, 
were  restored  to  their  rightful  place.  It  was  also 
through  his  instrumentality  that  several  inter- 
esting apocryphal  works,  often  quoted  by  the 
Fathers,  hut  supposed  to  be  lost,  were  recovered 
from  the  Ethiopic  manuscripts.  Among  these 
were  the  Aecension  of  the  Prophet  Isaiah  (1819), 
and  the  Book  of  Enoch  the  Prophet  ( 1821 ) .  He 
published  a  new  version  of  First  Eadras  (1820), 
also  from  the  Ethiopic;  also  Diaeertationt  on  the 
Logos  of  Saint  John  USOS),  Critical  Reflections 
Upon  Borne  Important  Mitrepresentatiana  Con- 
tained  in  the  Unitarian  Version  of  the  Xew  Testa- 
ment (1811),  On  the  Exialence  of  the  Soul  After 
Death    (1B34),  and  many  occasional  essays  and 


I^nilENB,  Henbt  (1724-92).  An  American 
patriot  of  the  Revolutionary  period,  descended 
trmn  a  family  of  Huguenpta  who  fled  to  America 
after  the  Revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantea.  He 
was  bom  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  engaged  in  mer- 
cantile pursuits  in  Charleston  and  London,  and 
Inter  est^bliahed  at  Charleston  a  prosperous  busi- 
ness. He  retired,  however,  in  1771  and  traveled 
for  some  time  in  Europe.  In  the  pre -Revolution- 
ary controversies  between  the  American  Coloniea 


LATTBENCL                                18  LAUBENTIAN  SYSTEM. 

and  the  British  Govenunent,  he  early  identified  eign  languages  enabled  him  to  be  of  great  ser- 
himself  with  the  Whigs  or  Patriots,  although  he  vice  in  conducting  the  necessary  correspondence 
asserted  the  constitutionality  of  the  Stamp  Act,  with  European  ofiicers  in  the  service.  He  is  said 
and  discountenanced  forcible  opposition  to  the  to  have  participated  in  all  of  Washington's  bat- 
exercise  of  authority  under  such  statutes.  He  ties,  in  several  of  which,  while  fighting  with  the 
was  one  of  about  forty  Americans  who  petitioned  utmost  bravery,  he  was  severely  wounded.  Early 
Parliament  against  the  passage  of  the  Boston  in  1781  he  was  sent  on  a  special  mission  to 
Port  Bill,  most  of  the  petitioners  being  South  France,  and  by  appealing  directly  to  the  King, 
Carolinians.  He  waa  president  of  the  Council  in  spite  of  diplomatic  precedents,  succeeded  in 
of  Safety  of  South  Carolina,  was  sent  as  dele-  negotiating  a  loan.  At  Yorktown  he  served  with 
gate  to  the  Continental  Congress  in  1776,  and  reckless  daring,  and  in  the  following  year,  while 
became  its  president  November  1,  1777,  which  on  the  staff  of  General  Greene,  jvas  killed  (Au- 
oflke  he  resigned  December  1,  1778.  In  1779  gust  27th)  in  an  insignificant  skirmish  on  the 
he  was  sent  to  Holland,  charged  with  the  ne-  Combahee  River.  His  unusual  abilities,  coupled 
flotiation  of  a  commercial  treaty,  but  fell  into  with  his  gallantry,  his  courtesy,  and  his  chival- 
uie  hands  of  the  British,  and  was  imprisoned  in  rous  devotion  to  his  country,  made  him  a  uni- 
the  Tower  for  fifteen  months.  He  was  bailed  out  versal  favorite,  and  won  for  him  the  title  of 
by  Richard  Oswald.  Congress  appointed  him  in  the  'Bayard  of  the  Revolution.'  The  army  oor- 
1781  one  of  the  peace  commissioners,  and  on  No-  respondence  of  Laurens,  together  with  a  brief 
vember  30, 1782,  he  signed  the  preliminary  treaty  memoir,  by  W.  G.  Simms,  was  privately  printed 
inParis,  in  company  with  Adams,  Jay,  and  Frank-  in  1807  by  the  Bradford  Club  (New  York). 
lin.  The  collections  of  the  South  Carolina  His-  LAUBENS,  Joseph  Auoustin  Jules  (1825- 
torical  Society  contain  many  of  his  papers,  which  _).  ^  French  landscape  painter  and  lithogra- 
were  collected  after  his  death.  His  Correspond-  p^ej^  bom  in  Carpentras.  He  was  a  pupil  of 
enoe  was  edited  by  Frank  Moore  (New  York,  belaroche.  He  traveled  extensively  in  Persia, 
1861 )  ;  and  a  narrative  of  his  capture  and  con-  Turkey,  and  Asia  Minor,  and  many  of  the  draw- 
finement  was  published  by  the  South  Carolma  j^gs  he  made  at  this  time  were  published  in  his 
Historical  Society  in  1867.  Voyage  en  Turquie  et  en  Perse  (1856).  His 
LAUBENS^  16'r&N^  Jean  Paui.  (1838—).  A  paintings  in  oil  and  water-color  include:  ''Vue 
French  historical  painter,  bom  at  Fourquevaux  de  la  Grande  Chartreuse"  (1840) ;  "Les  environs 
(Haute-Graronne).  He  was  a  pupil  of  the  Ecole  de  Vaucluse"  (1845) ;  "Foret  de  Fontainebleau," 
des  Beaux- Arts  at  Toulouse,  and  then  in  Paris  "L'}uver  en  Perse"  (1867) ;  and  "Le  rocher  de 
of  Cogniei  and  Bida.  His  compositions,  depicting  Vannes"  (1879)  in  the  Luxembourg.  Among  his 
for  the  most  part  tragic  and  often  gruesome  epi-  lithographs  are  works  after  Diaz,  Bonheur,  Corot, 
sodes,  are  intensely  dramatic  in  style  and  spirited  Troyon,  and  others.  He  received  the  Legion  of 
in  execution,  and  never  fail  to  produce  a  deep  Honor  in  1868,  and  a  bronze  medal  at  the  Uni- 
impression,  although  their  effect  is  frequently  versal  Exposition  of  1889. 

marred  by  an  exaggerated  realism  and  lack  of  laubENT,  lA'rftN',  Auquste   (1807-53).     A 

harmonious  coloring.     Out  oftheir  considerable  French  chemist,  bom  at  La  Folic,  and  educated 

?VSi^7  T7,r. '"®°*!J?®^     ?!;?^^o!J^Jrf*^*  under  Dumas,  whose  assistant  he  became  at  the 

(1864);  "A  Voice  m  the  p^rt'M  1868,  Orl^eans  g^j^  Centrale  des  Arts  et  Manufactures.     He 

^^o"°i\ '    "Execution  of  the  Due  d'Enghien"  ^^^  ^^^  ^^^  time  chemist  at  the  pottery  at 

iP^^  ^i5??J?  ???2STl?nl^''^J'?^"^!?*  ^''^  Sfevres;    taught  chemistry  at  Bordeaiix    (1838- 

?H?^*^J^r  ^^^^^'    T'%?^?f^T?''^^'''^  46);    made    especial    research    in    naphthalin, 

(1873,  Toulouse  Museum) ;    "Saint  Bruno  Re-  paraffin,  and  phSlol;  but  is  better  known  for  his 

^IS?  *h«  ^ff«"^  of  Roger,  Count  of  Calabria"  Contributions  to  theoretic  chemistry,  his  deflni- 

i^^^\'    r^T  .:>'^?}'l%r.J^^    des    Champs,  ^ion  of  molecular  and  atomic  weights,  and  his 

Parw); ''The  Interdid;M1875  Havre  Musemn);  foundation    (with   Gierhardt)    of  tlie  theory  of 

rSS^'^TJiT'^*'*'"   Z^  ^^  .^^  \^?  ^i?""^'  types  being  especially  important. 

1004"  (1875,  Luxembourg) ;  "The  Austrian  Gen-  tT^^^Jl^^.^     .,         ^^     .  -  .„^*^.».hm- 

eral  Stoff  Around  the  DSithbed  of  General  Mar-  LAUBENTIAN     (Ift-rta'shan)     HBIOHOT 

ceau"  (1877,  Ghent  Museum),  one  of  his  finest  or  The  Laubentides.    The  name  given  to  the  pla- 

workB,    which    received    the    medal    of    honor  teaulike  height  of  land  which  forms  the  divide 

in  the  Salon;  "Release  of  the  Immured  at  Car-  between  the  streams  running  into  Hudson  Bay 

ciwsonne,    1303"    (1879,    Luxembourg);    "Ven-  and  the  two  great  water  systems  of  the  Samt 

geance   of   Pope   Urban   VI."    (1886);    "Entry  Lawrence  and  the  Mackenzie.    (See  under  article 

of  Louis  XVI.  into  the  HOtel  de  Ville,  Paris"  America,  Physical  Map  North  America,  Lauben- 

(1891) ;  and  "Napoleon  and  Pius  VII.  at  Fon-  ti^  Plateau.)     It  has  the  shape  of  a  horseshoe 

Uinebleau"  (1894).    For  the  Panth^n  he  paint-  <"•  crescent  of  vast  extent,  reaching  from  Eastern 

ed  in  fresco  "Two  Scenes  from  the  Life  of  Saint  Labrador  to  the  Arctic  Ocean  west  of  Hudson 

Geneviftve,"  marked  by  soleipn  grandeur  and  re-  Bay.     Its  average  height  is  from  1000  to  3000 

plete  with  religious  feeling.    A  portrait  of  him-  ^eet,  and  its  surface  is  uneven,  witha  multitude 

ielf    (1882)    is  in  the  Uffizi  Gallery,  Florence,  pf  depressions  occupied  by  lakes.    The  principal 

In  1891  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Acadfimie  ^^^^  through  it  is  made  by  the  kelson  Riven 

des  Beaux- Arts,  and  president  of  the  Society  des  LAUBEKTIAN  SYSTEM.     A  name  given 

Artistes  Francais.  ty  gi^  William  Logan  to  a  series  of  highly  met- 

LATT^BBBB,  John  (1 753-82  )•   An  American  amorphosed    rocks,    older   than    the    Cambrian, 

soldier,  the  son  of  Henry  Laurens    (q.v.).     He  which  are  strongly  developed  in  Canada,  especial- 

was  bom  in  South  Carolina;   was  educated  in  ly  in  the  region  of  the  Laurentian  Mountains. 

England,  and  in   1777  entered  the  ClJontinental  Tlie  system  has  received  different  values  from 

Army  aa  one  of  Washington's  aides.     In  this  various   geologists,,  but  the   generally   accepted 

position  he  discharged  many  of  the  duties  of  a  classification   limits  it  to  the  basal  or   ftinda- 

private  secretary,  and  his  familiarity  with  for-  mentel  complex  of  gneisses  and  granites  of  the 


IiAUBENTIAN  SYSTEM.                   14  LAXTBIEB. 

Arcluean  group  which  comprises  also  the  Hu-  university  professor  at  Bucharest  in  1859.     In 

renian  system.    See  Pbje-Cambbian  Formations;  1867  he  was  elected  to  the  Rumanian  Academy. 

Geology.  He  founded  and  with  Balcescu  edited  the  Magazin 

LAXTBENTIDESy  Ift^rSn-tldz.     A  plateau  in  Moric  al  Daoiei  ("The  Dacian  Historical  Maga- 

Canada.     See  Laubentian  Heights.  zine,"  5  vols.,  1846-48),  in  which  appeared  much 

T  A TT-PTna-TTB*  lA'^H «r'4^A/  i>t«»»»  a«».«,^„«^  of  his  best  work.  KiB  J storia  RomdfUloru  {IS53) 
i  i^^Sa?^  ?{.  l\%'  Viw;k  SfiBASTiEN  ^^^  Other  volumes,  on  either  Roman  or  Rumanian 
(1793-1876).  A  French  historiaii  and  journalist,  history,  which  he  regarded  as  identical  and  con- 
born  at  Houga  (Gers) .  He  devoted  his  atten-  tinuoiis,  are  often  defective  through  lack  of  spe- 
tion  early  m  life  to  history,  and  in  Paris  was  eial  knowledge.  His  Tentamen  CHticum  in  OH- 
appointed  professor  of  rhetoric  at  the  College  ^,^  j^^g^  RomaruB  (1840)  was  strongly  op- 
Stanislas  m  1817,  and  assistant  professor  of  ^^^  as  written  in  a  language  not  pFoV^erly 
I'^^^ooTk*"^  ^^^  Ecole  Polytechmque  in  1818  Rumanian.  Like  his  DiotioLr^l  limhei  rimi^ 
In  1822  he  was  appointed  inspector-general  of  ^3  ^^Is.,  1871-76),  an  academic  publication,  and 
public  education  In  addition  to  articles  for  the  Qlosar  de  vorbe  strdine  (1871),  it  extends 
the  journal  La  <?t*oJidtenn^  of  which  the  most  the  Latin  historical  method  of  Cipariu  (em- 
famous  is  his  essay  Sur  la  libert^e  fondle  surle  phasized  by  its  adherents  as  the  'scientific'  in 
droit  divm,"  he  published  many  works  on  his-  contradistinction  to  the  'anarchistic,'  or  new, 
n7i}  i^*  "^  "  Htaiotre  de  France  school),  and  on  that  basis  introduces  etymoloci- 
^              '•  cal  spellings  and  large  numbers  of  Latin  words. 

LAXJBENTIXJS,  l^-ren^shl-tls.    Antipope,  498.  t  a  TTroTn  a  ni-n   / «         t   i.    i             u      i. 

He  was  rival  to  SvJnmachus   elected  on  thA^aame  I'AXJ'BIC  ACID   (from  Lat.  Uiurus,  bay-tree, 

SivTRome     He^S^^^^^^  ^*^'^^)'   *^*^  ^"^   Laubosteamc    or    Pichu- 

^U^pSron  frfeUfy^rms'^wi^'^^^^  «^^<^'  """P-*??./  f?''^  "^'^  ^"'  ^r^'Y 

and  a^pting  the  Henoticon  of  Zeno;  while  S^-  ^^  Mareson  m  1842.     It  occurs  as  a  glycende, 

machus  represented  the  party  opposed  to  s^ch  Ir^'^^r^^T:  ^^  ,*^%^*^°^  the  bay-tree,  and  m 

a  course.     Both  sides  had  ex4ll^t  leaders;  the  *^«  ^^'^  ^?*  *°^  ^^***^«  ^.*i^^  pichunm-b^s. 

clergy  apparently  more  generally  favored  Sym-  H  ^*^^.«   in  connection   with   mynstic  axjid   in 

mac¥us.  *^  Both  appealed  to  the  Arian  King  of  the  berries  of  Mynca  gale,  and  in  other  plants. 

Italy,,  the  Ostrogoth  Theodric  at  Ravenna,  and  H  also  exists  in  connection  with  other  fatty  acids 

he  decided  in  favor  of  Symmachus.    The  follow-  %^H?  ^^y^"^**  '"^  spermaceti,  and  in  cocoanut 

ers  of  Laurentius  kept  up  a  hopeless  and  bloody  ^*^- .  Jf  ™*y  *^.  P'^^Pf  ^  ''^^^  <»^?^  ^Y  ^J  f 

struggle,  but  are  not  heard  of  after  501.      •  pomfying  the  oil  with  strong  caustic  potash,  de- 

- ^^.'  „^. ...... ^,  ^ . . ^  -      «  composing  the  soap  with  hydrochloric  jicid,  and 

LAUBENTIUS  VAI/UL    See  Valla.  distilling  the  fatty  acids  thus  set  frw  in  vacuo; 

LAUBEN^TnC.    A  very  ancient  town  of  La-  the  first   portion   passing  over   is   almost   pure 

tium,  about  sixteen  miles  southeast  of  Ostia,  and  lauric  acid.     Laurie  acid  is  insoluble  in  water, 

near  the  modem  Tor  Patemo.    In  Roman  legend  it  but  is  readily  soluble  in  alcohol  and  ether,  and 

was  the  capital  of  King  Latinus,  iEneas's  host,  on  cxystallizes  from  the  alcoholic  solution  in  whiter, 

his  arriving  in   Italy,   and  was  of  some  com-  silky  needles  or  translucent  scales,  which  melt 

mercial  importance  during  the  traditional  kingly  at  about  43.6**  C.  (lies'*  F.).    The  laurates  of 

period,  but  was  later  abandoned  and  left  in  ruins,  the  alkali  metals  and  of  barium  are  soluble  in 

With  the  growth  of  Rome,  however,  it  was  after-  water.    The  other  salts  are  insoluble,  or  slightly 

wards  resettled,  and  became  a  fashionable  resort  soluble. 

of  the  wealthy  Romans,  owing  largely  to  ite  ex-  LATTBIE,  16'r^,  Andb£.     The  pseudonym  of 

tensive  laurel  groves.     Pliny  the  Younger  de-  the  French  writer  Paschal  Orousset   (q.v.). 

scribes  with  minuten^s  his  beautiful  villa  at  u^xTBIE,   lou'r«,   Simon   Somebville    (1829 

^fnTooV^'aiSf^  *^\^"P^r  ^'fJ^f''^  ^^''''  -).     A  Scoteh  educator  and  philosopher.     He 

!!  ;   oi  ^^^^^lJ^'fl^it^^'^V'    ^"^f T  '*J*»  was  bom  in  Edinburgh,  and  was*^ educated  at  the 

(A.D.  98-117)   the  neighbormg  towns  of  Lauren-  ^.^   ^^^^^  ^^^  university   of   that   city.     He 

turn  and  Lavmium  were  recolonized  and  united  i.„f,„i»i.  :^  i?„,«,v«  *^»  «„«  ™,„  ««^  ^«  i,;-  ^^^.^^^ 

under  the  name  Lauro-Lavinium.    See  L.vn.raM.  ^"^tU^^^Z^^  ^Suolri^tT*"!" 

LAUKTA,  lou-rM.    A  city  in  the  Province  of  1855  he  was  secretary  and  Visitor  of  schools  on 

Potenza,  Itely,  six  miles  south  of  the  nearest  the  educational  committee  of  the  Scotch  Church ; 

railway  station  at  Lagonegro,  which  is  114  miles  and  in  1872,  when  the  authority  of  this  com- 

by  rail  southeast  of  Naples  (Map:  Itely,  K  7).  niittee  was  abrogated  by  the  Education  Act,  he 

It  manufactures  leather  and  woolen  cloth,  and  became  secretery  to  the  Endowed  Schools  Com- 

the  country  produces  grain,  wine,  fruit,  and  po-  mission.     He  was  a  member  of  the  Edinburgh 

tatoes.    Population  (commune),  in  1901,  10,099.  University  Court,  and  ijresident  of  the  Teachers' 

LAUBIAN,      l6'r6-aN^      Augustu     Tbebow  ^^fl^  ?^  England,  and  in  1876  became  professor 

( 1810-80) .    A  Rumanian  philologian  and  author.  ?^  ^^^  institutes  and  history  of  education  in  Edm- 

He  was  bom  near  Hermannstedt,  Transylvania,  ^"J?^    H?7f  f ^^- •    ^®   jrrote :    Phtlo8ophy    of 

was   educated   at  Klausenburg  and   Vienna,   in  ^^^^j  {1866)  ;  Primary  Inatm^^^ 

1844  was  appointed  a  professor  of  philosophy  in  *^  ^^^!^Jl?^  S^}}^^'  A???'  ;  John  Amos  Co- 

the  College  of  Saint  Sava  at  Bucharest,  and  in  ?!^*^,  j?*^/^;i^c?^ ;  Ethtca  by  Scoiusjfovan- 

1847  a  councilor  of  education.     In  1848  he  took  ^"^    <2d  ed.   1885)  ;   Medieval  Education  and 

active  part  in  the  political  disturbances  in  Tran-  ^*f  «!*^  Constitution  of  Universiti^a    (1886) ; 

svlvania,  presented  the  Rumanian  memorial  to  ^?^  ^l^'J'^TKE^i^^^  ^^  Pre-Chnstian  Educa- 

the  Emperor  Ferdinand,  and  was  imprisoned  by  '*^'*  ^^^  ^ol.  1901). 

the  Hungarians  at  Hermannstedt,  but  was  soon  LAUBIEB,  l5^rI-&,  Sir  Wilfbid  (1841—).    A 

liberated  by  the  populace.     He  was  appointed  Canadian  stetesman.    He  was  bom  at  Saint  Lin, 

superior  councilor  of  education  in  Moldavia  in  Quebec,  and  was  educated  at  L'Assomption  Col- 

1851,   and  general   inspector  of  education  and  lege  and  McGill  University.     Admitted  to  the 


IiAUBIEB.                               15  LAUSANNE. 

bar  in  1864,  he  entered  political  life  as  a  mem-  Netherlands  and  on  the  Rhine.    In  1800  he  be- 

ber  of  the  Quebec  Assembly  from  1871  to  1874,  came  aide-de-camp  to  Napoleon,  who  sent  him  to 

and   later  became   a   member   of  the  Dominion  England  in  1802  to  transmit  the  articles  of  the 

Parliament.     He   was   Minister  of   Inland  Rev-  Peace  of  Amiens.     He  was  made  brigadier-gen- 

enue,  1877-78;  was  elected  leader  of  the  Liberal  eral   in   1805,   and  Governor-General  of  Venice 

Party  in  1891;  and  in  1896  became  Premier  of  in  1807.    At  Wagram  (1809)   his  artillery  at  a 

Canada,  being  the  first  French-Canadian  to  hold  critical    moment   crushed    the    Austrian    centre 

that  office.     His  oratorical  abilities  earned  him  and  gained  the  victory.     He  was  Ambassador 

the  name  of  'Silver-tongued  Laurier,'  while  his  to  Saint  Petersburg  in  1811,  took  part  in  the 

services  to  the  Dominion  and  Empire  have  been  Russian   campaign   of    1812,   fought   at   Ltitzen 

recognized  by  the  award  of  various  honors,  com-  and  Bautzen,  and  was  taken  prisoner  at  Leipzig* 

prismg  a  Queen's  counselship  in  1880,  member-  (1813).     After   the   Restoration   Louis   XVIIL 

Bhip  in  the  Imperial  Privy  Council,  Knight  Grand  made  him   a   general  of   division    (1815),   and 

Cross  of  the  Order  of  Saint  Michael  and  Saint  gave  him  the  title  of  marquis   (1817).     He  be- 

George.     He    received   the   cordon    of   a   grand  came  a  marshal  of  France,  and  took  part  i^  the 

officer  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  during  a  visit  invasion  of  Spain  in  1823. 

in  1890.  °^  IjAUMON. 

LAU'BION,  or  LAU^BTCTX  (Lat.,  from  Gk.  LAUBIXTM^  IftM-flm  (formerly  Calumet). 
Am^ptop,  Aa^ptiop,  Laureian).  A  promontory  in  A  village  in  Calumet  Township,  Houghton  Coun- 
Southeast  Attica,  Greece,  projecting  into  the  iy,  Mich.,  11  miles  north  by  east  of  Houghton, 
.£gean  Sea,  celebrated  for  its  mines.  They  the  county-seat;  on  the  Mineral  Range  and  the 
seem  to  have  been  known  in  prehistoric  times,  Copper  Range  railroads  (Map:  Michigan,  El), 
and  there  are  numerous  Mycenaean  remains  I*  is  situated  on  Keweenaw  Peninsula,  in  one  of 
throughout  this  region.  It  is  also  possible  t^^  richest  copper  districts  of  the  United  States, 
that  they  were  later  worked  by  the  Phoenician  and  in  the  vicinity  of  several  of  its  most  famous 
traders.  But  they  first  became  important  toward  mines.  Population,  in  1890,  1159;  in  1900,  5643. 
the  end  of  the  sixth  century  b.c.,  with  the  LAU'BUSTI^NTTS  (Neo-Lat.,  from  Lat. 
^^**  ^i.rt*^*'®^**?  P^T®'"  *!?^  commerce.  Dur-  laurua,  laurel  -f  tinus,  sort  of  plant),  or  Laures- 
ing  the  fifth  and  fourth  centuries  they  were  of  ^j^^g  { Viburnum  Tinus).  An  ornamental  shrub, 
the  greatest  value  to  the  commercial  supremacy  ^^^^j^g  ^f  ^^^  ^^^y^  ^f  Europe  and  the  north  of 
of  Athens,  but  with  the  increased  sunplies  of  Africa,  which  belongs  to  the  Caprifoliacea?,  or 
the  precious  metals  which  resulted  from  the  honeysuckle  family.  It  is  an  evergreen,  with  dark, 
Eaatcni  conquests  of  Alexander  the  Great  their  ghining,  leathery  leaves  and  with  corymbs  of  small 
im^rtance  rapidly  declined,  and  about  the  whitish  flowers,  which  appear  in  winter  or  early 
b^fiimmff  of  the  Christian  Era  they  were  aban-  •  ^^^  ^^^  followed  by  small  blackish-blue, 
doned.  The  mines  were  the  property  of  the  ^^^d  berries,  which  inflame  the  mouth  and  have 
Athenian  State,  which  leased  them  to  citizois  drastic,  purgative  properties.  Some  kinds  of 
who  worked  them  by  slave  labor.  The  chief  ^^j^^g^  however,  eat  them  with  avidity.  Since 
product  was  silver,  though  lead  was  also  ob-  ^he  launistinus  cannot  endure  much  frost,  it 
tamed  in  large  quantities,  and  the  yield  of  mini-  jg  ^^wn  in  northern  latitudes  as  a  greenhouse 
urn  (red  oxide  of  laid)  and  ochre  was  of  ap-  ^r  house  plant  for  winter  flowering.  Sometimes 
preciable  value.  The  mines  were  worked  by  j^  jg  planted  out  in  summer.  See  Viburnum. 
cutting  narrow  galleries  in  the  rock  and  the  prod- 
ucts were  separated  by  crushing  or  grinding,  LAUBVIO,  lour'vftg,  or  LABVIK.  A  sea- 
washing  and  melting.  In  1860  a  Slarseilles  com-  port  of  Norway,  situated  on  the  Larvikfjord,  at 
pany  bought  the  riAt  to  work  over  the  heaps  of  the  mouth  of  the  river  Laagen  (Map:  Norwav,  C 
refuse,  from  which  much  lead  was  extracted.  7).  The  town  has  a  pleasant  situation.  There 
In  1860  a  dispute  arose  over  the  limitations  im-  are  sulphur  and  iron  springs  in  the  neighborhood. 
posed  by  the  contract;  and  after  a  protracted  The  chief  trade  is  in  wooden  ware.  Population, 
lawsuit,  the  company  in  1873  purchased  a  large  in  1901,  10,6G4. 

tract  of  land.     Since  then  two  large  and  three  LAUSANNE,     16'z&n^      (Lat.     Lauaonium), 

smaller  companies  have  occupied  the  territory.  Capital  of  the  Swiss  Canton  of  Vaud,  situated 

and  carry  on  profitable  operations  in  the  pro-  about  one  mile  north  of  I^ke  Geneva,  and  nearly 

auction  of  lead,  cadmium,  and  manganese.     Sil-  500  feet  above  the  level  of  the  lake  (Map:  Switz- 

▼er,  the  most  important  product  in  ancient  times,  crland,  A  2).    It  lies  largely  on  the  lower  slopes 

is  o^little  value  at  present.    The  mines  are  con-  of  Mont  Jorat,  and  consists  of  several  quarters 

nected  by  rail  with  Athens  through  the  port  of  on  both  sides  of  the  Flon,  which  has  been  partly 

Laurion  or  Ergasteria,  which  has  a  good  harbor,  fjued   up.     A   two-story   viaduct  known   as  the 

workshops,  smelting-fumaces,  and  a  population  Grand  Pont  connects  the  quarters  of  Saint-Fran- 

(1896)   of  7926.     Consult  the  very  complete  ac-  ^ig  and  Saint-Laurent.    The  Place  de  la  Riponne 

count  of  the   mmes^  of   Laurion   by   Ardaillon,  jg   the   finest  square.     The   imposing  cathedral. 

Lea  minca  du  Laurton  dana  VantiquiU,    (Pans,  ^uilt  in  1235-75  and  recentlv  restored,  is  Gothic 

1897) ,  where  is  given  a  bibliography  of  the  ear-  a^j  of  fine  proportions.    It  is  noted  as  the  scene 

lier  literature.  of  a  disputation  in  1536  which  was  participated 

IiAUBIBTONy    Wr^'stftN',    Jacques    Alex-  in  by  Calvin,  Farel,  and  Viret,  and  which  re- 

▲ifDBE  Bbbnard  Law,  Marquis  de    (1768-1828).  suited  in  the  secession  of  the  canton  from  the 

A  French  marshal,  bom  at  Pondicherry,  India.  Catholic  Church.     On  a  hill  west  of  the  town 

He  was  educated  at  the  Ecole  Militaire  in  Paris,  stands  the  National  Supreme  Court  of  Appeals, 

and  at  Brienne,  where  he  was  a  comrade  of  Na-  a   handsome   Renaissance  building  designed   by 

poleon.    He  entered  the  army  in  1785,  and  from  Recordon.     The  old  town  hall,  and  the  prison, 

1792  was  with   the   Republican   armies   in   the  modeled    after    the    Pennsylvania    system,    the 


LAUSAKNE.                              16  XiAUZTJlT. 

theatre,  the  new  post-office,  the  cantonal  bank,  of  which  the  Staubbach  and  Trommelbach  are 

and  the  university  are  also  notable  buildings.  the  most  celebrated. 

The  educational  institutions  of  Lausajine  are  LAUTBEC,  lA'tref,  Omtt  de  Foix,  Seigneur 
numerous  and  excellent.  The  university,  founded  de  (1486-1528).  A  French  marshal.  He  was  the 
in  1536  as  an  academy  for  Protestant  ministers,  g^^  ^f  j^^n  de  Foix,  and  the  brother  of  Fran- 
and  constituted  a  university  in  1891,  has  five  ^^^  de  Chateaubriant,  the  celebrated  mistress  of 
faculties  and  an  attendance  of  about  600  students.  Francis  I.  All  his  life  a  soldier,  he  fought  under 
There  are  schools  for  mstruction  in  agriculture  his  cousin,  Gaston  de  Foix,  at  Ravenna  (1612) ; 
and  viticulture,  and  numerous  boarding-schools  ^^s  present  at  Marignano ;  took  the  ConsUble  do 
patronized  by  foreigners.  The  cantonal  library  Bourbon's  place  as  Governor  of  Milan;  was  de- 
has  nearly  126,000  volumes.  The  cantonal  mu-  fg^ted  by  Prospero  Colonna  at  La  Bicocca  (1615- 
seum  contains  natural  history  collections,  relics  22),  and  five  years  afterwards,  as  commander  of 
from  ancient  Lausanne,  remains  from  lake  dwell-  ^he  army  in  Northern  Italy,  reestablished  the 
ings,  coins,  medals,  etc.  The  charitable  institu-  French  dominion  there.  He  died  of  the  plague 
tion^  molude  a  noted  blind  asylum  and  a  splen-  during  the  siege  of  Naples.  BrantOme  calls  him 
did  insane  asylum.  The  manufactures  consist  ^ne  of  the  great  French  captains, 
chiefly  of  machmeiy,  tobacco,  and  chocolate.  _  -•-.-^•»  ,*,  ^  *  .  ^  /^ 
There  is  some  trade  in  grain  and  lumber,  and  in  LAUZON,  IA'zOn',  Abmand  Louis  de  Gon- 
the  wines  of  the  vicinity.  The  port  of  Lausanne  taut-Bibon,  Duke  de  (1747-93).  A  French  sol- 
is  the  adjoining  town  of  Ouchy.  ^ler,  born  in  Pans.     After  a  youth  of  furious 

Lausanne  is  a  favorite  place  of  sojourn  for  dissipation,  he  led  m  1779  a  successful  expedition 

English  and  Germans,  and  has  been  the  residence  ?«*i^»*^*'^®  English  m  Senegal  and  Gambia,  and 

of  many  distinguished  persons.     Population,  in-  J?   J780  came  to  America,  where  he  fought  at 

1818,  34,049;  in  1900,  47,444.     The  inhabitants  Yorktown.     In  1788  he  succeeded  to  the  title  of 

are  mostly  Protestants,  and  speak  French.    Lau-  J?«*^e  de  Biron,  and  was  a  Deputy  to  the  States- 

sanne  was  probably  founded  at  the  beginning  of  general,  and  the  supposed  agent  of  the  Duke  of 

the   sixth   Sentury.     It  became  the  seat   of  a  9'^®*"«^  ,^^®^;!'.*»  .^T^^if °^^';'°;^i?^^  ^^    ^H 

bishopric  in  590.    It  remained  under  the  rule  of  ^^7  <?  \^^  ^.^L^  V^^'  ?  ,  .  ®^  a  ®  ^"^^  ^l 

its  bishops  (who  attained  princely  rank  in  1125)  La  Rochelle  in  1793.    After  taking  Saumur  and 

until   the    introduction   of  the  Reformation   in  defeating  the  Vendeans  at  Parthenay,  he  resigned 

1536,  when  it  came  under  the  control  of  Bern,  owing  to  machinations  carried  on  agamst  him  by 

In  1803  it  was  made  the  capital  of  the  newly  T4.^u?'   o  J^f*    Accused  before  the  Committee 

created  Canton  of  Vaud.  ?J  ^^^^^  Safety  of  having  been  too  lenient  in 

his  treatment  of  the  Vendeans,  he  was  impris- 

LAXJSEB,     lou'zgr,     Wilhklm    ( 1836-1902) .  oned,  tried  before  the  Revolutionary  Tribunal  for 

A  German  historian  and  essayist,  born  at  Stutt-  conspiracy,  condemned  December  31,  1793,  and 

gart.     He  studied  at  Tfiblngen  and  Heidelberg,  executed  the  same  day. 

"^^ A^^  yl^Jus^^^^  LAUZON,    J^    de     (1582-1666).      French 

ii1f^\S^  fha   TWlFn  ^^  Governor    of    Canada.      He    early    became    in- 

editor  of  the   Berlin   Norddeutaohe  Allgemetne  Crested  in  New  France,  and  was  made  presi- 

Zettung.      His    published    works    include:    Aus  j1«T^  A^  tt„„^1J^  *«    *'^^^ 

£y^^^«*J.»   /i^^^^JL,m^    /ia7o\  .    n^i^i^i^i.*^  a^^s»  dent  of  the  Hundred  Associates,  a  company  or- 

Spantena   Oegenwart    (1872)  ;    Oeachickte  Span-  ^^nized  to  further  the  settlement  of  the  French 

tens  von  dem  8turz  laahellaa  hia  eur  Thronhe-  §*°\^  to  lurtner  ine  seiuemeni  oi  uie  J?rencn 

ateigung  Alfonaoa  XII,  ( 1878 )  ;  Unter  der  Pariaer  IZ'^TLZ^tnl'^Lr^nJ'!^^^  n^jJi^i^ 

KoSrJne  (1878)  ;  Kunai  in  Oeaterreich-Ungam  f^C^f  Tnd  f oVrmSers^^M^^^ 

(1884)  ;  and  Der  erate  8ch,lmenroman   (1889).  ^li^^^nd  fnihls^way'^^^^^ 

LAXJSBEDAT,   16s'dA^   Aiirfi    (1819—).     A  a  tract  of  land  extending  for  sixty  leagues  along 

French  seodesist  and  astronomer.    He  was  bom  the  Saint  Lawrence  with  the  exclusive  right  of 

at  Moulins,  and  studied  at  the  Polytechnique  fishing  in  that  river,  while  for  himself  he*  secured 

(1840),   in   which,   after   active  service  in   the  the  island  of  Montreal,  which  he  afterwards  sold 

engineers,  he. became  professor  of  geodesy  and  to  the  Jesuits.    In  1651  he  became  Governor  of 

astronomy    (1851).     Fourteen  years  afterwards  New  France.     His  administration  of  five  years 

he  was  appointed  professor  of  applied  geometry  was  weak  and  vacillating  in  policy.     In   1656, 

at  the  Conservatoire  des  Arts  et  Metiers,  and  shortly    before    the    end    of    his    second    term, 

in  1881  was  appointed  director  of  that  instilu-  he  returned  to  France,  leaving  the  government 

tion.    The  adoption  of  Paris  time  for  all  France  in  the  hands  of  his  son,  de  Chamey,  who  soon 

by  the  law  of  1891  was  largelv  due  to  Lausse-  followed  his  father's  example,  leaving  a  second 

dat's  endeavors;   and  he  was  elected  president  substitute  to  direct  the  fortunes  of  New  France, 

of  the  commission  on  atrial  transportation.     He  LATTZXTN,  M'z\in',  Antoine  Nompab  de^au- 

is  known  for  his  improvements  in  geodetic  pho-  mont,  Duke  de  (1633-1723).    A  French  soldier, 

tography  and  astronomical  instruments.  born  in  Gascony.    He  came  to  Court  about  1669, 

LAUSITZ,  lou'zlts.     A  district  in  Germany,  f ?d  won  the  fivor  of  the  young  Louis  XIV.  by 

See  LusATiA.  "*®  energy,  shrewdness,  and  «i  certain  swashbuck- 

_^^       *  ling  carriage  that  differed   favorably  from   the 

LAT7TEBBBUNNEN,  lou't5r-brim-nen.  A  common  courtier's  demeanor.  The  King  made 
village  and  tourist  resort  in  the  Canton  of  Bern,  him  captain  of  the  musketeers,  Governor  of  Ber- 
Switzerland,  6%  miles  southeast  of  Interlaken.  ry,  and  marshal -de-camp,  and  promised  him  the 
Population,  in  1900,  2547.  It  is  built  on  both  mastership  of  the  ordnance.  Th^  favorite's  over- 
sides  of  the  White  Ltitschine,  in  a  deep  rocky  bearing  conduct  brought  him  a  term  in  the  Bas- 
valley,  noted  for  its  picturesque  scenery;  moun-  tille,  but  he  was  soon  released  and  mollified  with 
tain  views,  including  the  Jungfrau  and  the  Breit-  the  command  of  the  army  in  Flanders  (1G71). 
horn;  its  numerous  streams  (whence  its  name,  TiOuis  intended  to  marry  Lauzun  to  Mile,  de 
signifying  'nothing  but  springs')   and  cascades;  Montpensier,   La   Grande   Mademoiselle,  grand- 


LAUZUN.  17  LAVAL  TTNIVEBSZTY. 

daughter  of  Henry  IV.,  but  Court  intrigues  seem  of  his  intended  execution.    After  five  years'  ban- 
to  have  prevented  the  marriage,  though  there  is  ishment  in  Bavaria  he  was  permitted  to  return. 

some  authority  for  believing  that  a  secret  lE^^^        LA    VALETTB,    Jean    Pabisot    db.      See 

nage  did  take  place  some  two  years  later.    The  y7jZpj,J^^  '    w*ax^    jr^axovj.    um,.      oro 

enmity  of  Mme.  de  Montespan  sent  Lauzun  to  .  ^^^^^'^^^^ 

the  prison  acain  at  Pignerol  in  1671,  and  there        LA  VALLEY,  Wvk'W,  Ausxandbe  Th^dobk 

he  stayed  till  1676,  when  he  was  released  and  (1821-92).    A  French  engineer.     He  studied  at 

banished.    In  1680  he  obtained  permission  to  re-  the   Ecole  Polytechnique,   became  an   officer   in 

turn  to  Paris.     He  went  to  England  in  1688,  the  engineers,  but  resigned  fiyim  the  service,  and 

returning  in  the  same  year  after  the  Revolution,  carried  out  with  Borel  part  of  the  work  on  the 

as  escort  to  James  II.'s  Queen  and  infant  son.  Suez  Canal.     He  direct^  the  engineering  work 

Louis  restored  him  to  partial  favor.    In  1689  he  of  the  port,  and  in  1876  undertook  the  oonstruc- 

led  a  French  force  to  Ireland,  and  fought  for  tion  of  the  railroad  at  Pointe  des  Galets,  R6- 

James  II.  in  the  disastrous  battle  of  the  Boyne  union.     He  published  Communications  d  la  bo- 

in  1690.  In.  1692  he  became  duke,  and  three  years  ci4t6  dea  ing^ieura   civila  aur  lea   travawo  de 

later  married  Mile,  de  Durford,  a  girl  of  sixteen.  Viathme  de  Suez  (Paris,  1866-69 >. 

LAVA  (It.,  stream).  Molten  rock  material  j^  VALLIIbBE,  1A  vAlyftr',  Louise  Fban- 
which  is  poured  out  at  the  surface  of  the  earth  ^jgj.  ^j,  j^  Bkaume  le  Blano  de  (1644-1710). 
either  from  volcanoes  or  in  fissure  eruptions.  ^  mistress  of  Louis  XIV.  of  France,  bom  in 
Fissure  eruptions,  while  not  numerous,  have  been  Touraine,  of  an  ancient  and  noble  family.  At 
exceptionally  extensive,  as  m  the  -Deccan  of  ^n  early  age  she  lost  her  father,  and  was  brought 
India,  and  the  Snake  River  plains  of  the  North-  ^o  Court  by  her  mother,  who  had  married  a  sec- 
western  United  States.  Siliceous  lavas  usually  ^^^  time.  She  was  not  a  great  beauty,  and  had 
have  a  pasty  or  ropy  consistency,  and  flow  slug-  ^  slight  lameness;  but  her  amiability  and  win- 
gishly,  while  basaltic  lavas  are  usually  fluid  and  ^ing  manners  rendered  her  attractive.  She  bore 
flow  freely.  The  former  build  up  volcanic  cones  ^h^  ^ing  four  children,  of  whom  two  died  in  in- 
of  steep  slopes,  as  in  Central  France,  whereas  fancy.  In  1674  she  entered  the  Convent  of  the 
basaltic  lavas  form  volcanic  cones  of  gentle  Carmelites  in  Paris,  and  spent  thirty-six  years 
alopes  like  those  of  Etna  or  the  Hawaiian  vol-  ^.jjere,  in  penance  and  prayer.  She  is  considered 
canoes.  Some  lavas  decompose  and  disintegrate  ^^te  author  of  a  book  entitled  R6flexiona  aur  la 
with  amazing  rapidity  and  form  a  fertile  soil  for  miaMcorde  de  Dieu  (Paris,  1680),  of  which  a 
the  vine.  Others,  but  slightly  different  in  com-  ^^py^  ^^ted  1688,  with  corrections  by  Bossuet, 
IKJsition,  present  for  centuries  a  firm  unyielding  ^^^^  discovered  in  the  Louvre  in  1852.  A  coUec- 
«nrface  to  the  elements.     Lavas  may  be  either  ^j^^  ^f  yier  letters  was  published  in  1767. 

compact    or    vesicular,    slaggy,    scoriaceous,    or  ^^ 

pumiceous.    See  Igneoub  Rocks  ;  Basalt  ;  Dike  ;       LAVAL-MONTMOBBNOY,  U'vAl'-mOWmA'- 

VOLCANO.  rftN's^,  Fban^is  Xavieb  de    (1622-1708).     A 

TATTAT    iA'«>Ai/     Tii«  Aonffoi  nf  +ii«  Tioniirf.  French  bishop.    Hc  was  bom  at  Laval,  France, 

of  the  same  name,  46  mil«  by  rail  from  Rennes  «  ?"«*  «>  ^''*°*y"  nJSfA^^,  ^rlZn^^     vil 

(Map:  France,  F  3).    It  is  an  ancient  town  of  •;»'?.«i,«ir'^^?J  w«L  L^^n  %M  wis  ^' 

aon/picturest^uenesi.     The  cathedral,  begun  in  ^^^'^'^  ^\'i^'^^''T^^,^^  Z.^^.^  J^^L 

the  twelfth  century  and  finished  in  the  sixteenth,  PO'ntf  Archdeacon  of  Evreux     I"  1659 Jw  was 

is  of  little  architectural  merit.    The  old  chateau  «?•?*  *»  Sf.l'l*.f  pY♦^^•°*JS■«^^'^'He  «^^^ 

of  the  dukes  of  I^val  is  now  used  as  a  prison,  *.'"«  °*  ^"'SP  ?*  ^**"/n^ '?,««?>    ^^t 

and  the  adjoining  modem  chateau  in  ftenais-  «*hed  the   Seminary  of^eb«(  1663)    imd« 

sance  style  is  used  as  the  Patois  de  Justice.   Be-  '«**«"  P"**"*  "^^^'•"J^',.'"^.  "^^11  Z 

sidM  the  above-mentioned  buildings  Laval  has  «>e^  »&«?««»«  *" J5^*  V*!»!;f  f"""  *^ 


;rold  nnThrrn*^^  u^"freSibm;;;,  an  J^l-y  of  the  Government,    He  actively  opposed 

»«  «i«  iMu^u  ».«**  aaw         ^«i«„^     rpt,^  '  j„  thc  salc  of  intoxicatmi?  liquors  to  Indians.     In 

::iJiZrr,tiSin,  ISIe  alvX   a  nortal  1«74  he  became  titular  lisl?op  of  Quebec,  an  office 

cational  institutions  include  * Jj*^,  a  normal  ^     ^    resigned  and 

school,   a   seminary,  and   a  library.     lAval   is  V  '  ^  .  *.i    .-«  t-  fi,~\,.-^A,,^  ««  ti,^  «tr.,in, 

noted  for  its  linen  industry  which  was  intro-  devoted  himself  to  the  conduct  of  the  affairs 

<luoed  there  in  the  fourteenth  century.     It  also  ot  the  seminary.     His  nameis  PffR'tuated  m 

manufactures  cotton  ^'^•^^^^l^^^^^J^^'  ^Yth^l^:  t^^v^^  rby^^^wW'nch  ^ 

l!LVTis*IKat'ThiXl,.Xulffi  in  thougf  Parkman  takes'a  seve^r  view  of  him. 

18P1,  30,374;   in  1901,  30,356.     The  town  dates  LAVAL  TTNTVEBSITY  {University  Laval). 

from  the  ninth  century.    Near  here  the  Vendeans  a  French  Catholic  institution  in  Quebec,  Can., 

achieved  a  victory  in  October,  1793.  founded  in  1852,  established  and  maintained  by 

LA  VALBTTB,  lA  vft'lfit^  Antoine  Mabib  the  Quebec  Seminary.    By  a  Papal  bull  of  1876 

Chamanb,  Count  de  (1769-1830).    A  French  sol-  the  university  secured  extended  privileges,  and 

dier,  aide-de-camp  to  Bonaparte.  He  was  librarian  the   Cardinal    Prefect   of   the   Propaganda    was 

at  Saint-Gcneviftve  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolu-  made  its  protector  at  Rome.     Its  doctrine  and 

tion  (1789).    Hte  sympathized  with  the  more  mod-  discipline  are  in  the  control  of  a  Superior  CJoun- 

erate  party  in  attempting  to  save  the  lives  of  cil»  composeil  of  the  archbishops  and  bishops  of 

the  King  and  Queen ;  entered  the  army,  and  served  the  Province  of  Quebec,  under  the  presidency  of 

with  Bonaparte  in  Italy  and  Egypt.    Afterwards  the  Archbishop  of  Quebec,  who  is  the  apostolic 

he  held  the  positions  of  Ambassador  to  Saxony,  chancellor  of  the  university.     By  virtue  of  its 

post  director  and  Councilor  of  State  under  N*a-  royal   charter  the  visitor  of  the  university  is 

poleon  I.,  and  again  in  the  Himdred  Days,  but  always  the  Catholic  Arehbishop  of  Quebec,  with 

was  condemned  to  death  by  Louis  XVIII.     His  the  power  of  veto  over  all  the  rules  and  nomina- 

•wife  connived  his  escape  in  her  clothes  on  the  eve  tions.     The  university  council   consists  of  the 


1 


LAVAL  XTNIVEBSITY. 


18 


directors  of  the  Quebec  Seminary  and  the  three 
senior-professors  of  each  faculty.  There  are  four 
faculties — ^theology,  law,  medicine,  and  arts — in 
each  of  which  the  bachelor's,  master's,  or  licen- 
tiate*s,  and  doctor's  degrees  are  conferred.  The 
theological  professors  are  appointed  by  the  vis- 
itor, all  others  by  the  council.  In  1902  the  uni- 
versity had  384  students,  of  whom  103  were  in 
theology,  84  in  law,  97  in  medicine,  and  100  in 
arts.  The  faculty  numbered  51,  and  the  library 
contained  140,000  volumes.  The  extension  work 
of  the  university  is  carried  on  through  a  branch 
at  Montreal,  which  is  practically  independent, 
and  by  a  system  of  affiliated  seminaries  through- 
out the  Province  of  Quebec.  Bector,  Monsei- 
gneur,  O.  E.  Mathieu. 

LAVATEB,  la^vA-t^r,  Johann  Kabpab  (1741- 
1801).  A  Swiss  mystic,  founder  of  what  is 
known  as  the  'art  of  physiognomy.'  He  was 
born  in  Zurich,  the  son  of  a  physician.  Ac  a 
boy  he  showed  no  remarkable  aptitudes,  though 
in  youth  he  gave  proof  of  power  by  coming  for- 
ward in  1762  with  the  artist  Henri  Fuseli  to  ac- 
cuse the  Landvogt  Grebel  of  oppression  and  in- 
justice, under  which  others  had  groaned  without 
daring  to  complain.  A  volume  of  poems  entitled 
Schweizerlieder  (1767)  early  gained  for  Lavater 
a  great  reputation.  Au88%chten  in  die  Ewigkeit 
(3  vols.,  1768-73),  his  next  publication,  speedily 
ran  through  several  .editions.  The  tone  of  his 
work  is  one  of  exalted  religious  enthusiasm, 
mingled  with  asceticism ;  for  Lavater  was  a  mys- 
tic both  in  theology  and  philosophy.  This  gave 
to  his  opponents  an  opportunity  to  accuse  him  of 
all  manner  of  heresy.  Possessing  the  keenest 
powers  of  observation  and  the  most  delicate  dis- 
crimination of  human  traits,  Lavater  came  to 
believe  that  the  character  of  men  could  be  dis- 
covered in  their  countenances.  He  labored  to 
form  a  system  of  physiognomy,  hopins  thus  to 
promote  the  welfare  of  mankind;  and  at  last 
published  the  work  upon  which  his  fame  chiefly 
rests,  Phyaiognortiische  Fragmente  zur  Beford- 
erung  der  Menschenkenntnias  und  Menschenliehe 
(4  vols.,  1775-78).  Lavater  at  first  hailed  the 
French  Revolution  with  joy;  but  after  the  mur- 
der of  the  King  he  regarded  the  whole  movement 
with  religious  abhorrence.  At  the  capture  of 
Zurich  by  Mass^na,  while  aiding  the  wounded 
in  the  street,  Lavater  himself  received  a  wound, 
from  the  effects  of  which  he  died. 

LAVATEB^  Louis.  The  pseudon^on  of  the 
Alsatian  historian  Ludwig  Adolf  Spach  (q.v.). 

LAVEDAN,  Ift'vc-daN',  Henri  (1859—).  A 
French  novelist,  dramatist,  journalist,  and  critic. 
His  contributions  to  La  Vie  Parieienne,  Oil  Bias, 
and  other  journals  are  signed  Manchecour.  Of 
his  plays  the  best,  Une  famille  (1890),  won  a 
prize  from  the  Academy.  His  fiction,  mainly 
short  stories,  of  which  "the  volume  La  Haute 
(1801)  is  typical,  sparkles  with  dry  and  often 
cjmical  wit,  and  delicate  yet  biting  irony. 

LAVELEYE,  Wv'-W,  Emile  de  (1822-92). 
A  Belgian  political  economist  and  publicist,  bom 
at  Bruges.  He  studied  at  Ghent,  <ind  in  1864 
was  made  professor  of  political  economy  in  the 
University  of  Li^ge.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
international  jury  at  Paris,  1867,  and  a  corre- 
sponding member  of  the  Academy  of  Moral  and 
Political  Sciences  of  Paris.  Laveleye  wrote 
much  for  the  Revue  dea  Deuw  Mondea  and  other 
periodicals.    His  most  important  works  are:  De 


la  propri4U  et  aea  formea  primitivea  ( 1874 ) ;  Le 
aocialiame  contemporain  (1881);  EUmenia 
d^^conomie  politique  (1882);  Le  gouvernement 
dans  la  dSmooratie  ( 1891 ) ;  La  monnaie  et  le 
bim^tallisme  intemationale  (1891). 

LAVENDEB  (ML.  lavandula,  lavendula, 
lavender,  from  It.  lavanda,  lavender,  washing, 
from  It.,  Lat.  lavare,  to  wash;  connected  with 
Lat.  luere,  Gk.  Xo^iy,  louein,  to  wash),  Lavan- 
dula, A  genus  of  plants  of  the  natural  order 
Labiate,  liaving  the  stamens  and  style  included 
within  the  tube  of  the  corolla,  the  corolla  two- 
lipped,  the  upper  lip  bifid,  the  lower  trifid.  The 
common  lavender  or  narrow-leaved  lavender 
(Lavandula  vera)  fi^rows  wild  on  stony  moun- 
tains and  hills  in  tne  south  of  Europe,  and  in 
more  northern  regions  is  very  generally  culti- 
vated in  gardens.  It  has  an  aromatic  fragrance^ 
aromatic  bitter  taste,  and  contains  a  volatile  oil, 
oil  of  lavender.    The  whole  plant  is  credited  with 


LAYSHDBB. 


stimulant  properties,  but  particularly  the  fiow*er- 
spike,  and  is  used  in  medicine  as  a  tonic,  stom- 
achic, nerve  stimulant,  etc.  Lavender-flowers 
are  often  put  into  wardrobes  to  keep  away  moths. 
They  are  much  used  in  perfumery.  Lavender  is 
extensively  cultivated  for  its  flowers  in  France, 
and  in  some  places  near  London.  Broad-leaved 
lavender  {Lavandula  apica)  is  also  a  native  of 
the  south  of  Europe,  but  is  more  tender  than 
common  lavender.  It  is  also  less  fragrant,  and 
the  oil  which  it  yields  is  called  oil  of  spike,  and 
sometimes  foreign  oil  of  lavender.  Lavender  is 
grown  occasionally  in  gardens  in  the  United 
States,  especially  in  California,  but  nowhere  as 
yet  on  a  commercial  scale. 

LAVEBAN,  l&'v'-r&N^  Ghables  Louis  ( 1812- 
79).  A  French  military  physician,  bom  at  Dun- 
kirk. He  studied  at  Lille;  was  assistant  at  the 
hospital  of  Algiers,  and  professor  at  the  military 


LAVEBAir.                               19  LAVINIXTlflC. 

hoepital  at  Mei|  (1841-50),  whence  he  returned  pointed  administrator  of  ecclesiastical  affairs  in 
to  Algeria.  Afbthe  Eoole  Val  de  Gr&ce  he  be-  Tunis,  and  made  a  cardinal  in  1882.  Lavigerie 
came  professorfof  epidemiology,  physician  in  devoted  the  best  energies  of  his  life  to  the  sup- 
charge,  and  director.  After  acting  as  sanitary  pression  of  slave-hunting  and  slave-barter;  he 
inspector  of  the  Army  of  the  North  in  the  lectured  to  great  audiences  in  the  various  Euro- 
Franco-Prussian  War,  he  was  for  a  time  head  pean  capitals;  and  finally  secured  the  agreement 
of  the  military  school  at  Montpellier;  but  in  1872  between  the  English  and  German  governments  to 
went  back  to  Val  de  Grftce.  His  great  work,  enforce  rigidly  the  anti-slavery  clause  of  the 
7*rait^.  dea  maladies  et  des  &pid4mi€8  dea  arm^ea,  Congo  Conference,  and  to  call  an  international 
published  in  1875  by  his  son,  is  largely  supple-  congress  at  Brussels,  to  determine  on  a  plan  of 
inented  by  his  contributions  to  medical  journals,  international  action.  In  1800  he  created  a  sen- 
and  to  the  Dietionnaire  encyclop4d%que  dea  aciencea  sation  in  France  by  a  speech  advocating  the  ac- 
mMiealea,  ceptance  of  the  Republic  by  the  Church,  it  was 

ULVBKAK,  Chables  Louis  Xlphowbe  (1846  ??/?'  ^°4"^^^5  tacit  authorization  of  Pope  leo 

-).    A  French  physician,  the  discoverer  of  the  ^f^^' ,  »«  d>«d  .^?  A^fi^?";  November  26    1892. 

Plasmodium  of  mallria.    He  was  born  in  Paris,  ^^«  ^^"^'^^J  ^**J».**f '  pnncipally  relatmg  to  mis- 

the  son  of  Charles  Louis  Laveran.     He  entered  f*^?*'^  and  anti-slavery  efforts,  were  published 

the  School  of  Military  Medicine  at  Strassburg  in  '"^  ^^^  volumes  (Paris,  1884). 

1863,  taking  his  degree  in  1867.     Six  years  later  LAVIONAC,   U'vd'nyAk',   Albebt    (1846-). 

he  was  appointed  professor  at  Val  de  Grace.    In  A  French  writer  on  music,  born  in  Paris.     He 

1878  he  left  for  Algeria  to  investigate  malarial  received  his  musical  education  in  that  city,  and 

fevers,  and  remained  there  until  1883,  when  he  in    1882  became   professor   of   solfeggio   at   the 

returned  to  Val  de  GrAce  to  occupy  the  chair  of  Conservatory.     He  was  subsequently  made  pro- 

militarv    hygiene    and   clinical    medicine    until  fessor  of  harmony,  and  awakened  wide  interest 

1894.    be  then  held  the  post  of  director  of  the  by  championing  the  cause  of  musical  dictation, 

Eleventh  Corps  in  the  Army  Medical  Service,  re-  for  the  furtherance  of  which   he   wrote   Ooura 

tiring  in  1897.     Subsequently  he  became  physi-  complet  th^orique  et  pratique  de  dictie  tnuaicale 

cian-in-chief  at  the  Lille  Hospital,  and  a  member  (1882).     His  best-known  work  is   La  muaique 

of  the  French  Academy  of  Medicine.     He  wrote  et  lea  muaiciena  (1896;  trans,  into  Eng.  1899), 

several    treatises    on    malaria,    summarized    in  which  is  one  of  the  best  books  on  the  subject,  and 

Traits  dea  fi^vrea  paluatrea    (1884),  which  an-  gives  a  lucid  and  interesting  treatment  of  musi- 

nounoed  the  discovery  of  the  hsematozo^n  of  ma-  cal  technicalities  and  theories.    His  other  works 

laria,  and  obtained  the  Bryant  prize.     He  also  include:  Cinquante  leQona  d'harmonie;  le  voyage 

published:  Traits  dea  maladiea^  et  ^pid4miea  dea  artiatique  A  Bayreuth  (1897)  ;  Lea  dramea  muai- 

armSea  (1875),  written  by  his  father;  EUmenta  calea   de   Richard    Wagner    (1897,    Eng.    trans. 

de  pathologie  m4dicale,m  collaboration  with  Teis-  1898) ;  Lea  gait6a  du  Conaervatoire  (1898). 

sier  (1894) ;  the  article  "Maladies  fipidfimiques"  jj^  VHXEKABQXT^.  lA  v^l'mttr'kA'   ThAo- 

of  the  Traits  de  pathologie  gSn^aU  of  Professor  ^^^  claude  Henbi  Hebsabt,  Vicomte  de  ( 1815- 

7l?^?'^i,    *2r    ^^®^^    ^    hygtine    mthtaire  95),       ^  French  antiquary  and  Celtic  scholar, 

(1896).    SeeMALABiA.  bom  at  Quimperlfi,  Brittany.    His  first  important 

ZiAVEBDliiBEy  lAVar'dy&r^,  Claude  Honob;:^  work  was  a  collection  of  popular  Breton  songs 

(1826-73).     A  Canadian  educator  and  author,  and  melodies,  in  two  volumes,  published  in  1839, 

He  was  bom  in  the  Province  of  Quebec,  and  was  with  a  French  translation  and  notes,  under  the 

educated  for  the  priesthood,  to  which   he   was  title  of  Barzaa-Breiz,     Three  years   afterwards 

ordained  in  1851.    He  afterwards  became  a  pro-  appeared  his  Popular  Tales  of  Brittany,  in  two 

fessor  in  the   Quebec   Seminary,   and   assistant  volumes,  to  which  was  prefixed  a  dissertation  on 

librarian  of  Laval  University.     He  did  much  to  the  story  of  the  Round  Table.     His  next  work 

bring  to  light  and  to  popularize  the  achieve-  was  a  collection  of  the  poems  of  the  Celtic  bards 

ments  of  the  early  heroes   of   French   Canada,  of  the  sixth  century  with  a  French  translation. 

Three  volumes  of  the  Jeauit  Relationa    (1858)  and  explanatory  and  critical  notes  (1850).   This 

were  in  part  published  by  him,  and  he  edited  the  publication'  made  the  labors  of  La  Villemarqu6 

Voya^ea  of  Champlain,   with   notes   and  a   life  widely  known.     In   1851   he  was  elected  corre- 

of  that  explorer    (1870)  ;  also  the  Journal  dea  sponding  member  of  the  Academy  of  Berlin,  and 

JSauites   (1871).     He  also  produced  a  popular  in  1858  a  member  of  the  French  Institute.    He 

Hiatory  of  Canada,  and  edited  a  collection  of  has  since  published  a  work  entitled  the  Celtic 

French-Canadian  songs  and  hymns.  Legends   {La  Ugende  celiique)  of  Ireland,  Cam- 

LAVEBOTA.    In  Roman  mythology,  the  pro-  ^".*'.  ''^\  ^"^^^^^^^  J^^\  contains  such  of  the 

tecting  goddess  of  thieves  and  impostors.     The  <^"»»n^l  ^''^^Ti^^'i^^'  ^f^\r%  Breton-as  are 

Porta^  Laveraalia,    near    which    an    altar    was  rare   or   unpublished.      La   Villemarqug    is   the 

erected  in  her  honor,  was  named  for  her.  '*'?JI?''5v''''^^,l*^',?!  ^T"**^  ""^^^y  '^'^'"^^  connected 

with  the  Celtic  literature  and  languages,  among 

LAViaEBIE,  lA'vA'zhr^,  Chables  Mabtial  ^hich  are  a  Breton  Grammar  (1849)  ;  a  Breton 

AlXEMAND    (1825-92).     A    French   prelate   and  and  French  Dictionary  {\%51)  ;  Brittany,  Ancient 

missionary.    He  was  bora  at  Bayonne;  educated  and  Modem;  and  The  Great  Myatery  of  Jeaua 

in  the  schools  of  the  Petite  S^minaire  and  the  (1865). 

S^minaire   de   Saint   Sulpice,   Paris;    appointed  _.  A-n^Tw/r*      t    t>           i.    j***       av    j       *. 

professor  of  ecclesiastica^l   history  it   the   Sor-  ,  ^^V?'^^\  In  Roman  tradition^  the  daugh- 

honne  in    1853;   domestic   prelate   to  the  Pope,  ter  of  Latinus  (q. v.),  King  of  the  aborigines  and 

French  auditor  in  Rome.  Bishop  of  Nancy,   in  w>^«   ^l  r^^f'^'  ^J?^^  «*\".^<^   '"   ^^'^  ^^^^^  ^^« 

1863;  and  Archbishop  of  Algiers  in  1867.     He  "^^^^  ^"^^^  *«^  «^  Lavmium. 

had  previously  become  an  officer  of  the  Legion  LAVINTUIC.     A  very  ancient  town  of  Lat- 

of  Honor,  and  in   1874  established  his  famous  ium,  about  16  miles  southeast  of  Rome,  where  the 

Central- African  mission.     In   1881   he  was  ap-  modem  village  of  Pratica  stands.    Legend  states 


IiAVIKITJX.  30  LAVOISIEB. 

that  it  was  founded  by  iBneas  and  named  in     nrade  director  of  powder-workaand  introduced 
honor  of  his  wife,  Lavinia,  daughter  of  King    valuable  improvements   in   tjUMfcannfacture   of 


Latinus.     With  the  growth  of  population,  the  gunpowder.     In  1778  he  wji^^BoilRed  one  of 

town  became  overstocked,  and  Ascanius,  or  lulus,  the  trustees  of  the  Bank  o^^HSunt.     In  1790, 

son  of  .^Eneas,  led  away  part  of  the  inhabitants  as  a  member  of  the  Ck>mmissron  of  Weights  and 

and  founded  Alba  Longa,  the  traditional  mother-  Measures,    he    was    engaged    in    preparing    the 

city  of  Rome.     I^avinium  was  renowned  in  very  decimal  system.     In  1791  he  was  commissary  of 

early  times  for  its  sanctuary  of  Venus,  and  for  the  treasury,  and  published  an  interesting  paper 

its  cult  of  the  tutelary  gods  of  the  Latin  League,  on  the  economic  condition  of  France.    The  farm- 

of  which  it  became  a  sort  of  religious  centre,  crs-general  of  the  revenue  were  men  of  eminent 

Like  other  important  Latin  towns  of  the  earlier  social  position  and  considerable  wealth,  and  in 

period,  it  gradually   lost  its   prestige  with  the  the  Beign  of  Terror  their  wealth  became  a  source 

growth  of  Rome.   The  Emperor  Trajan  (a.d.  98-  of    great    danger    to    them.      In    1794    Dupin, 

117)  gave  it  a  new  lease  of  life  by  joining  the  one  of  the  members  of  the  Convention,  accused 

colonies  of  Laurentum  and  Lavinium,  under  the  them  of  being  enemies  of  their  country;   Fou- 

name  Lauro-Lavinium,  and  locating  there  new  quier-Tinville    presented    the    accusation    before 

colonists.     It  should  be  noted  that  the  modem  the  Revolutionary  Tribunal,  and  the  twenty-seven 

Civita   Lavinia    is   on  the   site   of  the   ancient  farmers-general    were    condemned    to    die.       In 

Lanuvium,  not  Laviniimi.  vain  had  one  of  Lavoisier's  friends  endeavored 

LAVISSEy     li'v^s',    Ebiyest     (1842—).      A  *<>  produce  an  impression  on  the  Tribunal  by 

French  historian,  born  at  Nouvion-en-Thi6rache,  describing    his    scientific    achievements.        The 

Aisne.     He  was  educated  at  a  classical  school  answer   was,   "We  need   no   more   scientists   in 

in  Paris,  and  at  the  Superior  Normal  School,  France." 

and  received  a  fellowship   in  history  in   1865.  At  the  very  foundation  of  all  chemical  thought 

He    taught    for    ten    years    in    the    lyceums    at  is  the  law  of  the  conservation  of  mass.     Lavoi- 

Kancy,  Versailles,  and  at  the  College  of  Henry  sier,  although  not  the  first  to  divine  that  matter 

IV, ;  was  then  appomted  master  of  conferences  at  is  everlasting,  was  the  first  to  understand  that 

the  Superior  Normal  School,  and  in  1888  became  that  important  truth  must  be  established  indue- 

professor  of  modern  history  in  the  Faculty  of  Let-  tively  by  the  use  of  the  balance.    By  a  series  of 

ters  at  Paris.     In   1892  he  was  elected  to  the  quantitative  experiments  Lavoisier  oroved  that, 

French  Academy.    He  is  distinguished  alike  for  whatever  the  change  in  kind,  the  total  amount  re- 

the  clearness  and  carefulness  of  his  elementary  mains  the  same;  and  as  all  relations  of  quantity 

works,  and  for  the  authoritative  character  of  his  are  mathematical  relations,  Lavoisier  saw  that 

researches.    His  lectures,  the  most  popular  at  the  every  chemical  change  could  be  expressed  by  an 

University  of  Paris,  and  his  extensive  contribu-  equation  showing  that  the  sum  of  the  masses  of 

tions  to  historical  literature,  have  won  for  him  a  the  reacting  substances  is  equal  to  the  sum  of  the 

high  place  among  French  historians.     In  both  masses  of  the  resulting  products.     When  iron, 

he  has  striven  to  bring  about  a  better  feeling  be-  mercury,  tin,  and  other  metals  were  exposed  to 

tween   France  and  Germany,  and  his  personal  the  action  of  the  air,  their  weight  increased.    The 

popularity  has  been  evidenced  by  his  election  as  resulting  earths  contained,  besides  the  matter  of 

president  of  the  Association  of  French  Students,  the  metals,  other  matter,  and  could  naturally  be 

Among  his  published  works  are:  La  marche  de  split  up  again  into  their  constituents;  they  were 

Brandebourg  sous  la  dynaatie  aacanienne,  4tude  therefore  complex,  not  simple  substances.     The 

aur  rune  des  originea  de  la  tnanarchie  pruaai-  ^quantitative    method    of    Lavoisier    thus    threw 

enne  (1875)  ;  Lec(ma  prdparatoirea  d'hiatoire  de  light  on  the  nature  of  various  substances  and  led 

France  (1876)  ;  Etudea  aur  I'hiatoire  de  Pruaae  to  a  clear  definition  of  the  idea  of  chemical  ele- 

(1879),  crowned  by  the  Academy;  La  premiire  ments.    Lavoisier  also  advanced  a  general  theory 

cnn^e  d'hiatoire  de  France  {ISS3)  ;  Sully  (1880);  of  the  formation  •f  chemical  compounds.     Ac- 


tique  de  VEurope  (1890)  ;  La  jeuneaae  du  grand  binary  compound  of  the  second  order  is  formed 
Fr4d6ric  (1891).  With  Rambaud  he  edited  and  by  the  union  of  two  binary  compounds  of  the 
contributed  largely  to  the  great  Hiatoire  gSn^rale  first  order.  The  acids  formed  by  the  union  of 
du  IVime  aiMe  d  noa  joura  (1893  et  seq.).  sulphur,  nitrogen,  phosphorus,  and  similar  sub- 
LAVOISIEB,  U'vwa'syA',  Antoine  Laubent  stances  with  oxygen  are  binary  compounds 
(1743-94).  The  founder  of  modem  chemistry.  ?f  ^he  first  order.  Acids  are  neutralized  by 
He  was  bom  in  Paris,  and  was  educated  at  the  bases  with  formation  of  salts;  therefore  salts 
College  Mazarin.  He  showed  great  aptitude  for  are  binary  compounds  of  the  second  order.  In 
the  mathematical  and  physical  sciences,  studying  subsequent  times  the  binary  theory  P/oved  m- 
mathematics  under  Abb6  Lacaille,  botanv  under  adequate  and  had  to  be  abandoned.  It  had  not 
Jussieu,  and  chemistry  under  Rouelle.  He  then  ^^ved,  however,  without  giving  birth  to  a  series 
traveled  through  France  with  Guettard,  who  was  «'  important  results.  Since  bases  were  classed 
at  the  time  engaged  in  important  geological  by  it  as  compounds  of  oxygen  with  metals,  chcm- 
work.  As  early  as  1768  Lavoisier  became  a  ists  were  led  to  search  for  methods  of  isolating 
member  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  and  in  the  the  latter  by  decomposing  the  bases.  Thus  came 
following  year  he  obtained  a  post  as  farmer-gen-  the  discovery  of  the  alkali  and  the  alkaline  earth 
eral  of  the  revenue,  by  which  he  was  enabled  to  metals  by  Davy  and  the  isolation  of  aluminum 
devote  most  of  his  time  to  research  work.  Be-  by  WShler,  the  importance  of  which  for  both 
tween  1772  and  the  year  of  his  death,  Lavoisier  science  and  the  industries  is  inestimable.  An- 
worked  out  the  principles  forming  the  comer-  other  important  work,  in  the  perfection  of  which 
stone  of  modem  chemistry,  and  during  this  time  Lavoisier  took  an  active  part,  must  be  men- 
held  several  important  positions.   In  1776  he  was  tioned  here.     Little  progress  could  be  made  in 


LAVOISIEB.                             21  LAW. 

chemical  thought  jiithout  the  aid  of  a  system  of  of  men  is  further  shaped  and  governed  by  condi- 

names  whicl^nlg^^nstantly  remind  of  the  com-  tions  which  man  has  established  and  which  he 

position  an^^pro^^Bk  of  compounds.     In  con-  can  largely  modify,  such  as  the  economic,  the 

junction  with  BeHHlet,  Fourcroy,  and  Guyton  social,  and  the  political  organization,  and  by  the 

de  Morveau,  at  theinstance  of  the  last-named,  human  as  well  os  the  natural  forces  which  man 

Lavoisier  devised  a  system  of  rational  nomencla-  puts  at  work  in  the  struggle  for  existence,  enjoy- 

ture,  which  is  in  its  main  features  still  used  in  ment,  wealth,  and  power.  Here  again  constant  rela- 

the  chemistry  of  to-day.  tions  of  phenomena  are  observed  which  we  call  eco- 

All  of  his   ideas  were  based  on  observations  nomic  or  social  laws ;  and  here  again  the  term  law 

which  had  alreadv  been  made  by  others.    It  is  a  describes  a  relation  of  coexistence  or  of  sequence 

«ad  but  well-established  fact  that  he  often  pub-  of  cause  and  effect,  which  man  has  apparently  no 

lished  such  observations  as  his  own.     But  the  power  to  modify.    He  can  modify  the  antecedent 

shadow  of  his  petty  scientific  plagiarism  dwin-  facts,  but  the  facts  once  given,  the  results  appear 

dies  into  nothing  in  the  light  of  the  brilliant  to  be  inevitable.    Again  the  social  life  is  shaped 

achievements  which  were  indisputably  his.  and  governed  by  relations  of  cause  and  effect 

Lavoisier's  works  include:  Sur  la  combustion  which  man  has  himself  established.     Society  it- 

en  gH%&ral    (1777);    Reflexions  sur   le  phlogis-  self  attaches  to  certain  acts  and  omissions  of 

tique  (1777);  Considerations  sur  la  nature  des  men  such  results  as  social  ridicule  or  contempt 

aeides  (1778);  M4moire  sur  Vaffinite  du  principe  or  scorn  and  ostracism;   and  in  such  cases  we 

caygine  avec  les  diff^rentes  substances  auxquelles  sometimes  say  that  society  is  enforcing,  by  psy- 

il   est   susceptible   de   s'unir    (1782);    M4thode  chical  sanctions,  laws  of  etiquette  or  of  honor,  or 

4fe  nomenclature  chimique  (jointly  with  Guyton  moral  laws.     Finally  society,  or  the  community 

de   Morveau,   Berthollet,  and   Fourcroy,   1787) ;  (acting  always  in  modern  times  through  the  ma- 

U4moire  sur  la  respiration  des  animaux  (jointly  chinery  of  the  State)  orders  and  regulates  all  the 

•with  S6guin,  1789)  ;  Traits  iUmentaire  de  chimie  principal  forms  of  human  association  and  largely 

(2  vols.,  1789),  giving  a  list  of  33  elementary  regulates  the  intercourse  of  individuals  by  what 

substances,  including  caloric  and  light;  Opuscules  we  call  law,  in  the  strict  sense  positive  law.  Rules 

physiques  ct   chimiques    (1774   and    1801 ) .     In  of  positive  law  resemble  all  the  laws  we  have  pre- 

1789  he  founded  the  Annales  de  chimie.     Two  viously  noticed,  in  that  they  also  represent  a 

volumes  of  his  Mdmoires  de  chimie  were  pub-  sequence  of  phenomena.     A  legal  rule  tells  us 

lished    posthumously    in    1805.      His    complete  what  results  are  to  attach  to  certain  antecedent 

works  have  been  published  by  the  French  Gov-  facts.    Legal  rules  differ  from  the  laws  of  nature 

«mment  imder  the  title:    (Euvres  de  *  Lavoisier  and  from  economic  or  social  laws  in  that  the 

publi^es  par  les  soins  de  Son  Excellence,  le  Min-  results  are  determined  by  man's  will.    They  differ 

istre  de  V Instruction  Publique{Q  vols.,  1864-93).  from  moral  laws  in  that  the  community  (acting 

Numerous    accounts    of    Lavoisier's    life    and  always  in  modem  times  through'  the  machinery 

work  have  been  written.    An  admirable  sketch  of  of  the  State)  will,  if  necessary,  secure  the  results 

his  achievements  forms  part  of  Wurtz's  intro-  it  has  decreed  by  resort  to  physical  force   (legal 

duction  to  his  Dictionnaire  de  chimie  pure  et  sanction).     Manv  rules  which  govern  the  social 

appliquie.      Consult,   also:    Grimaux,   Lavoisier  life— the  majoritv  of  the  rules  which  govern  the 

4*apres  sa   correspondance,  ses  manuscrits,  sea  intercourse  of  individuals — are  at  the  same  time 

papiers  de  famillo  et  d*autre»  documents  inMits  rules  of  morals  and  rules  of  law;  but  law  and 

(Paris,  1888)  ;  and  Schultze,  Lavoisier,  der  Be-  morals  have  each   a   distinct  field.     There  are 

grander  der  Chemie  (Hamburg,  1894).  social  rules  which  cannot  be  enforced  by  any  but 

LA  VOISIN,  lA  vwtt'zftN'  (T-1680).   A  French  psychical   penalties,   and   many   more   which   it 

sorceress.     She  was  a  midwife,  but,  not  finding  would  be  unwise  to  attempt  to  enforce  by  the 

this  profitable  enough  for  her  debaucheries,  began  ruder  processes  of  the  law;  and  there  are  many 

to  tell  fortunes  and  the  like,  and  people  in  high  cases  in  which  the  social  interest  requires  that 

society  became  her  customers.     When  the  Mar-  a  rule  shall  be  established  and  enforced,  but  in 

quiaedeBrinvilliers  (q.v.)  made  her  confessions;  which  it  is  ethically  immaterial  what  the  rule 

tne  people  of  Paris  were  panic-stricken  at  the  shall  be. 

revelations,  and  La  Voisin  was  suspected  of  hav-  Of  the  rules  which  society  enforces  without  or 

ing  sold  poison  to  bring  about  the  death  of  vari-  with  the  sanction  of  the  State,  a  certain  propor- 

ous  persons.     She  was  arrested  in  1679  and  im-  tion  is  rather  imposed  upon  society  by  its  own 

prisoned  in  the  Bastille,  together  with  forty  of  organization  than  established  by  its  own  volition, 

her  supposed  accomplices.    In  the  following  year  In  any  given  stage  of  social  development  there 

she  was  brought  before  a  chambre  ardante  (q.v.)  are  numerous  rules  which  appear  to  be  essential 

which  condemned  her  to  death,  and  on  February  to  the  existence  of  that  particular  form  of  social 

22,  1680,  she  was  burned  at  the  stake.  life.    In  all  stages  of  social  development  we  find 

LAW    (AS.   lagu,  from   liogan,  Goth.,  OHG.  <«^rtam  fundamental  rules  (not  very  numerous), 

Mgan,  Ger.  liegen,  to  lie;  connected  with  OChurch  ^^^^'^  appear  to  be  essential  to  the  existence  of 

Slav,    lezhati,    to    lie,    Lat.    lectus,    couch,    Gk.  anysocial  life.  These  fundamental  rules  have  some- 

X6xof,  lochos,  lair).    Conception.  The  social  life  times  been  described  as  'natural  law'  (q.v.),  and 

of    men,    like    the    life    of    the    individual,    is  of  all  the  uses  of  the  term  'natural'  in  juris- 

largely  shaped   and  governed  by  what  we  call  prudence,  this  is  perhaps  the  most  defensible.    It 

nature.     In  this   word  we   sum   up  the  condi-  should  be  noted,  however,  that  all  these  funda- 

tions  which  man  has  not  created,  and  which  he  mental  rules  are  primarily  rules  of  morals;  and 

-can  but  slightly  modify,  and  the  forces  which  he  that  when  they  are  recognized  and  enforced  as 

does  not  exert  and  which  he  has  been  able  to  uti-  rules  of  law,  the  mode  of  their  enforcement,  i.e. 

Wtjc  only  to  a  limited  extent.     In  so  far  as  con-  the  positive  law,  may  and  does  assume  various 

stant  relations  (coexistence,  sequence,  cause,  and  forms.     On  the  whole,  therefore,  it  seems  correct 

effect)  are  observed  in  the  phenomena  of  nature,  to  relegate  natural  law  to  the  field  of  morals. 

ire  speak  of  the  laws  of  nature.    The  social  life  Definitions.    Of  the  numerous  definitions  of 


LAW.                                   22  LAW. 

law  (a  very  full  collection  is  given  by  Holland,  although  it  is  well  recognized  that  the  common 
Juri8prudence,  chs.  ii.  and  iv.)  one  group  em-  law  is  judge-made  law.  ,,^, 
phasizes  the  close  connection  between  law  and  Early  legislation  among  mkSy  pe^les  is  close- 
morals  (or  right  or  justice,  q.y.) ;  a  second  group  ly  associated  with  jurisdiction;  the  law-finders 
views  law  as  a  system  of  order,  which  assigns  to  are  also  the  law-givers;  and  the  law  *laid  down' 
each  member  of  the  community  his  place,  his  or  'set'  {lex,  Satzung^  GeaetZf  statute)  is  either 
duties,  and  the  limits  of  his  free  action;  a  third  a  mere  declaration  of  established  custom  or  a 
group  notes  especially  the  protection  given  to  the  judgment  in  advance  on  a  question  not  yet  set- 
individual  by  the  limitations  placed  upon  tied  by  the  decision  of  any  actual  case.  There  is, 
others,  and  describes  the  law  as  a  system  of  lib-  however,  another  root  of  early  legislation,  viz. 
erty  (i.e.  of  rights).  A  fourth  group  of  defini-  the  agreement  of  the  community  that  it  will  in 
tions  lays  stress  on  the  source  of  law,  which  is  future  observe  a  proposed  rule.  In  both  cases, 
said  by  some  to  be  the  social  will — a  source  from  however,  the  forms  of  law-giving  and  those  of 
which  other  than  legal  rules  proceed;  and,  by  law-finding  are  frequently  almost  identical, 
others,  to  be  the  State  or  the  sovereign — ^a  source  At  what  point  of  development  early  custom 
from  which  only  a  part  of  the  law  proceeds,  even  shall  be  regarded  as  law  is  substantially  a  dis- 
in  modern  times.  A  fifth  group  finds  the  essen-  pute  over  words.  The  decision  depends  upcm  the 
tial  element  of  law  in  its  sanction:  either  in  the  definition  of  law.  The  Austinian  definition  of  a 
fact  that  the  physical  force  of  the  community  law  as  a  command  emanating  from  a  definite  sov- 
stands  in  the  last  instance  behind  the  rules  of  the  ereign  would  include  few  rules  of  early  custom ; 
law,  or  in  the  fact  that  its  rules  are  enforced  by  but  those  who  find  the  essential  element  of  law  in 
governmental  agencies.  the  sanction  will  recognize  in  the  most  primitive 

Eablt  Custom  aiyd  Law.  The  beginnings  of  custom  a  core  of  law. 
law  are  found  in  social  habit  or  custom.  Custom  Equity.  With  the  establishment  of  judicial 
is  simply  observance  of  precedents.  Precedents  and  legislative  authorities,  the  factors  that  pro- 
are  made  by  acts  and  forbearances.  Whenever  a  duce  law  in  modem  times  are  already  operative, 
power  is  exercised  or  a  state  of  things  is  main-  There  is,  however,  an  intermediate  stage  of  de- 
tained by  the  community  itself,  or  by  individuals  velopment,  noticeable  both  in  Roman  and  in  Eng- 
with  the  acquiescence  of  the  community,  a  prece-  lish  legal  history,  which  is  known  as  equity, 
dent  is  established.  In  early  custom,  religion.  Neither  the  Roman  pnetors  nor  the  English 
morals,  and  law  are  blended  or  imperfectly  dif-  chancellors  in  developing  new  law  laid  down  hard 
ferentiated.  Some  of  the  rules  of  early  custom,  and  fast. rules,  4ike  legislators;  they  found  law 
however,  deal  with  matters  which  are  regarded  in  in  the  decision  of  single  cases,  like  judges;  but 
modem  times  as  legal,  and  of  these  quasi-legal  they  did  not  regard  themselves  as  bound  by  the 
rules  some  are  .enforced  by  physical  coercion,  the  precedents  by  which  the  administration  of  justice 
transgressor  being  lynched  or  sacrificed  to  the  had  previously  been  controlled.  The  new  mles 
gods  or  expelled  from  the  community  (outlawry),  that  were  applied  were  not  at  first  regarded  as 
Other  violations  of  custom,  which  are  not  felt  to  law,  but  rather  as  arbitrary  assertions  of  govem- 
be  injurious  to  the  whole  community,  are  punished  mental  power.  When,  however,  as  happened  both 
by  the  injured  kinship-group  or  by  the  injured  at  Rome  and  in  England,  equity,  following  its 
individual  with  the  aid  of  his  kinsmen  (self-help,  own  precedents,  developed  a  new  body  of  judicial 
vengeance,  feud).  So  long  as  such  acts  of  re-  custom,  it  was  recognized  that  this  custom  was 
dress  or  vengeance,  although  regarded  as  right-  law.  In  England  and  in  the  United  States  equity 
ful,  may  lead  to  further  retaliation,  the  sanction  is  recognized  as  judge-made  law,  and  it  is  often 
behind  the  mles  of  custom  is  still  purely  moral ;  included  in  the  term  'common  law.* 
but  when  the  community  begins  to  protect  the  Modern  Legislation.  In  an  advanced  stage  of 
persons  who,  in  its  opinion,  have  obtained  due  social  progress,  legislation  tends  to  become  an 
redress  or  taken  rightful  vengeance,  these  persons  increasingly  important  agency  of  legal  develop- 
become  in  reality  agents  of  the  community,  and-  ment.  A  large  part  of  the  Roman  Imperial  law, 
the  sanction  behind  the  mles  which  they  enforce  however,  even  in  its  latest  development,  was  still 
may  fairly  be  called  legal.  Self-help,  thus  or-  judge-made  law  or  case-law;  and  in  modern  Eng- 
dered,  meets  the  needs  of  early  society  in  all  cases  Hsh-speaking  countries  not  only  does  much  of 
in  which  the  right  to  be  enforced  is  clear,  and  its  the  law  still  rest  upon  judicial  precedent  (com- 
violation  apparent,  but  it  does  not  furnish  any  mon  law),  but  its  development  is  still  in  the 
mode  of  settling  controversies.  This  open  place  hands  of  the  judiciary.  The  attempt  in  modem 
is  filled  by  oaths,  by  ordeals,  by  arbitrations,  and  European  States  to  put  all  the  law  into  legisla- 
at  last  by  authoritative  judgments.  (For  the  be-  tive  or  statutory  form  seems  to  be  due  to  excep- 
ginnings  of  jurisdiction,  see  Courts.)  When  tional  circumstances  (see  Civil  Law  and  Code)  ; 
courts  are  once  established,  custom  gains  not  and  even  in  modern  European  law,  a^lthough  it  is 
only  an  authoritative  interpretation,  but  a  de-  commonly  denied  that  decisions  make  law,  the 
velopment  which,  however  slow,  is  far  more  rapid  persistent  judicial  practice  (juHsprudence,  Oe- 
than  was  previously  possible.  Within  the  field  richt8g€hrauch)hy  which  open  places  in  the  writ- 
over  which  the  courts  have  jurisdiction,  the  ten  law  are  filled  and  new  mles  found  to  govern 
growth  of  customary  law  is  henceforth  accom-  cases  which  the  legislator  could  not,  or  at  least 
plished  by  decisions;  its  rules  are  found  in  the  did  not,  foresee,  is  practically  treated  as  law. 
tradition  or  in  the  recollection  or  in  the  written  Custom  and  Legislation  in  the  Field  op 
record  of  judicial  precedents.  Popular  custom  Pubijc  Law.  Not  onlv  the  relations  of  individ- 
is  thus  supplanted  by  judicial  custom.  In  legal  uals  and  of  private  associations  to  each  other,  but 
theory,  however,  precedents  or  decisions  are  not  also  the  organization  of  the  State  and  of  govem- 
law,  but  only  evidences  of  the  law;  and  even  when  ment,  and  the  relations  of  the  different  branches 
they  are  written,  the  law  which  is  found  in  them  of  government  to  each  other,  are  governed  by  law. 
is  said  to  be  'unwritten.'  This  is  still  the  theory  This  part  of  the  law — constitutional  law — is 
of  the  courts  as  regards  English  common  law,  usually,  until  a  comparatively  late  stage  of  po- 


LAW.  28  LAW. 

litical    development,    mainly    customary.      Acts  these  facts  are  universally  admitted.    That  legis- 

and  forbearances ;  the  exercise  of  powers  to  which  lation  may  lose  its  force  and  become  'a  dead  let- 

the  community  submits  or  limitations  imposed  ter'  by  the  development  of  contrary  custom  or  by 

upon  power  to  which  the  government  submits;  desuetude  was  aMrmed  by  the  Romans,  but  is 

contests  between  different  branches  of  the  gov-  generally  denied  bj  modern  jurists.    The  history 

ernment  which  end  in  a  one-sided  triumph  or  in  of  law,  however,  is  full  of  examples  of  the  dis- 

reciprocal  concessions — these  are  the  precedents  appearance   of   written    law   in   consequence   of 

which  make  constitutional  custom.    In  these  mat-  persistent  non-observance ;   and  even  in  modem 

ters  the  courts  of  justice  have  in  most  countries  times  it  is  not  difficult  to  discover  statutes  that 

no  jurisdiction;  even  in  the  United  States  they  have  never  been  repealed  or  superseded,  and  arc 

do  not  interfere  in  questions  which  they  regard  yet  never   enforced.     When   the   administrative 

as  political.    At  the  present  time  nearly  all  civi-  branch  of  government  is  independent  of  the  legis- 

lized  nations  have  written  constitutions ;  but  the  lative,  laws  that  can  be  enforced  only  on  the 

development  of  these  written  constitutions  is  still  initiative  of  the  administration  may  easily  be- 

carried  on,  as  in  former  times,  by  the  establish-  come  dead  letters  by  persistent  administrative 

ment  of  new  customary  law.  inaction ;  and  this  is  particularly  likely  to  happen 

The  methods  in  which  governmental  power  may  when  the  law  is  not  supported  by  public  opinion, 
be  exercised,  the  rights  and  duties  of  govern-  Applications  op  Law:  Pebsons  and  Places. 
mental  officers,  the  relations  between  government  Early  law  is  tribal,  i.e.  the  individual  is  subject 
and  private  persons — these  matters  are  regulated  to  its  authority  and  entitled  to  its  benefits  be- 
by  administrative  law.  This  branch  of  the  law,  cause  of  his  membership  in  a  tribe.  With  the 
originally  developed  by  the  constant  practice  or  formation  of  wider  political  associations,  law 
custom  of  the  government,  becomes  at  a  compara-  becomes  national.  Under  either  system  the 
tively  early  period  a  subject  of  legislation;  and  stranger  or  foreigner  is  out  of  the  law,  unless 
in  modern  times  controversies  between  the  admin-  its  protection  be  extended  to  him  through  a  mem- 
istration  and  private  persons  are  regularly  with-  ber  of  the  tribe  or  nation,  or  by  virtue  of  a 
in  the  jurisdiction  of  the  ordinary  courts  or  of  treaty. 

special    administrative    courts.      Administrative        Early  law  is  also  religious;   it  applies  only 

legislation  is  therefore  supplemented  by  judicial  to  the  members  of  a  particular  cult.  Where  many 

custom,  i.e.  by  the  customary  interpretation  of  tribes    have   a   common   religion,    the    religious 

the  courts.    The  customary  practice  of  adminis-  law  may  give  a  certain  protection,  within  each 

trative  agencies,  however,  has  not  ceased  to  be  a  tribe,  to  strangers  of  the  same  cult.    Differences 

source  of  administrative  law.  of  religion  are  not  found  in  early  times  among 

International  law,  even  in  its  most  modem  the  members  of  a  tribe ;  but  with  the  formation  of 
developments,  is  almost  wholly  customary.  The  wider  political  unions  different  cults  may  be 
precedents  on  which  it  rests  are  the  acts  and  for-  brought  under  a  common  sovereignty,  and  differ- 
bea ranees  of  independent  governments  in  their  ent  rules  may  be  applied  to  the  adherents  of  the 
relations  with  one  another.  It  resembles  na-  various  cults.  This  is  the  case  to-day  in  British 
tional  custom  in  a  very  early  stage  of  develop-  India.  In  some  of  the  European  States,  as  late 
ment;  foi-  behind  many  of  its  rules  there  is  only  as  the  nineteenth  century,  Jews  were  allowed  to 
a  moral  sanction,  viz.  the  moral  sense  of  the  live  by  their  own  law  as  far  as  their  family  re- 
civilized  world.  It  is  true  that  international  lations  were  concerned;  and  in  Austria,  at  the 
law  is  now  generally  recognized  as  a  part  of  the  present  time,  divorce  is  refused  to  Catholics,  al- 
law  of  each  State,  and  that  its  mles  are  enforced  though  it  is  granted  to  non-Catholics, 
by  each  State  against  individuals;  but^against  The  law  of  the  modern  State  (which  is  some- 
an  offending  State  the  ultimate  remedy  is  still  times,  but  not  very  appropriately,  termed  'mu- 
sclf-help  and  international  feud,  i.e.  war;  and  it  nicipal'  law)  is  strictly  national  only  as  regards 
is  not  yet  usual  for  neutral  States  to  give  more  political  rights  and  duties,  which  are  confined  to 
than  moral  support  to  the  State  that  is  waging  citizens  or  subjects  (nationals).  In  all  other 
a  rightful  war.  The  jurists  who  refuse  to  recog-  respects  it  is  territorial ;  it  governs  all  persons 
nize  early  national  custom  as  law  are  therefore  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  State,  whether  they 
oblieed  to  deny  that  international  custom  is  law  are  nationals  or  aliens.  A  few  private  rights  are 
in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word.  Those,  however,  withheld  in  some  countries  from  aliens,  but  in 
who  find  the  essential  characteristic  of  law  in  its  general  the  alien  enjoys  the  same  private  rights 
sanction,  point  out  that  rules  of  international  law  as  the  national.  An  exception  to  the  rule  that 
may  be,  and  sometimes  are,  enforced  by  the  con-  law  is  territorial  is  found  in  the  institution  of 
oerted  action  of  the  powers  (joint  intervention)  ;  exterritoriality  (q.v.).  In  many  cases,  finally, 
and  that  any  State  which  should  persistently  vio-  the  territorial  law  itself  not  only  permits,  but  re- 
late the  rules  of  international  law  would  as-  quires  the  application  of  foreign  law  by  its  own 
suredly  be  excluded  from  its  benefits,  i.e.  it  would  courts.  See  Conflict  of  Law. 
be  outlawed.  There  is  also,  in  international  re-  Time.  In  general,  of  course,  a  mle  of  law 
lations,  the  beginning  of  legislative  action  in  the  which  has  ceased  to  exist  ceases  to  be  operative, 
form  of  general  compacts  (declarations  of  con-  Where,  however,  a  legal  relation  has  been  estab- 
gresses)  ;  and  there  is  the  beginning  of  judicial  lished  or  a  right  vested,  it  would  clearly  be  unjust 
decision  in  the  growing  practice  of  arbitration,  that  the  relation  should  be  dissolved  or  the  right 
and  in  the  recent  establishment  of  a  permanent  impaired  by  a  change  in  the  law.  When  such  a 
tribunal  at  The  Hague  to  which  international  dis-  case  comes  before  the  courts,  it  is  therefore  usual- 
putes  may  be  referred.  ly  decided  according  to  the  provisions  of  the  old 

Abrogation  and  Desuetude.    That  legislative  law.    This  principle  is  usually  stated  differently: 

rules  are  abrogated  by  repeal  and  by  contrary  legis-  It  is  said  that  laws  (i.e.  new  laws)  are  not  retro- 

lation;  that  customary  law  is  put  out  of  force  active.     In  Europe,  where  the  legislature  is  not 

by  contrary   legislation,   by   change  of  custom,  subjected  to  constitutional  restrictions,  the  pro- 

and   by    general    non-observance    (desuetude) —  tection  of  vested  rights  is  secured  by  a  judicial 


LAW.  24  LAW. 

presumption  that  no  law  is  intended  to  be  retro-  provide  penalties.     It  thus  includes  the  law  of 

active  unless  the  legislature  has  expressly  or  by  crimes  and  the  law  of  torts  (q.v.).    Some  writers- 

necessary  implication  so  ordained.     The  Consti-  treat  the  law  of  crimes  and  that  of  torts  as  sub- 

tution  of  the  United  States,  and  many  of  our  stantive  law,  placing  the  former  in  public,  the 

State  constitutions,  forbid  the  making  of  eo?  post  latter  in  private  law ;  but  these  branches  of  the 

facto  laws  (q.v.)  or  laws  impairing  the  obligation  law  do  not  deal  with  normal  relations,  nor  doe» 

of  contract.    See  Constitutional  Law.  criminal  law  deal  merely  with  violations  of  the- 

Intekpbetation.  The  application  of  law  in-  political  order;  it  provides  sanctions  which  ex- 
volves  its  interpretation  (q.v.).  This  is  necessary  tend  over  every  part  of  the  private  law.  Inter- 
not  only  in  the  case  of  written  law,  but  also  in  national  law  has  its  remedial  as  well  as  its  sub- 
the  case  of  custom  or  unwritten  law.  Such  law,  stantive  side;  it  consists  of  the  law  of  peace  and 
indeed,  exists  only  in  its  interpretation,  i.e.  the  the  law  of  war. 

persistent  judicial  interpretation  is  the  law.    This        While  the  distinction  between  substantive  and 

IB  the  case  notably  with  our  'common  law.'  remedial  law  is  both  logical  and  convenient,  it  is 

Kinds  of  Law  :  Classification.  All  law  may  formal  rather  than  essential.  Substantive  and 
be  divided  into  two  classes:  substantive  law  and  remedial  law  attain  the  same  end  in  different 
adjective  or  remedial  law.  Substantive  law  de-  ways.  Social  relations  are  ordered  by  fixing 
fines  the  normal  relations  of  social  life;  adjective  the  limits  of  permissible  action;  and  these  may 
or  remedial  law  defines  and  deals  with  abnormal  he  fixed  as  well  as  by  stating  what  no  one  may  do 
conditions,  with  violations  of  the  legal  order,  and  by  punishing  the  doer  as  by  stating  what 
Substantive  law  is  divided  and  subdivided  accord-  one  may  do  and  protecting  the  doer.  Historically 
ing  to  the  character  of  the  relations  with  which  the  former  method  is  the  older;  rights  are  felt 
it  has  to  do.  Public  law  is  concerned  with  before  they  are  formulated,  and  they  are  gradu- 
the  State  and  with  government,  and  with  a^ty  defined  by  the  successive  repulse  of  differ- 
relations  to  which  the  State  is  a  party;  pri-  ent  invasions.  Even  in  modern  law  there  ara 
vate  law,  with  private  persons  and  the  rela-  rights  that  are  recognized  in  remedial  law,  but 
tions  between  them.  Public  law  is  subdivided,  as  have  not  yet  obtained  substantive  expression, 
has  already  been  noted,  into  international,  consti-  For  example,  the  individual  has  a  right  over  hi* 
tutional,  and  administrative  law.  Private  law  own  person  whicn  is  analogous  to  (although  by 
classifies  persons  (natural  and  artificial  or  juris-  no  means  identical  with)  ownership  of  a  thing; 
tic)  according  to  their  legal  capacity,  and  it  and  this  right,  although  recoenized  in  the  pro- 
deals  with  things  as  the  objects  of  private  right,  hibition  and  punishment  of  homicide,  assault. 
The  principal  groups  of  private  relations  are  illegal  imprisonment,  etc.,  is  nowhere  defined  in 
property,  family,  and  succession.    In  the  field  of  substantive  law. 

property  law  we  distinguish  the  law  of  things.        Grades  of  Law.    In  every  State  we  find  legal 

the  law  of  debts  or  obligations    (contracts  and  ru^es  of  greater  or  more  general  authority  and 

quasi-contracts),    and    the    law    of    monopolies  legal  rules  of  inferior  or  more  restricted  author- 

( copyrights,  patents,  etc.).    Family  law  includes  ity.     Where  law-making  power  is  delegated  to 

the  relations  of  husband  and  wife,  parent  and  (or  has  never  been  wholly  taken  from)  the  execu- 

child,  guardian  and  ward.     (The  law  of  master  ^ive,  it  is  customary  to  speak  of  the  rules  laid 

and  servant  once  belonged  in  the  law  of  the  house-  down  by  the  executive  as  orders,  regulations,  or 

hold;  with  changed  social  relations  it  has  passed  rules.      Municipalities    have    also    a    restricted 

into  the  law  of  contractual  obligations.)      The  power  of  legislation;  arid  the  acts  of  their  legis- 

law  of  succession  has  to  do  with  what  may  be  lative  bodies  are  commonly  termed  ordinances, 

called  a  normal  disturbance  of  property  rela-  Where  •  limited  power  of  making  rules  is  granted 

tions ;  it  provides  for  the  continuance  and  read-  to  a  private  association,  we  call  its  rules  by-laws, 

justment  of  the  property  relations  to  which  a  de-  Within  their  respective  fields,  executive  orders,, 

ceased  person  was  a  party.    When  this  readjust-  ordinances,  and  by-laws,  although  not  commonly 

ment  is  effected  in  accordance  with  the  will  of  termed  laws,  are  as  truly  laws  as  the  acts  of  a 

the  decedent,  we  speak  of  testamentary  succes-  national  or  State  legislature, 
sion;  when  it, is  effected  by  the  law  in  the  ab-        The  number  of  classes  or  grades  of  law  is  in- 

Bence  of  any  validly  expressed  will  of  his,  we  creased  in  federal  States  by  the  coexistence  of 

speak  of  intestate  succession;  in  so  far  as  it  is  law-making  power  in  ^he  nation  and  in  its  com- 

effccted  by  the  law  in  spite  of  his  will,  we  speak  ponent   parts.     If  in   considering  the  different 

of  necessary  succession ( law  of  statutory  shares),  grades  of  law  which  exist  in  the  United  States- 

In  the  civil  law  the  distinction  between  immov-  we  include  imwritten  law,  we  obtain  the  follow- 

ables  and  movables  is  confined  to  the  law  of  ing  series : 

things.  In  the  English  law  the  distinction  be-  I.  Federal  Law.  A.  Cofistiiutxwial,  ( 1 )  The 
tween  real  and  personal  property  runs  through  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  and  the 
the  law  of  family  (as  far  as  property  relations  amendments  thereto.  (2)  The  custom  of  the 
are  concerned)  and  the  law  of  succession,  and  Constitution,  as  settled  by  the  acts  and  forbear- 
divides  each  into  distinct  parts  or  branches.  ances  of  the  Executive  and  of  Congress.    (3)  The 

Adjective  or  remedial  law,  which  deals  with  interpretation  of  the  Constitution  by  the  Federal 

abnormal  conditions,  provides  for  the  reestablish-  courts.    B.  Ordinary.  (1)   Acts  of  Congress.     (2) 

ment  of  the  normal  order,  when  this  is  possible;  Treaties.  (3)  Executive  orders  and  regulations, 
for  the  indemnification  of  the  persons  who  have     (4)   Interpretation  of  acts  of  Congress,  treaties,, 

suffered  injury;  and  for  the  punishment,  in  per-  and  executive  regulations  by  the  Federal  courts, 
son  or  in  purse,  of  the  individuals  by  whose  fault        II.  State  Law.     A.     Constitutional,   ( 1 )   The 

the  normal  order  has  been  disturbed.  Remedial  State  constitutions  and  the  amendments  thereto, 
law  includes  not  merely  the  processes  of  punish-     (2)  The  interpretation  of  the  State  constitution* 

ment    and    redress  —  administrative    procedure,  by  the  State  courts.    B.  Ordinary.     (1)  Acts  of 

criminal  and  civil  procedure — ^but  also  the  body  the  State  Legislatures.    (2)  Decisions  of  the  Fed- 

of  rules  which  define  and  classify  offenses  and  eral  courts  in  matters  not  governed  by  Federal 


LAW. 


law.  ( In  cases  not  governed  by  Federal  law,  the 
Federal  courts  nominally  apply  State  law ;  but  in 
the  absence  of  written  law,  they  interpret  the 
common  law  as  they  see  ^t:  so  that,  as  far  as 
their  jurisdiction  extends,  their  decisions  have 
developed  a  uniform  common  law  for  all  the 
Stat«s.)  (3)  Decisions  of  the  State  courts,  con- 
struing the  acts  of  the  Legislature  and  inter- 
preting (i.e.  developing)  the  common  law.  (4) 
Executive  orders  and  regulations.  ( 5 )  Municipal 
ordinances.  (6)  By-laws  of  corporations  and 
other  associations. 

The  development  of  a  Federal  custom  of  the 
Constitution  (I.  A  2)  has  been  necessitated  by 
the  difficulty  of  amending  the  written  Constitu- 
tion. The  absence  of  any  corresponding  custom 
in  the  States  is  explained  by  the  ease  with  which 
the  State  constitutions  are  amended.  The  inter- 
pretation and  development  of  the  common  law  by 
the  Federal  courts  (II.  B  2)  may  in  one  sense  be 
termed  Federal  law,  but  this  law  is  superseded  by 
acts  of  the  State  legislatures. 

For  bibliography  consult  the  authorities  re- 
ferred to  under  Jubispbudence,  CA^roN  Law, 
Civil  Law,  Contbact,  Cobpoeation,  Equity, 
Evidence,  Pleadino,  Tobt,  etc. 

LAW.  A  term  of  science  and  philosophy,  there 
used    in    a   metaphorical    sense.      The    primary 
meaning  of  the  word  'law'  is  written  enactment 
or  rule  of  action  laid  down  by  authority.    Such 
law,  when  enforced  by  authority,  secures  a  cer- 
tain uniformity  of  action.     The  observed  uni- 
formity of  action  of  physical  objects  thus  pre- 
sents a  striking  resemblance  to  the  conduct  of 
law-controlled  human  beings.    This  resemblance 
was  without  doubt  the  logical  ground  for  the  be- 
lief, which  appeared  in  the  earliest  known  times, 
that  the  course  of  nature  is  prescribed  by  enact- 
ment of  a  conscious  being  or  of  several  such 
beings.    Such  a  view  comes  to  fullest  expression 
in  later  Semitic  literature.    ''He  gave  to  the  sea 
his  decree,  that  the  waters  should  not  pass  his 
commandmoit."    "Hitherto  shalt  thou  come,  but 
no  farther:  and  here  shall  thy  proud  waves  be 
stayed."     Against  this  view  protests  have  been 
raised  for  many  centuries,  but  it  is  only  within 
quite  recent  times  that  a  less  anthropomorphic 
and  more  scientific  view  of  the  uniformity  of 
natural  processes  has  gained  wide  currency.    Ac- 
cording to  this  view,  the  'law  of  nature'  is  not 
an  enactment  expressing  the  will  of  some  con- 
scious being  and  obeyed  by  natural  objects,  but 
only  the  mere  fact  that  all  events  have  causes 
(see  Caubalitt)  ;  and  causes  of  events  are  not 
unaccountable  entities   in   some  way  producing 
effects  by  some  sort  of  creative  magic,  but  noth- 
ing more  nor  less  than  the  invariably  uniform 
antecedents  of  those  events.    Ever  since  Hume's 
trenchant  criticism  of  such  words  as  'force'  and 
'pow^r,'  it  has  come  more  and  more  to  be  seen 
tnat  nothing  is  explained  by  referring  effects  to 
the  power  of  causes  to  produce  effects.     To  at- 
tribute the  order  of  nature  to  the  power  of  some 
riat  being  who  can  lay  down  the  law  to  nature 
to  explain  a  fact  by  a  mvstery.    Science  gains 
nothing,  therefore,  bv  ascribing  all  the  uniformi- 
ties of  nature  to  the  determining  decree  of  a 
supernatural  being.    The  power  of  such  a  decree 
to  produce  an  effect  is  no  more  self-explanatory 
than  any  causal  efficiency  of  any  physical  object. 
Bescartes  and  his  school,  and  also  modem  paral- 
Idists    (see   Pabatjjt.tsm),    assert   that   while 
physical  phenomena  may  cause  other  physical 


25  LAW. 

phenomena,  and  psychic  phenomena  may  cause 
other  psychic  phenomena,  there  is  no  possible 
interaction  between  phenomena  of  the  two  dif- 
ferent classes.    See  Occasionalism. 

Laws  of  nature,  whether  physical,  psychical, 
or  psycho-physical,  are  of  different  orders  or 
grades.  Some  observed  uniformities  are  particu- 
lar instances  of  more  extensive  uniformities  ob- 
taining in  many  prima  facie  diverse  phenomena. 
For  instance,  the  divergence  of  the  motions  of 
the  earth  and  of  the  moon  from  a  straight  line 
was  successfully  correlated  by  Sir  Isaac  Newton 
with  the  phenomena  of  falling  bodies  nearer  the 
earth's  surface.  And  inasmuch  as  not  only  the 
motions  of  the  earth  and  of  the  moon  accord 
with  this  law,  but  also  the  motions  of  all  the 
planets  and  of  such  comets  as  have  been  care- 
fully studied,  all  these  uniformities  are  correlat- 
ed in  the  so-called  law  of  gravitation,  which 
is  by  hypothesis  conceived  as  obtaining  among 
all  physical  objects  within  the  universe.  In 
this  law  of  gravitation  we  have  perhaps  the 
best  instance  of  what  is  called  a  scientific  law — 
i.e.  a  law  which  can  be  stated  with  accuracy, 
and  to  the  universality  and  unconditionality  of 
which  all  available  evidence  points  with  all  the 
assurance  of  valid  logical  induction. 

But  not  all  discovered  laws  have  this  logical 
conclusiveness.  Many  of  them  are  merely  rov^h 
generalizations.  The  exact  conditions  imder  which 
a  phenomenon  occurs  may  not  yet  have  been 
ascertained,  and  still  we  may  know  that  under 
certain  general  circumstances,  not  all  of  which 
are  sufficiently  defined,  that  phenomenon  does 
actually  and  frequently  occur.  Take  for  instance 
the  facts  of  heredity.  We  know  that  if  there 
have  been  in  several  successive  generations  many 
criminals  in  a  certain  line  of  descent,  other 
criminals  will  probably  appear  when  the  present 
representatives  of  that  line  begin  to  reproduce. 
But  we  are  not  in  a  position  to  state  the  exact 
conditions  under  which  this  further  criminality 
will  be  sure  to  appear.  Some  of  the  children  may 
escape  the  taint  altogether;  some  may  have  ten- 
dencies toward  criminality,  but  not  too  strong 
to  be  overcome  by  proper  social  infiuences;  while 
still  others  are  practically  incorrigible.  Here 
then  we  have  an  instance  of  a  more  general  law 
of  heredity,  which  may  be  stated  in  the  proposi- 
tion that  psychical  and  physical  characteristics 
of  children  are  more  or  less  conditioned  by  the 
psychical  and  physical  characteristics  of  their 
parents  and  of  more  remote  progenitors.  Ob- 
serve the  more  or  less  in  the  statement  There  is 
no  such  qualification  in  the  law  of  gravitation. 
Hence  while  the  latter  is  a  law  in  the  strictest 
scientific  sense  of  the  term,  the  law  of  heredity 
is  a  law  only  in  a  very  loose  sense.  Such  laws 
are  called  empirical  laws.  Experience  suggests 
the  existence  of  a  causal  connection,  but  science 
has  not  yet  succeeded  in  isolating  and  defining 
the  relation.  Empirical  laws  are  the  raw  ma- 
terial from  which  scientific  laws  are  elaborated 
by  exact  observation,  by  experiment,  and  by  more 
guarded  generalizations,  and  especially  by  cor- 
relation with  other  laws  with  which  they  may 
be  related  as  particular  to  particular  under  a 
common  universal.  J.  S.  Mill's  account  of  em- 
pirical laws  differs  somewhat  from  that  just 
given,  but  it  is  really  the  starting-point  of  more 
recent  investigations  into  the  differences  between 
scientific  and  empirical  laws.  On  this  account,  it 
is  worth  while  to  quote  it:  "Scientific  inquirer* 


r  / 


LAW.  36  LAW. 

eive  the  name  of  'empirical  laws'  to  those  uni-  Weboild,   etc.)      The  earliest  recognition  in  an- 

tormities  which  observation  or  experiment  has  cient  law  of  distinct  wrongs  against  the  State  ap- 

shown  to  exist,  but  on  which  they  hesitate  to  rely  pears  in  the  isolated  acts,  legislative  in  character, 

in  cases  varying  much  from  those  actually  ob-  by  which  the  State  avenged  itself  for  wrongs 

ser\'ed,  for  want  of  seeing  any  reason  why  such  done  in  the  same  manner  that  private  individuals 

a  law  should  exist."    Consult,  especially,  Mill's  were  permitted  imder  sanction  of  law  to  avenge 

Logic,  book   iii.;   but  also  the  other  works  on  or  requite  themselves  for  private  wrong  which 

inductive   logic   referred  to  under  Loaio,  and  may  be  regarded  as  a  prototype  of  public  wrongs.' 
Induction.  From  these  occasional  legislative  acts  by  which 

T  »i«r      T_  .„«i_i   „ i.»i»~..    i~„\     i»„  :.  the  State  avenged  itself  upon  the  crimuial  for 

1  ^       1  t^^T       P?y«'»*'*'«r.  <^V"w     if  wrongs  suffenii  by  it,  it  was  a  natural  though 
closely   related   to  custom.     V\  hen   .t  becomes        ^^j  ^^^^^^l  t^'  ^        tem  by  which  this 

necessary  to  enforce  a  custom  to  make  it  com-  «.rticular  function  was  delegated  to  a  per- 
pulsory,  to  prescribe  penalties  for  its  infraction,  V  commission  still  legislative  rather  tW 
the  custom  IS  transformed  into  a  taw.  Thus  Uie  .^j  j  ,  j  character,  whosi  duty  it  was  to  in- 
custom  of  dividing  the  spoils  of  battle  may  be-  J^gtigate  and  punish  public  wrongs,  and  finally 
come  subject  to  such  serious  lapses  that  the  wel-  to  t&  more  mWm  system  under  which  a  per- 
fare  of  the  cla,n  or  tribe  is  imperiled.  The  gen-  ^^^^  tribunal  wholly  judicUl  in  character  de- 
eral  welfare  will  then  demand  that  an  anthorita-  ^  ^^^  ^  ^^^  ^^^  ^J  ^^^^^^  ^^  ^^.^^  The 
tive  rule  be  made  and  protected  by  sufficient  ^j^^        „f  ^^^^  ^^  ^,  y^^^  f^^    ^^i^j, 

penalties     Custom  has  ito  own  sanctions,  as  wel  ^^  ^^   combined  le^slative,  administrative,  and 

as  law;  but  It  lacks  the  authority  and  physical  j^^.^-^j  ^     ^^J  ^^^  jj^^^„  j^  ^^^^ 

coercion  that  distinguish  law.  (hese  successive  stages  of  development  in  our 

,  *"^*;  T'^K-^*  ^^^\  "^*"?','  ^}'^^  ',*  °'**?'^  *r  own  criminal  jurisprodenoe.  The  Court  of  King's 
lated  to  habit  (q.v.)  IS  older  than  law.  In  the  ^^^  which  was  the  criminal  branch  of  the 
simp  er  foras  of  civilization  'law  and  order'  are  j^j  .'  ^ourt,  was  organized  in  the  reign  of  Ed- 
upheld  solely  by  usap  and  custom.  It  IS  natural  ^ard  I.  (1274-90).  It  follows  from  the  character 
ttiat  law  should  first  apply  to  those  linw  of  con-  ^^  ^j,  J^,j  ^^^  ^^^  ^^^  ^^^  essential  of  a 
duct  whose  importance  18  too  grave  to  allow  them  .  ^  ^  4;^^  ^^^^^^^^  „,  it,  ^^^^ 
to  be  left  to  custom.  The  primitive  aw,  or  rule  ^^  community,  is  deemed  an  offense  to  the  StSe. 
with  its  external,  physical  compulsion,  is  of  ™  .  haDoen  either-  (a1  because  the  act  is 
much  oariier  origin  than  written  regulations,  ^i^ectly  an  iSJury  to  the  Stkte;  or  (b)  because 
which  demand  not  only  a  somewhat  advanced  ^^  J^  j,  ,  J^j^^^j  interference  with  the  per- 
stage  of  serial  development,  but  also  a  high  de-  fo^mance  of  some  duty,  as  of  protecting  the  fife, 
gree  of  stability  in  «  society.    I^  appears  only               ty,  safety,  and  morals  ot  citizen,  which^ 

With  some  form  of  the  State.     So  lone  as  there  f,_ a.  «J.^,^^«  fit  «„ki;«  ^^\\s^  4i,«  c4-.4^J  i«»<>  «« 

y  1    •  y  A.'  J  i.'      ^         *.i,  A.  upon  fiTounds  of  public  policy,  the  btate  has  as* 

18  no  general  legislative  and  executive  power  that  gumed  r      j* 

makes  the  State,  it  is  obvious  that  law  cannot  t?^«*xu«  ^:„«„„=i^«  «*  +1,^  ^i««,««4.*.  ^#  «  ^,:^« 
K«  Ai«^^^^^\^^^  \^^^  /«,,o4^^»,     T*  ;«  *v»««   «  »«;a  ^^^  t"6  discussion  of  the  elements  of  a  crime, 

be  differentiated  from  custom.    It  is,  then,  a  mis-  ,     ,  criminal  intent    etc     see  such  titles  as 

take  to  suppose  that  some  kind  of  legal  contract  "^^^^  T^^vr    1^^T\^^^ 

is  prior  to  the  State.    The  State  arose  from  the  ^«"*«'  attempt,  intent,  austake,  etc. 

trifcal  union  a^  law  arose  from  custom;  both  grew  ,    ^"°*f  may  be  conveniently  classified  as  fol- 

up  gradually  and  side  by  side.  1^7«-     (a)     offenses    against    government;     (b) 

Consult:    Wundt,  Ethics,  translation,  vol.   i.  offenses  against  public  p^ce  and  health ;   (c)  of- 

(New  York,  1897)  ;  Lubbock,  OHgin  of  Civiliza^  fenses  against  religion  ajd  morality;  (d)  offenses 

Hon  (New  York,  1896).  ?S*\?^*  persons;    (e)  offenses  against  the  dwell- 

TAur   n  ^    n  t  mg-house;    (f)    offenses  against  property;    (g) 

liAW,  CANON,    oee  CANON  IjAW.  maritime  offenses.     At  common  law  also  crimes 

LAWy  Criminal.    That  branch  of  public  law  were  classified  as  felonies  and  misdemeanors,  and 

which  relates  to  crime  or  public  wrongs;  that  is,  the  distinction  has  been  preserved  to  some  extent 

wrongs  or   injuries   by  individuals  against  the  by  the  modem   law   and   the  various   criminal 

State   or  sovereign   as   distinguished    from    in-  codes.     See  Feix)ny;  Misdemeanor. 
juries  by  individuals  against  others,  which  are        The  Law  of  Criminal  Procedure.    The  first 

dealt  with  by  the  private  law  of  wrongs  or  tort,  step  toward  placing  one  charged  with  crime  upon 

All  civilized  systems  of  law  now  agree  in  draw-  his  trial  is  necessarily  his  arrest.     (See  Arrest.) 

ing  this  distinction  between  public  and  private  After  the  arrest  the  prisoner  must  be  brought  for 

wrongs.      It  seems   probable,   however,   that   in  examination  before  the  magistrate,  who  may  hold 

primitive  communities  the  law  of  crime  had  its  him  for  the  action  of  the  grand  jury,  or,  if  an 

origin  in,  or  at  least  was  preceded  by,  the  law  of  indictment  has  already  been  found,  may  hold  him 

tort,  and  that  the  consequence  of  the  various  acts  for  trial  before  a  petit  jury.    Pending  trial  the 

of  violence  now  recognized  as  crimes  was  that  prisoner  is  committed  to  jail,  unless  admitted  to 

they  gave  rise  exclusively  to  an  obligation  to  the  bail.    See  Bail. 

injured  person  or  his  representative  which  might        The  method  of  finally  accusing  one  with  the 

be  satisfied  by  the  payment  of  money.     Under  commission  of  a  crime  is  by  indictment  by  the 

the  early  Anglo-Saxon  law,  which  corresponded  grand  jury,  which  may  either  precede  or  follow 

substantially  in  this  particular  with  other  an-  the  arrest.     (See  Jury;  Grand  Jury.)     The  in- 

cient  systems  of  law,   "A  sum   was  placed  on  dictment  is  the  final  pleading  corresponding  to 

the  life  of  every  free  man  according  to  his  rank  the  declaration  or  complaint  in  a  civil  action, 

and  a  corresponding  sum  on  every  wound  that  which  sets  out  all  of  the  essential  elements  of  the 

could  be  inflicted  on  his  person,  for  nearly  every  crime  and  all  facts  necessary  to  give  the  court 

injury  which  could  be  done  to  his  civil  rights,  hon-  jurisdiction  to  try  the  prisoner  for  the  offense 

or,  or  peace;  the  sum  being  aggravated  accord-  charged.     (See  Indictment.)    Upon  the  trial  the 

ing  to   adventitious   circumstances."      ( Kemble,  indictment  must  be  read  to  the  accused,  and  he  is 

AnglO'SaxonSy    i.     177.)       (See    Blood-Money;  then  given  opportunity  to  plead  to  it.    The  prisr 


LAW.                                    27  LAW. 

oner  may  demur  to  the  indictment  on  the  ground  For  offenses  against  the  dwelling-house,  see 

that  it  is  in  law  insufficient  in  force  or  substance.  Arson  ;  Bubolabt. 

(See  Dehubreb.)     He  may  plead  in  abatement.  For  offenses  against  property,  see  Labcent; 

setting  up  any  facts  showing  want  of  jurisdiction  Embbzzucment ;   False  Pbetenses;   Maucigus 

in  the  court  or  other  reason  why  he  should  not  be  Mischief;  Receiving  Six>LEN  Goods;  Foboebt; 

placed  upon  his  trial ;  he  may  also  plead  a  former  Countebfeitino. 

conyiction  or  acquittal.  For  maritime  offenses,  see  Pibact;  Babbatbt. 

If  the  prisoner  is  unsuccessful  upon  his  de-  Consult    the    authorities    referred    to    under 

murrer   or   the   pleas    already   referred   to,   he  Cbiminal  Law;  Jubispbudence ;  CJonstitution- 

must  plead  to  the  merits  by  a  plea  of  either  al  Law;  and  many  of  the  titles  above  referred  to. 

guilty  or  not  guilty.    A  plea  of  guilty  in  effect  LAW,  Feudal.    See  Feudaush. 

admits  the  charge  and  is  equivalent  to  a  con-  taut   -kjr^t^n^Ar      fi^  tur^^^^^^  t.« 

viction  after  trial    A  plea  of  not  guilty  puts  in  I-^W,  Mabtial.    See  Mabtial  Law. 

issue   the   indictment  and   places   the   prisoner  LAW,  Militabt.    See  Militabt  Law. 

upon  his  trial  before  a  jury.    (See  Jubt;  Plead-  jj^^  Municipal.    See  Municipal  Law. 

ing;  Tbial.)     Lpon  verdict  of  the  jury  of  not  »  .^  ^               ,,„^««*.       *     ^     ,.  ^ 

guilty  the  prisoner  must  be  discharged.     If  the  LAW,  Edmund  (1703-87).    An  English  prel- 

jury  fails  to  agree  upon  a  verdict  the  prisoner  **«  and  meUphysician,  bom  at  Cartmel,  Lau- 

may  again  be  placed  upon  trial  before  a  new  casnire,  and  educated  at  Saint  John's,  Cambridge, 

jury,  or  if  the  verdict  be  guilty  he  must  be  sen-  H®  ^a®  ^^r  nine  years  (1737-46)  rector  of  Grey- 

tenced  to  undergo  whatever  penalty  .the  law  pro-  stoke,  CJumberland;  became  Archdeacon  of  Car- 

vides  for  the  crime.    (See  Punishment.)     Before  li8|f  >»  1743,  and  master  of  Peterhouse  in  1764; 

sentence  the  prisoner  or  his  counsel  may  move  to  and    m    1768    was   elected    Bishop    of    Carlisle, 

arrest  the  judgment  because  of  some  material  Among  his  works,  which  are  marked  by  painstak- 

error  in  the  proceedings  appearing  on  the  record,  *^8  investigation  and  freedom  from  dogma,  are: 

or  he  may  move  to  set  aside  the  verdict  because  ^*^  Enquiry  into  the  Ideas  of  Space  and  Time 

not  supported   by  the   evidence,   or   because   of  (1734)  and  ConMerations  on  the  Theory  of  Re- 

newly  discovered  evidence.    Upon  denial  of  this  %ton  (1745;  and  later  with  a  biographic  sketeh 

motion  the  prisoner  may  be  sentenced,  the  sen-  "7  Paley). 

tence  being  the  judgment  of  the  court  fixing  and  LAW,  Edwabd.    See  Ellenbobouoh. 

directing  the  punishment  of  the  prisoner  accord-  LAW,  John  (1671-1729).    A  celebrated  finan- 

™5^  *J;^'-.  -  1  .  .  .  .  <^i®'  ^^^  speculator,  bom  at  Edinburgh,  April  21, 
The  English  common  law  of  crime  ha«  been  1671.  His  father  was  a  goldsmith  and  banker, 
adopted  m  most  of  the  Stat^  of  the  United  and  proprietor  of  the  large  estate  of  Lauriston, 
Stetes,  with  some  stetutory  modification  and  ad-  near  Edinburgh.  Law  early  showed  a  most  re- 
dition.  In  a.  few  States  the  criminal  law  has  markable  tolent  for  mathematics,  and  after  the 
been  codified,  and  it  is  thus  in  these  jurisdic-  death  of  his  father  he  removed  to  London,  where 
tions  entirely  stetutory.  The  law  of  procedure,  he  was  soon  prominent  both  in  financial  and  so- 
while  substentially  changed  by  stetute  in  all  of  cial  circles;  but  his  life  was  a  dissipated  one,  and 
the  Stetes  in  matter  of  form,  varies  in  no  im-  in  1696  he  was  compelled  to  flee  from  England 
portant  particular  from  the  substence  of  the  in  consequence  of  a  duel  in  which  he  killed  his 
procedure  at  common  law  which  has  here  been  adversary.  After  visiting  France  and  Itely,  he 
outlined.  went  to  Amsterdam  and  spent  his  time  in  study- 
As  the  several  States  upon  the  formation  of  the  ing  the  credit  operations  of  the  bank,  where  he 
Federal  Union  reteined  their  jurisdiction  over  was  employed  for  a  short  time.  About  the  year 
crime,  the  Federal  Government  has  no  common-  1700  he  returned  to  Edinburgh,  a  zealous  advo- 
law  jurisdiction  over  crime,  nor  can  it  have  any  cate  of  a  paper  currency;  but  his  proposals  to 
statutory  jurisdiction  over  crime  except  over  such  the  Scottish  Parliament  on  this  subject  met  with 
crimes  as  in  some  way  interfere  with  the  power  an  unfavorable  reception.  He  visited  different 
del^ated  to  it  in  the  Constitution  by  the  several  parte  of  the  Continent,  where  he  won  large  sums 
States,  including  such  as  arise  in  territory  sub-  by  gambling,  but  sought  in  vain  to  win  the  favor 
Jcct  to  ite  exclusive  jurisdiction.  For  a  discus-  of  govemmente  to  his  banking  schemes,  which 
flion  of  the  elements  of  a  crime,  of  the  place  were  outlined  in  a  pamphlet  advocating  a  State 
where  a  crime  is  punishable,  and  other  matters  bank  with  paper  notes.  At  last  in  1716  he  set- 
affecting  the  liability,  trial,  defense,  and  punish-  tied  in  Paris,  and  in  company  with  his  brother 
ment  of  crime,  see  such  topics  as  Attempt;  William  set  up  in  1716  a  private  bank,  which 
JropARDY;  Justification;  JuRisoicnoN;  Judo-  ^^^  chartered  by  the  (Jovemment,  and  which  was 
MCNT;  Principal,  ete.  ^^^^  successful  and  prosperous  to  such  an  ex- 
For' a  discussion  of  particular  offenses  against  traordinary  degree  that  in  1718  the  Duke  of 
a  government,  see  Treason;  Bribery;  Extor-  yTleans,  the  Regent,  was  persuaded  to  adopt 
tion;  Champerty;  Maintenance;  Barratry;  Law  s  plan  of  a  national  bank  The  new  institu- 
Embracery;  Contempt;  Perjury;  Rescue;  tion  issued  prodigious  quantities  of  banknot^, 
Prison  Breach  ;  Affray.  ^^'^^  **  ^"*  enjoyed  perfect  credit,  while  the 
T?^-  _^^_„_     ._  .       •,.        ^^        J  V    ixi.  ordinary  national  bonds  remained,  as  they  had 

J!  A^T^^'^T,^''^^'''  ^"^  *°^  ?'^^*^'  l«ng  ^^>  at  a  price  far  below  their  nominal 

^.  J^^l  ?""'    Forcible   Entry;    Libel;  ^^,«g     j„'  1717  j^^  originated  his  famous  Mis- 

Slander;   Engrossing ;   Forestalling.  ^^^^^^^^  ^y,^^^  ^q^j^  f^^  ^y^^  pu^p^3^  ^^  ^i,. 

For  crimes  against  religion  and  morality,  see  ing  money  to  meet  the  exigencies  of  the  State. 

Blasphemy;    Adultery,^  Bigamy;    Seduction;  The  Compagnie  d'Occident  was  esUblished,  with 

Abduction;  Abortion;  Fornication.  liberty  to  exploit  the  region  about  the  Mississippi. 

For  offenses  against  the  person,  see  Assault;  It  soon  absorbed  the  French  East  India  Ck)mpany 

Batisby;  Mayhem;  Homicidb;  Manslaughter;  and  other  trading  companies,  being  transformed 

ilUBDKB;  False  Imprisonment;  Rape;  Robbery,  into  the  Compagnie  dea  Xndea.    The  public  wen 

Vou  XIL-^. 


LAW.  28 

invited  to  invest  in  the  shares  of  this  companyi  Remarks  Upon  MandevUl^s  Fables  of  the  Bees 

and  an  extraordinary  speculative  mania  resulted,  (published  1724;  republished  with  an  introduc- 

which  drove  up  the  value  of  the  shares  to  an  tion  by  Maurice,  1844) ;  The  Absolute  Vnlaioful- 

almost  fabulous  height..   For  a  time  it  seemed  ness  of  the  Stage  Entertainment  Fully  Demon' 

as  if  the  Mississippi  Scheme  would  more  than  strated  (1726) ;  letters  to  the  Bishop  of  Bangor 

fulfill  its  promises,  and  the  company,  which  under-  (1717-19);  and  some  very  able  attacks  on  the 

took  the  payment  of  the  debts  oi  the  Grovernment,  rationalism  of  his  day.    His  collected  worlm  were 

was  charged  with  the  receivership  of  the  taxes,  published  in  London  in  nine  volumes  in   1762. 

In  the  meanwhile  the  country  was  flooded  with  Consult   Overton,   Loao,    'Nonjuror    ani   Mystio 

paper  money,  and  in   1720  a  general  financial  (1881). 

collapse  ensued.    Law,  who  had  been  made  Coun-        LA  WES,  Iftz,  Henry  (1596-1662).     An  Eng- 

cilor  of  State  and  CJomptroller  of  Finances  just  lig^  musician.    After  studying  music  under  John 

before  the  crash  came,  thought  it  prudent  to  Cooper,  he  was  sworn  in  as  gentleman  of  the 

Suit  France.  He  proceeded  first  to  Brussels,  and  ^oyal  chapel  of  Charles  I.  (1626),  where  he  soon 
Ijen  to  England,  where  he  remamed  for  several  gained  celebrity  as  a  composer  of  music  for 
years,  but  finally  settled  in  Venice,  where  he  masques  and  songs.  Of  the  former  the  most  im- 
manaced  to  mamtain  himself  by  gambling,  and  portant  was  Milton's  Masque  of  Oomus,  which 
died  there,  March  21,  1729.  Law  appears  to  have  ^^g  under  his  personal  direction  and  was  set  to 
remained  a  firm  believer  in  his  theories  regarding  music  and  produced  at  Ludlow  Castle  in  1634. 
public  credit  and  currency.  A  complete  edition  Milton,  who  was  probably  his  pupil,  refers  to 
of  his  works,  translated  into  French,  was  pub-  ^jm  in  highly  eulogistic  terms  in  several  of  hi» 
lished  at  Paris  in  1790,  and  reprinted  m  1843.  poems.  His  music,  although  written  in  the  Ital- 
They  have  since  been  inserted  m  Guillauman's  {^n  style,  was  decidedly  original,  and  was  also 
collection  of  the  writings  of  the  chief  econo-  highly  praised  by  Waller,  Herrick,  and  Phillips, 
mists  and  financiers  of  the  eighteenth  century,  ^hose  songs  he  had  done  much  to  popularize.  A 
.  Consult,  for  Law's  life  and  theories  of  banking:  strong  Royalist,  he  was  appointed  a  member  of 
Wood,  M€m.ories  of  the  Ltf^QfJohtkLau)  (Edm-  the  King's  Band,  and  subsequently  Clerk  of  the 
burgh,  1824);  Mackay,  Memoirs  of  Extraordi-  cheque.  During  this  period  (1626-62),  in  ad- 
nary  Popular  Delusions  (London,  1860) ;  Thiers,  ^ition  to  composing  the  anthem  for  the  corona- 
Law  et  son  sysUme  des  finances  (Pans,  1868;  tion  of  Charles  II.  in  1663,  he  published  Ayres 
Eng.  trans..  New  York,  1869) ;  Perkins,  France  ^nd  Dialogues  for  One,  Two,  and  Three  Voices. 
Under  the  Regency  ( New  York,  1892 ) ;  Heymann,  He  was  buried  in  the  cloisters  of  Westminster 
Law  undsein  System (Uunich,  1953);  JjeYMseuT,  Abbey.  An  elder  brother,  Wiluam  Lawes 
Reoherches  historiques  sur  le  systhne  de  Law  (c.  1682- 1646),  was  also  attached  as  a  musician 
(Paris,  1864) ;  Joheg,  Vne  preface  au  Socialisme,  to  the  royal  chapel,  and  was  associated  with  him 
Ott  le  systHne  de  Law  (Paris,  1848) .  in  some  of  his  musical  undertakings.  This  broth- 
liAW^  John  (1796-1873).  ,An  American  ju-  er,  who  was  killed  at  the  siege  of  Chester,  com- 
rist,  born  in  New  London,  Conn.  He  was  de-  posed  a  portion  of  the  music  for  the  Choice 
scended  from  a  line  of  lawyers  including  Jona-  Psalmes,  published  in  1648. 
than  Law,  Chief  Justice  of  the  Connecticut  Su-  lAWES,  John  Bennot  (1814-1900).  A  cele- 
preme  Court  (1741-6()).  Educated  at  Yale,  he  Crated  English  agricultural  chemist,  bom  at 
was  admitted  to  practice  m  1817,  and  soon  after-  Rothamsted,  Hertfordshire.  He  was  educated  at 
w-ards  emigrated  to  Indiana,  and  made  his  home  ^^  Oxford,  and  Ix)ndon,  entered  upon  the 
at  Vmcennes.  He  was  successively  prosecutmg  management  of  the  paternal  estate  of  Rothamsted 
'^^}oa^P^'  member  of  the  State  le^lature  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^  three  years  later  commenced  ex- 
(1823),  again  district  attorney,  a  judge  for  peHmenU  with  plants  grown  in  pots  of  soil.  He 
eight  terms,  and  m  1838  was  appointed  receiver  ^^j  discovered  a  prooss  for  transforming  bone 
of  public  moneys.  In  1861  he  moved  to  Evans-  into  superphosphate  by  the  use  of  sulphuric^ 
viUe,  and  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  town  ^^^^  took  out  a  patent  in  1842,  and  built  up 
of  I^masco;  four  years  afterwards  he  was  ap-  ^^  extensive  business  which  he  managed  for 
P^"?^  J?"^^  ""^  \^^.^^'*  ?u  ^^  Claims;  and  ^^^^t  thirty  years.  In  1867  he  engaged  in  the 
in  1860  he  was  elected  to  the  House  of  Repre-  manufacture  of  terUric  and  citric  Scids,  and 
sentatives,  and  served  m  the  Thirty-seventh  and  continued  in  this  business  until  his  death.  The 
Thirty-eighth  Congresses  on  committees  on  li-  experimental  inquiries  at  Rothamsted  were  en- 
brary,  agriculture,  and  Revolutionaiy  pensions.  ^^^  j^  1343  ^  the  employment  of  Dr.  (after- 
His  address  on  the  CotomaJHwtoryo/ yt«cenne«  ^^^^^  gi^)  j.  -^  Gilbert  to  superintend  the 
was  published  m  1839  and  m  1858.  He  was  laboratory  work.  For  more  than  fifty  years, 
president  of  the  Indiana  SUte  Historical  Society,  ^a^^g  ^^^  Gilbert  conducted  elaborate  agricul- 
IiAW,  William  (1686-1761).  An  English  de-  tural  investigations.  The  field  experiments  were 
votional  author.  He  was  born  at  King's  Cliffe,  enlarged  and  systematired  until  they  occupied 
Northamptonshire;  and  was  educated  at  Em-  nearly  forty  acres  in  1856.  Experiments  with 
manuel  College,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  animals  were  begun  in  1847,  and  a  varietv  of 
degree  of  M.A.  in  1712.  He  was  a  strong  Tory  problems  in  animal  nutrition  have  since  been 
sympathizer  and  refused  to  take  the  oath  of  studied.  In  1889  Sir  John  transferred  the  labo- 
allegiance  on  the  accession  of  Greorge  I.  His  ratories  and  experimental  fields  of  Rothamsted  to 
writings  are  deeply  tinged  with  mysticism,  and  a  board  of  trustees  with  an  endowment  of  about 
in  later  life  he  was  a  follower  of  Jakob  BOhme.  £100,000,  thus  insuring  the  continuance  of  the 
His  Serious  Call  to  a  Devout  and  Holy  Life  investigations.  At  this  time  he  made  provision 
(1729)  first  awakened  the  religious  sensibilities  for  a  biennial  course  of  lectures  in  the  United 
of  Dr.  Johnson,  who  speaks  of  it  in  high  terms.  States  on  the  Rothamsted  work.  Accounts  of 
The  Wesleys  also  derived  much  advantage  from  the  Rothamsted  work  may  be  found  in  the 
it,  and  became  intimate  with  Law,  but  later  re-  Journal  of  the  Royal  Agricultural  Society  of 
jected  hb  teachings.    Hia  other  writings  include:  England,    Reports   of   the    Britiah   AsBOciation^ 


LAWES.  29  LAWK* 

for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  Proceedings  and  Bret,  lann.  Com.  Urn,  open  space ;  ultimately  ccm? 

Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  nected  with  Goth.,  AS.,  £ng.  land,  OHG.  lawt^ 

Journal  of  the  Horticultural  Society  of  London,  Ger.  Land,  land).     A  smooth,  even,  well-kept 

and  Memoranda  of  the  Rothamsted  Station.  turf  or  greensward,  intended  solely  for  ornament 

LAW  MEBCHANT.  Originally,  the  body  of  and  pleasure.  The  hot  and  dry  summers  which 
rules  governing  the  various  communities  of  mer-  frequently  prevail  in  the  United  States  are  in- 
chants  throughout  Europe,  and  administered  by  jurious  to  grass;  but  as  the  lawn  is  usually  lim- 
'  piepowder  courts  (q.v.),  staple  courts,  and  i^d  ^^  extent,  this  obstacle  is  overcome  by  con- 
merchants'  courts  (q.v.).  The  procedure  of  trolling  the  moisture  conditions.  Good  velvetjr 
the  law  merchant  as  well  as  the  substantive  ^^rf  can  be  maintained  in  moderately  dry  ch- 
rules  differed  widely  from  those  of  the  early  mates,  even  in  times  of  intense  and  prolonged 
common  law.  Its  courts  were  expeditious,  seek-  heat  and  drought  by  daily  supplying  the  neces- 
ing  not  only  to  do  justice,  but  to  do  it  speedily,  sary  moisture.  In  no  instance  is  the  condition 
Judges  for  these  tribunals  were  selected  because  ol  the  soil  a  more  important  factor  than  in  lawn- 
of  their  knowledge  of  the  law  merchant,  and  making.  The  best  soil  for  this  purpose  is  -a 
were  bound  to  administer  that  law,  and  not  the  sandy  loam  of  fine  texture  with  a  clay  subsoil, 
common  law  of  the  land,  nor  the  peculiar  legal  the  most  favorable  combination  for  either  wet 
usages  of  the  cities,  towns,  or  boroughs  where  seasons  or  times  of  drought.  A  clay  soil  bakes 
they  sat.  During  the  seventeenth  century  the  too  readily,  and  an  open  sandy  or  gravelly  soil 
courts  which  specially  administered  this  body  of  is  not  sufficiently  resistant  of  drought.  Before 
law  died  out  in  England,  and  their  jurisdiction  the  soil  is  prepared  to  receive  the  grass-seed,  it  is 
was  assumed  by  the  common  law  and  equity  tri-  drained  if  it  has  inadequate  natural  drainage, 
bunals  of  the  realm.  From  this  time  to  the  acces-  and  then  graded  to  give  it  the  desired  contour, 
sion  of  Lord  Mansfield  as  Chief  Justice,  the  term  The  ordinary  dooryard  lawn  is  usually  level,  but 
'law  merchant'  was  employed  in  quite  an  indef-  the  extensive  lawns  of  parks  combine  in  their 
inite  sense.  The  common-law  judges  ajid  juries  contour  the  level,  the  convex,  and  the  concave, 
were  not  versed  in  the  legal  usages  of  merchants,  gracefully  merging  into  each  other. 
When  mercantile  controversies  came  before  them,  The  preparation  for  the  grass-seed  consists  in 
it  was  often  necessary  to  call  merchant  witnesses  working  the  soil  with  the  plow  and  subsoiler  or 
to  prove  what  the  law  merchant  applicable  to  the  spade  to  a  depth  of  at  least  one  foot, 
the  particular  case  was,  although  at  times  the  All  stones  and  rubbish  are  removed  to  ob- 
mercantile  custom  involved  was  so  notorious  tain  a  clean,  fine,  and  well-tilled  seed-bed.  A 
that  courts  would  take  judicial  notice  of  it.  rich  soil  is  essential,  and  the  land  for  a  lawn 

The  third  period  in  the  history  of  the  law  should  be  enriched  by  heavy  applications  of  well- 
merchant  in  England  embraces  the  latter  half  rotted  barnyard  manure  or  when  the  manure 
of  the  eighteenth  century  and  most  of  the  nine-  cannot  be  obtained  by  a  heavy  dressing  of  com- 
teenth.  Lord  Mansfield  conceived  that  the  usages  mercial  fertilizers.  A  complete  commercial  fer- 
of  merchants  in  all  countries  rested  upon  the  tilizer,  i.e.  a  fertilizer  containing  nitrogen,  phos- 
same  general  principles,  and  that  the  law  mer-  phoric  acid,  and  potash,  is  used  and  liberal  quan- 
chant  was  a  branch  of  the  jus  gentium ,  or  law  tities  of  lime  and  bone-meal  are  worked  into  the 
common  to  all  nations.  As  Chief  Justice  he  de-  soil  in  addition.  The  selection  of  grasses  is  de- 
voted his  great  energies  to  the  development  of  a  termined  by  the  climate  of  the  loc^ity,  and  the 
body  of  legal  rules  which  should  be  based  not  on  color,  texture,  and  sod-forming  habit  of  the  dif- 
the  common-law  doctrines  of  England,  but  upon  ferent  species.  The  most  common  grasses  com- 
principles  which  commercial  convenience,  public  bining  the  qualities  of  a  lawn-grass  to  a  greater 
policy,  and  the  customs  and  usages  of  merchants  or  less  extent  are  Kentucky  blue-grass,  fescue 
had  contributed  to  establish,  with  slight  dif-  grass,  bent  grass.  Saint  Augustine  grass,  and 
ferences,  over  all  Europe.  In  the  United  States  Bermuda  grass.  The  finer  varieties  of  fescue  and 
his  work  was  carried  forward  by  Chancellor  bent  grasses  form  an  especially  soft  and  elastic 
Kent,  Justice  Story,  and  others.  As  a  result  of  turf,  qualities  highly  esteemed  in  a,  lawn.  Saint 
the  movement  the  law  merchant  and  the  common  Augustine  grass  and  Bermuda  grass  are  well 
law  are  no  longer  distinct  and  separate  bodies  adapted  to  warm  climates,  and  are  extensively 
of  legal  rules.  To  a  large  extent  they  have  be-  usea  as  lawn-grasses  in  the  Southern  United 
come  amalgamated,  and  are  administered  by  all  States.  In  order  to  obtain  evenness  in  the  text- 
legal  tribunals  as  a  single  system.  At  the  pres-  ure  of  the  turf  and  the  color  of  the  lawn,  it  is 
ent  time,  therefore,  *law  merchant'  does  not  desig-  customary  to  sow  only  one  kind  of  grass.  Mix- 
nate  a  true  body  of  law,  as  it  did  formerly,  but  tures  of  different  grasses,  however,  are  also  fre- 
is  applied  to  various  branches  of  English  law,  in  quently  used.  A  li^ht,  scattered  stand  of  white 
which  the  old  usages  of  merchants  still  survive  clover  is  often  considered  desirable.  The  grass- 
to  a  considerable  extent,  or  which  have  sprung  seed  is  sown  thickly,  from  60  to  60  pounds  being 
out  of  modern  business  needs  and  customs,  such  used  per  acre.  Care  should  be  taken  not  to  intro- 
as  agency,  bailments,  insurance,  partnership,  duce  weed-seeds  in  the  manure  or  with  the  grass- 
Consult  the  authorities  cited  under  those  titles;  seed.  The  time  of  seeding  depends  upon  the  cli- 
also:  Smith,  Compendium  of  Mercantile  Law,  mate  and  the  prevailing  weather.  The  seed  should 
MaodonnelVs  Introduction  (London,  1890) ;  be  sown  when  the  conditions  for  its  growth  are 
Scrutton,  T^  Elements  of  Mercantile  Law  (Lon-  the  most  favorable.  Moisture  is  an  absolute  re- 
don,  1891)  ;  Burdick,  The  Essentials  of  Business  quirement,  and  for  this  reason  sowing  shortly 
Law  (New  York,  1902)  ;  "What  is  the  Law  Mer-  before  an  expected  rain  is  the  common  practice, 
chant?"  (2  Columbia  Law  Review,  470,  1902);  windy  weather  prevents  the  even  scattering  of 
"The  Early  History  of  the  Law  Merchant  in  Eng-  the  seed.  In  general,  sowing  is  done  during  the 
land,"  xvii.  Law  Quarterly  Review,  232,  1901.  ^oist  months   of  spring,   but  where  conditions 

LAWK  (older  forms  lawnd,  laund,  OF.  lande,  permit  in  the  early  fall.     After  the  soil  has 

launde,  Fr.  lande,  heath,  from  Ir.  land,  OWelsh,  been  made  perfectly  smooth  and  fine,  the  seed  ii 


LAWK.  80  IiAWBENGE. 

Bcattered  evenly  over  the  Burface  and  thinly  striker  out.  At  the  end  of  the  first  game  the 
covered  with  a  fine-toothed  iron  rake,  followed  striker  out  becomes  the  server,  and  so  on  alter- 
by  an  iron  roller.  To  avoid  covering  the  seed  too  nately.  The  server  delivers  the  ball  or  service 
deeply,  the  land  is  sometimes  rolled  without  the  from  the  right  to  the  left  courts.  It  must  drop 
previous  use  of  the  rake.  between    the    service-line,    half-court    line,    and 

Small  grass-plats  are  often  covered  with  trans-  side-line  of  the  court,  diagonally  opposite  to  that 

planted  turf  instead  of  beginning  with  the  seed,  from  which  it  was  served.    The  system  of  scor- 

When  the  grass  has  grown  several  inches  high,  ing  is  framed  on  a  basis  of  fifteen  for  each  stroke 

mowing  with  this  lawn-mower  is  begun  and  re-  won;   but  the  third  stroke  is  called  forty  instead 

peated    at   short   intervals.      Frequent   mowing  of  forty-five.    If  both  players  win  three  strokes^ 

and  rolling  improves  the  turf.    During  dry  sum-  the  score  is  called  'deuce'  instead  of  forty  all.  The 

mers,  when  there  is  danger  of  exposing  the  roots  winner  of  the  next  stroke  scores  'advantage/  and 

to  the  diying  action  of  the  hot  sun,  too  frequent  if  he  also  gets  the  following  stroke,  he  wins  the 

mowing  is  injurious.    The  lawn  should  be  rolled  game;  if  the  stroke  falls  to  the  opposite  side,  the 

at  least  once  each  spring  when  the  weather  is  score  goes  back  to  'deuce.'    Similarly  the  player 

moist,  for  the  purpose  of  compacting  the  turf,  who  first  scores  six  games  wins  the  set,  unless 

To  keep  up  the  fertility  of  permanent  lawns,  land  both  should  have  won  five,  when  a  player  must 

plaster,  nitrate  of  soda,  and  hardwood  ashes  are  win  two  consecutive  games  to  score  the  set.     If 

applied  as  top  dressings  in  the  spring  or  a  dress-  he  fails  to  do  this,  the  score  is  once  more  called 

ing  of  fine  compost  is  applied  in  the  fall.     Con-  'games  all,'  and  the  same  conditions  prevail  as 

suit   United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  l^fore.    The  players  change  sides  at  the  end  of 

Year-Book,  1897    (Washington,  1898).  every  set.    All  championship  matches  hav^  since 

LAWK  TENNIS.     A  modem  game  resem-  ^®®^  *^^  determined  by  the  winning  of  three 

bling  in  some  respects  the  ancient  game  of  ten-  ^^^  ^^^  of   five;    but  since   1897   the   English 

nis   (q.v.),  which  in  its  earliest  form  seems  to  system   of   hMdi<»pping  occasionally  has   been 

have  been  played  in  the  open  air.    The  new  sport  employed,   but  without  the   use  of   differential 

originated    almost    simultaneously    in    England  tables.     Briefiy,  a  player  is  benefited  by  givmg 

and  America.     Major  Wingfield  reduced  it  to  a  ?'  ow"^«.  strokes  or  giving  bisques^  bisque 

definite  form  in  England  in  1874,  giving  it  the  "  ?J^  P?V^t  which  can  be  taken  by  the  receiver 

hopelessly  classical  name  of  'sphairistike.'    Un-  ^^  ^he  odds  at  any  time  in  the  set,  except  after 

der  the  auspices  of  the  Marylebone  Club,  rules  *  ^^^^^  delivered  or  by  the  server  after  a 

were   formulated   the  following  year   for   what  ^^^^^    The  game  was  play^  in  America  withm 

was  then  definitely  known  as  lawn  tennis.    The  *  y«*L  ^[  ^^s  adoption  m  England—at  Nalian^ 

'hour-glass'  court  was  retained,  with  the  net  five  ^^^  Boston.     The  next  year  a  court  was  laid 

feet  high  at  the  posts  and  four  feet  in  the  cen-  ^"^  at  Newport,  R.  I.,  which  has  been  the  Ameri- 

tre,  and  the  service  lines  26  feet  from  the  net,  can  headquarters  of  the  game  ever  smce,  although 

with  covered  balte  2%  inches  in  diameter  and  J*  has  grown  to  such  an  extent  that,  m  addition 

1%  ounces  in  weight.     Before  1876  the  earliest  to  n^ional  championships,  there  are  yearly  held 

form  of  court  was  replaced  by  a  rectangular  26   championship  cratests   by   single   States   or 

one,  26  yards  long  by  9  yards  wide,  the  net  be-  groups  of  SUtes.     The  first  open  chwnpionship 

ing  lowered  to  3  feet  3  inches  and  then  to  3  feet  J^^*.*'!^!^?  >*'®, oS?*'"^^  ""^  ^^^  ^^I?°  ^^^^J"^ 

in  the  centre,  and  the  service-line  brought  4  feet  g,"?*^«t  Club  m  1880.    The  next  year  the  United 

nearer  the  net.    In  1879,  when  volleying  was  in-  States  National  Lawn    rexmis  Association  was 

troduced  by  the  Renshaw  brothers,  the  service-  formed,  and  rules  adopted  which  have,  however, 

line  was  brought  one  foot  nearer  the  centre,  and  ^  modified  and  altered  from  time  to  time, 

the  height  of  the  net  raised  again  to  3  feet  6  *?d  ^^^  then  the  national  championships  have 

inches,  making  the  advantages  of  the  different  »J^ays  ^^  f^^y^^  ^}  Newport,  IL  I.     English 

styles  of  play  more  equal.     In  1887  the   (Eng-  players  have  frequently  taken  part  m  them,  with 

lish)    National    Lawn    Tennis    Association    was  marked  success  at  first,  which  gradually  dimm- 

formed.    From  that  time  on  it  has  been  the  gov-  l^^^.^f.  t^®  American  play  developed  along  na- 

eming  body  for  England  and  the  neighboring  tional  lines.     These  may  be  summed  up  under 

countries,  into  which  the  game  has  spread.    The  these  heads :    (1)  The  screw  service  whereby  the 

courts  of  all  countries  have  the  same  dimensions;  ^^]}  ^  made  to  cunre  in  ite  downward  flight 

the  following  is  the  official  description  of  the  .dike  the 'out-drop  of  a  modern  bas^all  pitcher) 

American  court:     The  court  is  78  feet  long  and  impafting  a  double  and  most  baflling  motion; 

27  feet  wide.    It  is  divided  across  the  middle  by  (2)  the  practice  of  volleying  from  a  poejtion  so 

a  net,  the  ends  of  which  are  attached  to  two  J^^f  *?oJ*'?x.''^^^  ^f  ^^^^.  strokes  <»n  kill  the 

posts,  standing  3  feet  outside  of  the  court  on  ^^J^?    (3)    the  development  of  the  'stop  volley,' 

Sther  side.     The  height  of  the  net  is  3  feet  6  IT^T^^  ,^^  ^^^} 'f  .V"^^^^  ^^^ .7'^^^  }^^l^ 

inches  at  the  posts,  and' 3  feet  in  the  middle,  held  racket  and  falls  over  the  net 'dead' ;  W  the 

Halfway   between   the   side-lines,    and    parallel  development  of    lobbing'  to  a  wonderful  extra 

with  them,  is  drawn  the  half-court  line;  divid-  }o^^"«  J'«7  \'S^  :^>th  a  slight  cut  that  gives  the 

ing  the  space  on  each  side  of  the  net  into  two  J^^^  *  ^^^^^  twist     The  American  Association 

equal  parts,  the  right  and  left  courts.    On  each  5?5  "^"^^7  ]^o^'^\^  ^^e  of  the  two  imiportant 

side  of  the  net,  at  a  distance  of  21   feet  from  differences  Ween  the  rules  of  play  m  ^ngland 

it.  and  parallel  with  it,  are  drawn  the  service-  ^"^  America  by  limiting  the  rests  to  which  play- 

lines.    Two  kinds  of  game  are  played :  'singles/  f "  ,^ere  entitled  between  seU^  to  one  rest  after 

i.e.   one   person   against  another;    or   'doubles,'  the  third  set  and  no  more.    The  other  difference, 

two  partners  on  each  side.     The  choice  of  sides  ***«  foot-fault  rule,  remains, 
of  the  court  and  the  right  to  serve  first  are  de-        LAWRENCE.    A  city  and  the  county-seat  of 

cided  by  toss.     The  players  stand  on  opposite  Douglas  County,  Kan.,  40  miles  west  by  south  of 

sides  of  the  net,  the  player  who  first  delivers  the  Kansas  City ;  on  both  sides  of  the  Kansas  River, 

ball  being  called  the  server,  and  the  other  the  and  on  the  Atohison,  Topeka  and  Santa  E6  and 


LAWBENGE.  81  LAWBENGB. 

the  Union  Pacific  railroads  (Map:  Kansas,  G  works,  $60,000  for  the  police  department,  $55,- 
3).  The  city  is  well  laid  out,  with  wide  streets,  000  for  the  fire  department,  and  $40,000  for  the 
and  has  many  attractive  buildings.  It  is  the  health  department.  Population,  in  1850,  8282; 
seat  of  the  State  University  (see  Kansas,  Uni-  in  1860,  17,630;  in  1870,  28,921;  in  1880,  39,- 
TEBSITT  OF),  founded  in  1866  on  Mount  Oread,  151;  in  1890,  44,654;  in  1900,  62,559,  including 
and  of  the  Haskell  Institute,  a  United  States  28,600  persons  of  foreign  birth,  and  87  of  negro 
Government  Industrial  School  of  Indians,  which  descent.  Lawrence  was  created  by  act  of  the 
occupies  a  site  of  600  acres.  Bismarck  Grove,  Legislature,  March  20,  1845,  out  of  parts  of 
a  park  including  240  acres,  is  only  a  short  dis-  Methuen  and  Andover,  and  was  incorporated  as 
tance  outside  the  city  limits.  Lawrence  is  im-  a  city  May  10,  1853.  On  January  10,  1860,  the 
portant  as  a  commercial  centre,  and  its  manu-  Pemberton  Mill,  five  stories  high,  suddenly  fell, 
iacturing  interests,  which  are  considerable,  are  and  soon  afterwards  caught  fire.  Of  the  700  per- 
promoted  by  excellent  water-power.  The  Indus-  sons  in  the  mill,  100  were  killed,  and  many  more 
trial  establishments  include  flouring  and  paper  seriously  injured.  Consult  Wadsworth,  History 
mills,  sash  and  door  factories,  a  foundry  and  of  Laxcrence,  Mass,  (Lawrence,  1880). 
machine-shop,  wire-fence  and  nail  works,  and  LAWBENGE,  Abbott  (1792-1855).  An 
a  large  creamery.  Lawrence  (named  in  honor  American  merchant,  legislator,  and  diplomat. 
of  Amos  A.  Lawrence)  was  the  first  of  the  *free-  He  was  born  in  Groton,  Mass.;  was  educated  in 
State  towns  founded  by  the  Emigrant  Aid  So-  ^  district  school,  and  at  the  Groton  Academy 
ciety  in  1854,  immediately  after  the  passage  (^ow  the  Lawrence  Academy) ;  removed  to  Bos- 
of  the  Kansas-Nebraska  Bill  (q.v.),  and  was  for  ton  in  1808,  and  there  served  an  apprenticeship 
wveral  years  the  headquarters  of  the  Anti-  jn  ^^  warehouse  of  his  elder  brother,  Amos, 
Slavery  Party  m  Kansas.  In  November  and  ^jth  whom  in  1814  he  founded  the  famous  firm 
December,  1865,  dunng  the  so-called  'Wakarusa  of  a.  &  A.  Lawrence.  Lawrence  also  took  an 
War  It  was  besieged  for  a  rfiort  time  by  a  force  active  interest  in  several  railroad  enterprises ; 
of  pro-slavey  men;  and  on  May  21,  1856,  it  was  ^^s  president  of  the  Essex  Company,  which  in 
occupied  and  partially  destroyed  by  another  pro-  1345  founded  Lawrence,  Mass.  (named  in  his 
slaveiy  force.  On  August  21,  1863,  a  body  of  honor),  and  toward  the  latter  part  of  his  life 
Confederate  raiders  under  Quantrell  almost  com-  ^^s  largely  engaged  in  the  China  trade.  From 
pletely  destroyed  it,  and  killed  123  of  its  citi-  1334  to  1837,  and  again  from  1839  to  1840,  when 
«ns.  Population,  in  1890,  9997 ;  in  1900,  10,862.  ju  health  forced  him  to  resign,  he  was  a  member 
See  Kansas.  of  Congress;  and  in  1842  he  was  one  of  the  com- 
IiAWBENCE.  An  important  manufacturing  missioners  of  Massachusetts,  who  cooperated 
city  and  one  of  the  county-seats  of  Essex  County,  ^^\  }\%  commissioners  of  Mam^  and  with 
Mass.,  26  miles  northwest  of  Boston;  on  both  Daniel  Webster,  then  Secretary  of  State,  in  ne- 
sides  of  the  Merrimac  River,  and  on  several  gotiatmg  the  Webster- Aehburton  Treaty  (q.v.) 
branches  of  the  Boston  and  Maine  Railroad  concerning  the  northeast  boundary  of  the  United 
(Map:  Massachusetts,  E  2) .  It  includes  the  vil-  States,  with  England's  representative.  Lord  Ash- 
kges  of  Arlington  District,  Carltonville,  and  ^urton.  He  was  United  States  Minister  to 
Hallsville.  The  Merrimac  at  this  point  has  a  England  in  President  Taylor's  Administration,  m 
descent  of  26  feet  in  half  a  mile,  aflfording  water-  which  capacity  he  rendered  important  services 
power  estimated  at  10,000  horse-power,  controlled  ^  *"«  country,  and  became  widely  popular 
by  a  dam  of  solid  granite,  900  feet  long  and  30  ^^^^  ^e  English  people,  though  in  1862,  wishing 
feet  high,  thrown  across  the  rapids,  and  by  canals  ^  devote  his  attention  wholly  to  his  business 
on  each  side  of  the  river,  the  first  of  which  was  interests,  he  was  recalled  at  his  own  request.  He 
opened  in  1848.  The  Pacific,  Atlantic,  Washing-  ™ade  ™any  donations  to  charitable  institutions, 
ton,  Arlington,  Everett,  and  Pemberton  are  the  ^^^  ^^  1^47  contributed  $60,000  for  the  estab- 
principal  mills  producing  textiles,  among  which  lishment  of  a  scientific  school  at  Harvard,  which 
are  included  shirtings,  calicoes,  shawls,  worsted  was  named  in  his  honor,  and  to  which  by  will  he 
dress-goods,  cassimeres,  flannels,  broadcloths,  stibsequently  contributed  another  $50,000.  He 
cambrics,  duck,  etc.  Other  manufactures  are  ^^^^  ^  l^^e  sum  for  the  erection  of  model  lodging- 
paper,  paper-mill  machinery,  foundry  products,  houses  for  the  poor,  the  surplus  income  from 
carriages,  doors,  sash  and  blinds,  engines,  boil-  which  was  to  be  forever  applied  to  charitable 
ers,  beltings,  and  Archibald  wheels.  The  city  purposes.  Consult  Hill,  Memoir  of  Ahhott  I^aw- 
has  the  Essex  County  Truant  School,  Children's  ^^^^  (Boston,  1883). 

Home,  Cottage  and  Lawrence  Hospitals,  a  public        LAWBENGE,  Amos  (1786-1862).  An  Ameri- 

library  of  over  60,000  volumes,  and  a  large  com-  can  merchant  and  manufacturer,  bom  at  Groton, 

Xaon  and  other  public  parks.    There  are  also  sev-  Mass.,   and   educated   at   the   Groton   Academy 

eral  bridges  across  the  river,  libraries  for  opera-  founded  there  by  his  father.    After  working  as  a 

tives  in  the  principal  mills,  numerous  private  clerk  for  several  years,  he  embarked   (1807)   in 

charitable  institutions,  and  a  number  of  county  the  dry-goods  business  on  his  own   account  in 

buildings.    The  government  is  vested  in  a  mayor,  Boston.     In  1814  he  formed  a  partnership  with 

annually  elected;  a  bicameral  council,  and  sub-  his  brother,  Abbott  Lawrence  (q.v.),  and  the  firm 

ordinate  administrative  departments,  as  follows:  became    the   foremost    wholesale    mercantile   es- 

fire  department  and  board  of  health,  appointed  tablishment  in  the  country.     He  is  best  known 

by  the  executive  subject  to  the  consent  of  the  for  his  connection  with  the  cotton  manufactur- 

board  of  aldermen;  water  board,  elected  by  the  ing    industry    in    New    England,    the    cities    of 

council;  and  pauper  department,  superintendent  Lawrence   and   Ix)well  owing  their   preeminence 

of  streets,  and  school  committee,  chosen  by  popu-  in  this  branch  of  industry  largely  to  his  efforts. 

lar  election.    The  city  spends  annually,  in  mainte-  111  health  compelled  him  to  retire  from  active 

nance  and  operation,  over  $800,000,  the  principal  participation  in  business  in  1831,  and  the  later 

amounts  being  about  $170,000  for  schools,  $66,000  years  of  his  life  were  spent  largely  in  furthering 

for  charitable  institutions,  $60,000  for  the  water-  various  philanthropic  enterprises.     He  contrib- 


LAWBENGE.                              82  LAWBENGE. 

uted  largely  to  the  building  of  the  Bunker  Hill  midshipman  in  1793,  became  a  lieutenant  in  1802, 

Monument,  and  gave  large  8um8  to  Williams  Col-  and  in  1804-06  distinguished  himself  in  the  war 

lege  and  to  the  academy  at  Groton,  which  in  with  Tripoli,  oommanding  a  gunboat  and  serving 

1843    was   renamed   Lawrence   Academy   in   his  as  seoona  in  conunand  in  Decatur's  expedition  to 

honor.  bum  the  captured  Philadelphia  under  the  guns 

LAWBENCE.  Geobge  Alfbed  ( 1827-76) .    An  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^^  batteries.    In  1808  he  served  as  first 

English  novelist,  bom  in  Braxted,  Essex.     He  lieutenant  on  the  Conatitutum,  and  then  com- 

was  educated  at  Oxford,  and  studied  for  the  bar,  ™*»^  *"^^?*\1?y  *H  ^^^'  *^®  ^***^'  /°^ 
but  afterwards  gave  all  his  time  to  literature.  ]^^  ^«P  ^^^\  1811,  when  he  was  promoted  to 
His  most  famous  book,  Ouy  lAvingaton,  or  Thor-  Jf  captam,  and  was  placed  in  command  of  the 
ougK  was  published  in  1867.  His  other  works  ??7^f •  1°  1?12  he  cmised  with  Captain  Barn- 
include:  Sword  and  Ooicn  (1869);  Barren  ondges  squadron  along  the  South  American 
Honour  (1862)  ;  Maurice  Bering,  or  the  Quadri-  co*s^»  *»?  ?^  ,^^Z^^T7 ^^\  f®^^'  captured  the 
lateral  (1864);  Breaking  a  Butterfly:  Blanche  slightly  inferior  British  brigK>f-war  Peaoocfc, 
Elleralie's  Ending  (1869);  Silverland  (1873);  after  a  spirited  engaBement  of  fifteen  minutes, 
and  Hagarene  ( 1874 ) .  a«ar  the  mouth  of  the^emerara  River— the  Hor- 

LAWBEKCE,    Gb«boe  Newbou>    (1806.96),  ^^f^V.^l^^^lrL"^^^^ 


mjon  which  he  had  already  spent  much  study,  j^^  attacked  the  British  frigate  Shannon,  about 
flis  collection  of  8000  specimens  bought  by  the  ^^^^  ^j,^,  ^^^  g^^^  j^^^^  ^  bloody  engage- 
v^t"i^^  ^^^  of  Natural  History  in  New  ^^^/^^  gf^^  minutes,  in  which  he  was  mortafly 
•York  Cliy,  include,  not  on\j  a  very  full  list  of  ...Qunded,  the  Chesapeake  was  captured,  and  Law- 
birds  found  in  the  United  States,  but  more  than  ^^^^^  ^^^  ^aken  with  his  ship  to  Halifax,  where 
300  new  species  fr^  Mexico,  Ce^al  and  South  ^„  ^he  6th  he  died.  While  feeing  carried  below 
America,  and  the  West  Indies.  He  was  a  mem-  ^^^j  ^y^^  engagement,  he  uttlred  the  words 
ber  of  many  scientific  societies,  and  contributed  .j^^i^  ^^^  ^^^^^  g^^j  ,,  ^y^^^y^  ^.^  became  a 
much  to  ornithological  literature,  and  was  a  ^^^^  j^  ^^^  ^  ^^d  which  have  remained  con- 
collaborator  with  Spencer  F.  Baird  and  John  ^^ed  with  his  lime. 
Cassm  m  The  Birds  of  North  Amertoa  (1860).           . ■..^,    „    ,          ,,-  ^  ,   ,^        .      . 

(1804-84).     An  English  soldier,  bom  in  Trin-  J^^d^^^rttf  aW«^^t^n  he  emtoat<l  £ 

oomalee,  Ceylon.    He  wa.  the  brother  of  the  first  America  and  s^Sed  in  New  York  Cit^^h«^  h^ 

l2^^""Ht  «ter^  ?hl  f™7i^"l8^TS  ^ulSTla'S^'a^d  ^e'lS  fn  TrTrL^'wiT^^^^ 

i^r^?^;>.n?  „f^^.  ~  J™w^L  Li?«H'  itn  to  the  bar.    His  success  in  his  profession  was  im- 

wa.8  adjutant  of  his  ^regiment,  the  _Second  Ben-  ^^diate.    He  threw  himself  into  the  Revolution- 


the  envoy  to  Afghanistan,  and  was  m  Kabul  d»      „.    In  October,  1777,  he  became  an  aide  on 

l""'?iii.    /,«??r"f' °?«^fl''K^"    MacNaghten  ^^^  fj^^  ^^  Washington,  and  in  1780  as  iudge- 

was  killed   (1841).     In  1848  he  was  appointed  ^jyocate-general  pi^ided  at  the  trial  of  ilaj^r 

political  agent  at  Peshawur    and  was  prisoner  ^^^^    ^ «;  ,      /^^er  the  war  he  resumed  the 

Jor  a  year  during  the  second  Sikh  War.    Later  ^actice  of  law  in  New  York,  and  in  1786  was 

h*7^!  "IV'^t  VbI't"''*  wl  "^^iJ  '°  **T"i  ?"J"  el«t«l  toCongress,  in  which  he  strongly  advo- 

putana,   until    1857.     When   the  great  Mutiny  ^^^^  ^^^^  prop^  Constitution.    This  ^5  to  his 

broke  out.  he  was  for  a  time  in  command  of  all  ,^i„    gup/rseded  in  1788  by  an  Anti-Federalist, 

the  forces  in  Rajputona.     He  retired  with  the  ,„  f^g^  "S;  ^„  ^j^^ted  to  the  New  York  State 

rank  of  lieutenant-general  in  1867.    His  Forty-  g^^^^e.  and  in  the  same  year  was  elected  a  mem- 

three  Years  ^nlndta  was  edited  by  Edwards,  and  ^e,  „f  y,e  first  Congress  under  the  new  Consti- 

appeared  in  1874.  tyti,,„      jj^  ^^  ^j^,,  ^  member  of  the  Second 

ZiAWBENCE,  Sir  HBNBYMoirraOMEiiT(  1800-  Congress  (17SI-93),  and  in  1794  was  appointed 
67).  An  English  brigadier-general  and  colonial  by  President  Washington  United  States  Judge 
Administrator.  He  was  the  elder  brother  of  for  the  District  of  New  York.  In  1796  he  re- 
Lord  Lawrence  (q.v.),  and  was  likewise  famous  signed  from  the  bench  to  take  his  seat  in  the 
as  an  administrator.  He  was  Chief  Commissioner  L'nited  Stetes  Senate,  to  which  he  had  been 
of  Lucknow,  and  virtually  Governor  of  Oudb  elected  to  succeed  Rufus  King.  He  remained  in 
when  the  Indian  Mutiny  broke  out.  While  in  the  Senate  until  1800.  and  was  president  pro 
command  of  the  handful  of  heroic  men  who  de-  tempore  of  that  body  in  1798-99.  He  was  a 
fended  the  women  and  children  in  the  Residency  Btanch  supporter  of  Hamilton,  and  was  particu- 
of  Lucknow,  Sir  Henry  was  wounded  by  the  ex-  larly  opposed  to  any  compromise  between  the 
plosion  of  a  shell,  and  died  July  4,  1857.  He  was  Federaliste,  of  which  party  he  remained  up  to  his 
the  founder  of  the  Lawrence  Asylum  at  Octa-  death  one  of  the  principal'  leaders,  and  the  'Burr- 
mund,  for  the  reception  of  the  children  of  the  ites.' 

European  soldiers  in  India.    Saint  Paul's  CaOie-  LAWBBNCE,  John  Laird-Maie,  first  Lord 

dral<»nteins  a  monument  to  his  memoiy.    For  i^^rence    (1811-70).     An    English   officer   and 

his  life,  consult:  Edwardes  and  Merivale  (Lon-  Governor-General  of   India.     The   sixth   son   of 

don.  1873)  and  McLeod  Innes  (London.  1898).  Lieutenant-Colonel  Alexander  Lawrence,  he  was 

IiAWBENCE,     James      (1781-1813).       An  bom  at  Richmond,  Yorkshire.    In  1827  he  won 

American  naval  officer.    He  was  bom  in  Burling-  a  presentation  scholarship  to  Haileybury  College, 

ton,  N.  J.,  entered  the  United  Stetes  Navy  as  a  where  he  obtained  the  prise  for  Bengali,  and 


IiAWBEirCE.                             88  LAWBENGE. 

Massed  third  in  the  examination  for  the  Bengal  against  its  own  rules,  since  he  was  only  twenty- 
residency  cadetship.  His  first  years  in  the  In-  one — an  honor  never  since  repeated.  In  1792  he 
dian  civil  service  were  spent  in  Delhi  and  the  succeeded  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  as  painter  to  the 
neighborhood.  On  the  annexation  of  the  Punjab  King,  whose  portrait  he  painted  in  the  same 
Lawrence  was  appointed  Commissioner,  and  after-  year.  He  was  m  high  favor  with  George  IV.,  who 
wards  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Punjab.    The  knighted  him  in  1815. 

restless  Sikhs  became  so.  attached  to  his  firm  and  In  1817  he  was  sent  to  Aix-la-Chapelle  to  por- 
beneficent  rule  that  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Indian  tray  the  European  sovereigns  and  nc^les  there 
Mutinv  Lawrence  was  enabled  to*  send  troops  to  assembled,  including  the  Emperors  of  Austria 
the  relief  of  Delhi  and  elsewhere,  and  thus  was  and  Russia,  the  King  of  Prussia,  and  Prince 
instrumental  in  maintaining  British  dominion  in  Mettemich.  At  Rome  he  was  received  as  a  sec- 
India.  On  his  return  to  England  he  received  the  ond  Raphael  and  assigned  apartments  in  the 
thanks  of  Parliament,  with  the  grant  of  a  pen-  Quirinal,  where  he  painted  two  of  his  best  por- 
sion  of  £1000  a  year.  He  was  made  a  baronet  in  traits,  those  of  Pius  VII.  and  Cardinal  Gonsalvi. 
1858  and  a  privy  councilor  in  1859.  In  1861  He  was  made  a  member  of  the  Academies  of  Rome 
Lawrence  was  nominated  one  of  the  knights  of  and  Florence,  and  on  the  evening  of  his  return  to 
the  'Star  of  India.'  At  the  close  of  1863  he  England,  in  1820,  he  was  elected  president  of 
was  appointed  to  succeed  Lord  Elgin  as  Viceroy  the  Royal  Academy.  In  1825  he  was  sent  to 
of  India,  and  was  made  a  member  of  the  India  Paris  to  portray  the  King  and  the  Dauphin. 
Council.  His  administration  lasted  until  1869,  He  possessed  one  of  the  finest  collections  of 
in  which  year  he  was  raised  to  the  House  of  drawings  of  the  old  masters  ever  in  private 
Peers.  At  the  first  election  of  the  London  hands;  part  of  which  is  now  in  the  Museum 
School  Board  in  1870,  Lord  Lawrence  was  elected  of  Oxford.  He  died  in  London,  January  7,  1830. 
chairman,  a  post  he  subsequently  resigned.  He  Sir  Thomas  was  the  most  celebrated  painter  of 
died  June  26,  1879,  and  was  buried  in  West-  his  day,  but  in  the  reaction  against  former  ex- 
minster  Abbey.  Consult  biographies  by  Smith  travagant  praises,  scant  justice  is  now  done  him. 
(London,  1883) ;  Temple  (London,  1889) ;  He  had  an  unusually  acute  perception  of  the 
Aitchison  (London,  1892).  graces  of  society — the  elegant  airs  of  the  men, 
IiAWBENCE,  Saint,  the  Deacon.  One  of  and  ^«  ^acious  smiles  of  the  ladies.  His  execu- 
the  most  celebrated  martyrs  of  the  early  Church,  ^^^n  was  facile,  his  composition  and  draughts- 
the  subject  of  many  ancient  panegyrics,  and  of  manship  were  good,  but  his  portraits  lacked 
one  of  the  most  elaborate  of  the  hymns  of  Pruden-  character,  and  his  color,  though  brilliant,  was 
tins.  He  was  one  of  the  deacons  of  Rome,  in  the  often  hard  and  glassy.  His  most  perfect  works 
Pontificate  of  SixtuslL  (257-258),  and  as  such  JT® '^»?  drawmgs  in  crayon  and  pencil.  His  few 
was  especially  charged  with  the  care  of  the  poor  historical  pieces  were  of  little  value,  but  some 
and  the  orphans  and  widows.  In  the  persecution  o'  ^**  portraits,  like  those  of  Mrs.  Siddons,  and 
of  Valerian,  being  summoned,  according  to  the  "An  Actress,"  probably  Miss  Farren,  are  very 
legend,  before  the  praetor  as  a  Christian,  and  be-  heautiful.  Among  the  most  notable  are  the  series 
ing  called  on  to  deliver  up  the  treasures  of  the  ?1  the  participaiits  in  the  congress  of  Aix-la- 
Church,  he  mockingly  produced  the  poor  and  sick  Sl*^^^®'^°^^,  ^f^^^?'..*"  Waterloo  Gallery, 
of  his  charge,  declaring  that  those  were  his  Windsor  C^astle.  The  National  Gallery  possesses 
treasures';  and  on  his  persisting  in  his  refusal  to  those  of  Angerstein,  Benjamin  West,  Mrs.  Sid- 
sacrifice,  being  condemned  to  be  roasted  on  a  doM,  Sir  Samuel  Romilly,  Miss  Carols 
gridiron,  he  continued  throughout  his  tortures  C*^"o  with  a  Kid,  besides  others  on  l^n.  In 
to  mock  his  persecutors.  Many  of  the  details  of  2*®.  ^^^S  Kensington  Museum  are  those  of 
his  martyrdom  are  probably  due  to  the  imagina-  Prmcess  Caroline  and  Sir  C.  E.  Carnngton;  m 
tion  of  the  poetical  narrator;  but  the  martyrdom  ^^^  National  PortraitGallery,  George  IV.,  Prin- 
is  unquestionably  historical,  and  dates  from  J?8s  Caroline,  Lord  Thurlow,  Lord  Eldon,  Wil- 
the  year  258.  His  feast  is  celebrated  on  August  l>am  Windham,  James  Mackintosh,  Wilberforce, 
10th.  The  ground  plan  of  the  Escorial  (q.v.)  is  Warren  Hastings,  Samuel  Rogers,  Thomas  Camp- 
supposed  to  be  that  of  a  gridiron  in  reproduction  ^^}»  ^^^,^^^^^\!^T^^^'  ,  .,  ^ 
of  the  instrument  of  the  martyr's  death.  It  was  Consult:  1).  E.  Williams,  Life  and  Correapond- 
erected  in  his  honor,  because  on  his  day,  August  ^^  ^f  ^*^  Thomaa  La/irrence  (London,  1831)  ; 
10,  1557,  the  forces  of  Philip  II.  of  Spain  won  I^^jf*  Imitations  of  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence's  Fin- 
a  great  victory  over  the  French  at  Saint-Quentin.  ^«*  Drawings  (London,  1839) . 

LA WBENGE,  Sir  Thoi£AS  (1769-1830).    An  LAWBENCE,  Sir  William  (1783-1867).    A 

English  portrait  painter.    He  was  bom  at  Bristol,  distinguished  English  surgeon,  bom  at  Cirences- 

May  4,   1769.     His  father,  who  had  been  edu-  ter  in  Gloucestershire.     He  was  apprenticed  in 

cated  for  the  law,  was  an  actor  and  afterwards  an  London  in  1800  to  Mr.  Abemethy,  by  whom  he 

inn-keeper.     At  the  age  of  ten  he  portrayed  the  was  appointed  demonstrator  of  anatomy  at  Saint 

notables  of  Oxford  in  crayon,  and  when  his  father  Bartholomew's  Hospital  in  1803.    He  was  made 

removed  to  Bath,  his  son's  studio,  although  be  surgeon  to  the  hospital,  and  was  chosen  fellow 

was  but  twelve  years  old,  was  a  favorite  resort  of  the  Royal  Society  in  1813.    In  1815  he  became 

of  beauty  and  fashion.     In  his  seventeenth  year  one  of  the  professors  of  anatomy  to  the  Royal 

he  began  to  paint  in  oils,  and  in  1787  he  went  College  of  Surgeons;   and  in   1828-29  succeeded 

to  London,  exhibiting  a  number  of  paintings  and  his  teacher,  Abemethy,  as  lecturer  on  surgery  at 

portraits  at  the  Academy,  the  schools  of  which  Saint  Bartholomew's.     Taking  from  this  period 

he  entered.     His  attractive  manner  and  appear-  onward  an  active  share  in  questions  of  reform, 

ance   won   his   way   into  high   society,   and   in  Lawrence  made  innumerable  enemies,  though  his 

1789  he  had  attained  Court  patronage,  and  in  reputation  as  a  surgeon  and  the  importance  of  his 

the  following  year  his  painting,  "An  Actress,"  position  as  a  medical  practitioner,  together  with 

attracted  much  attention.     In  1791  George  III.  his  fame  as  a  valuable  contributor  to  medical  lit- 

isduced  the  Academy  to  elect  him  an  associate,  erature,  continued  to  bring  him  into  recognition 


IiAWBEVCB.                              34  LAWBEITGE  UjNXVEBSITY. 

and  power.     As  sergeant-surgeon  to  the  Queen  residence  in  Europe  was  admitted  to  the  New 

of  England,  he  succeeded  Sir  Benjamin  Brodie,  York  bar  in  1823.     In  1826-27  he  was  secretary 

receiving  at  the  same  time  a  baronetcy.     Law-  of  the  American  Legation  in  London  under  Galla- 

rence  died  of  paralysis  at  Whitehall.    His  writ-  tin,  served  until   1828  as  charge  d'affaires,  re- 

ings  are  very  numerous;  the  following  are  the  turned  to  America  in  1832,  and  having  entered 

most  important:  A  Description  of  the  Arteries  of  into  partnership  with  Hamilton  Fish,  soon  at- 

the  Human  Body,  Reduced  into   the  Form  of  tained  distinction  in  the  practice  of  law.    He  lec- 

Tdbles,  translated  from  the  Latin  of  Adolphus  tured  for  a  time  on  political  economy  at  Colum- 

Murray,  professor  of  anatomy  at  Upsala;   The  bia  College,  and  was  one  of  the  promoters  of  the 

Treatment  of  Hernias;  An  Introduction  to  Com-  Erie  Railroad.    He  made  Rhode  Island  his  per- 

parative   Anatomy    and   Physiology,    being    the  manent  home  in   1850,  became  Lieutenant-Gov- 

Introductory  Lecture  delivered  at  the  Royal  OoU  emor  in  1851,  acted  as  Governor  in  1852,  and 

lege  of  Surgeons  in  1819  (1819)  ;  A  Treatise  on  was  a  member  of  the  State  Constitutional  Con- 

the   Venereal  Diseases  of  the  Eye    (1830);   A  vention  of  1853.    He  lectured  on  international 

Treatise  on  the  Diseases  of  the  Eye  (1843)  ;  A  law  in  Columbian  University,  Washington,  D.  C, 

Treatise   on  Ruptures    (1810;    5th   ed.    1838);  and  became  widely  known  for  his  interpretation 

The  Hunterian  Oration  Delivered  at  the  Royal  of  disputes  arising  out  of  the  provisions  of  the 

College  of  Surgeons,  183 ^   (1834) ;  Lectures  on  Treaty  of  Washington  of  1871.    His  writings  are 

Comparative  Anatomy,  Physiology,  Zoology,  and  marked  by  a  broad  and  liberal  interpretation  of 

the  Natural  History  of  Man  (1848).  international  relations.    Chief  among  them  are: 

LAWBBNOE,     William      (1819-99).       An  The  Bank  of  the  United  States  (1831)  ;  Institu- 

American  jurist  and  politician,  bom  at  Mount  **<>»«  of  the  United  States  (1832)  ;  Discourses  on 

Pleasant,  Ohio.     He  graduated  at  Franklin  Col-  Political  Economy  (1834) ;  Biographical  Memoir 

lege  in  1838,  and  at  the  Cincinnati  Law  School  of  Albert  Gallatin  (1843)  ;  The  Law  of  Charita- 

in    1840.     He    became    prominent   in    local   and  6fe  I7»c«  (1845) ;  an  annotated  edition  of  Whea- 

State  politics,  was  commissioner  of  bankruptcy  ton's   Elements   of  International  Law    (1855);    • 

for  Logan  County  in   1842,  and  from   1845  to  Visitation    and    Search    (1858);    Commentaire 

1846  served  as  prosecuting  attorney.    From  1845  9ur  les  iUments  du  droit  international  (4  vols.j 

to    1847   he   was   editor  and   proprietor   of  the  1868-80);    The  Treaty  of  Washington    (1871); 

Logan    County    Gazette,    and    later   edited    the  Belligerent   and   Sovereign   Rights   as   Regards 

Western  Law  Journal.     From   1846  to  1848  he  Neutrals  During  the  War  of  Secession  (1873)  ; 

served  in  the  Lower  House  of  the  SUte  Legisla-  Etudes  sur  la  jurisdiction  consulaire  et  sur  Vew- 

ture,  and  was  a  State  Senator  in  1849,  1850,  and  tradition  (1880). 

1854.  He  was  a  reporter  for  the  Supreme  Court  LAW^BENCEBTTBG.  A  city  and  the  county- 
of  Ohio  in  1851;  served  from  1857  to  1864  as  seat  of  Dearborn  County,  Ind.,  22  miles  west 
Judge  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  and  of  of  Cincinnati,  O.;  on  the  Ohio  River,  and  on 
the  District  Court ;  had  some  military  experience  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Southwestern,  the  Cleve- 
at  Cumberland  and  New  Creek,  in  1862,  as  land,  Cincinnati,  Chicago  and  Saint  Louis,  and 
Colonel  of  the  Eighty-fourth  Ohio  Volunteers;  other  railroads  (Map:  Indiana,  E  3).  It  has 
was  a  member  of  dJongress  from  1865  to  1877;  manufactures  of  coffins,  flour,  buggies,  barrels, 
and  in  1880  became  first  Comptroller  of  the  whisky,  tube- well  supplies,  and  edge  tools.  Set- 
United  States  Treasury — a*  position  which  he  tied  in  1817,  Lawrenceburg  was  first  incorporated 
held  until  his  resignation  in  1885.  Among  his  in  1847.  The  present  government  is  adminis- 
published  works  are:  The  Treaty  Question  tered  by  a  mayor,  chosen  every  four  years,  and 
(1871);  The  Law  of  Religious  Societies  and  a  unicameral  council.  Population,  in  1890, 
Church  Corporations   (1873);   The  Organization  4284;  in  1900,  4326. 

?'ii^.^''^/J!f***'^r  ^^^r*:?^'*.*  ""f  */^  P^**^^  ^*2*^*  LAWBENCEBUBa.    A  city  and  the  county- 

(1880);   The  Law  of  Claims  Against  the  Gov-  J7^7  a   j            rt      *      ^^  ,7      .,            fu 

ernmeni    (1875);  Decisiohs  of  the  First  Comp^  s«it  of  Anderson  County,  Ky.,   14  miles  south 

troller  in  the  Department  of  the  Treasury  of  the  2,^  ^^'"'^^'''^^ oT^  *t!  ^^^^^'"^  ^-a'^^'Z   ^Yt^l 

United  States  (1881-85).  ?^^"*i?.^^'    ^ ^^l-  It  hai»  a  considerable  traae 

•                     \   ^„      '       ,,«^^     :      .      .        .  *n  whisky,  and  ships  also  tobacco  and  live  stock.    , 

LAWBENCE,  WiixiAM(1850-).  An  Amen-  There   are    distilleries,    a   barrelfactorv.    fiour- 

can  Bishop  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church,  mill,  carriage-shops,  etc.     Population,   in   1890, 

grandson  of  Amos  Lawrence  and  son  of  Amos  I3g2»  in  1900    1253. 

A,  Lawrence,  who  was  one  of  the  founders  of        _  ' ' -•.,.^^^^ 

the  Episcopal  Theological  School.    He  was  bom  LAWBENCE  SCTENTIPIC  SCHOOL.     See 

at  Brookline,  Mass. ;  graduated  at  Harvard  in  Habvabd  University. 

1871,  and  in  1875  at  the  Episcopal  Theological  LAWBENCE  UKIVEBSITY.    A  Methodist 

School,  Cambridge.    In  1876  he  became  rector  of  Episcopal  institution  of  higher  learning  at  Ap- 

Grace  Church,  Lawrence,  Alass.     He  was  elected  {^^^^^  ^yis.,  chartered  in   1846  and  named  the 

professor  of  homiletic«  and  pastora    theology  in  £awrence  Institute  of  Wisconsin,  in  honor  of  ite 

tiie  Episcopal  Theological  Scfioolm  1884;  tecame  principal    donor,    Hon.    Amos   A.    Lawrence,  of 

Its   dean   in    1888;    was   universitv  prewjher  at  ^^on.     It   was   opened   for   students   in    1849, 

Hanrard  from   1888  to  1891 ;  and  in  1893  was  ^jj^^  j^s  present  name  was  assumed.     In   1902       • 

elected     and    in    the    following    year    was    con-  ^^te  facultv  numbered  34.  with  a  student  enroll- 

?S^M^.     '  ^^"*;^P    ®i  Massachusetts    to    succeed  ^^^t  of  600,  comprising  275  students  in  the  col- 

Phillips   Br<x)ks      He   wrote   Life   of   ^^oa   A  j    j^te  department,  125  in  the  commercial  school, 

Lawrence  {ISS9)  and  Visions  and  Service  mOG) ,  50    j^    ^^^    preparatory    department,    and    150 

IiAWBENCEy    William    Beach    (1800-81).  special    students.      The    university    confers    the 

An  American   jurist  and  political   leader,  born  degrees  of  B.A.,  B.S.,  and  B.Ph.,  and  the  Mas- 

in  New  York   City  and  educated   at   Columbia  ter's  degree  in  arts.     It  also  gives  instruction 

College.    He  studied  law  and  after  two  years'  by  correspondence  without  conferring  a  degree. 


IiAWBENGE  TJNIVSBSIT7.              85  IiAWTOlT. 

and  has   or^ganized  a   university  extension   de-  aroused  the  anger  of  the  Indians,  who  saw  the 

Krtment.    It  has  a  library  of  19|000  volumes,  resulting  encroachment  on  their  territoiy.     la 

I  productive  endowment  in*  1902  was  $350,000,  1711,   in   company   with   Baron   de   Granenried 

its  income  $35,000,   the  value  of  its  buildings  (q.v.)»   the  head  of  the  settlement  of  Qerman 

$171,000,  and  the  total  property  under  its  control  Palatines  and  Swiss  on  the  lower  Neuse,  he  mada 

was  estimated  at  $555,000.  a  trip  up  the  river,  and  was  captured  by  the 

LAWBENCEVILLE  SCHOOL.   An  endowed  Tuscarora  Indians.    After  a  time  De  Graffenried 

preparatory   school   for  boys   at   Lawrenceville,  ^?i  ^^  ^'f »  but  Lawson,  who  had  quarreled 

N.  J.,  incorporated  in  1882.    The  present  school,  ^*^^  »  petty  chief    was  ^?euted,  according  to 

on  the  Johrc.  Green  Foundation;  absorbed  the  common  belief,  by  having  his  body  stuck  full  of 

property  of  an  earlier  school,  founded  in  1810.  P"^<^  splmters,  wfiich  were  then  set  on  fire. 

There  are   five  forms.     In  the  last  two  years  LAWSON,  Sir  Wilfrid  (1829—).    An  Eng- 

electives    are    allowed.     The    buildings    include  ^^^  baronet,  legislator,  and  temperance  advocate, 

twelve  masters'  houses,  two  houses  for  the  senior  He   was    the    son   of    Sir    Wilfrid    Lawson,    of 

class,  a  large  recitation-hall  with  an  auditorium  Aspatria,    Cumberland,    and    early    came    into 

and  a  library  of  5200  volumes,  a  chapel,  and  a  prominence  in  connection  with  his  labors  in  the- 

gymnasium.     The   campus   occupies   250   acres,  cause  of  total  abstinence.     In  1859  he  was  elected. 

The  school  had  in  1903  a  teaching  force  of  32  member  of  Parliament  for  Carlisle,  and  in  1864 

and  about  400  students.  introduced  into  the  House  of  Commons  a  "Bill 

I^W  BKPOBTS.    See  RiPOBxa.  J°'   t'jf   legiolative   suppression    of   the    Uquor 

^  - .  *,,^  ^^  -  ^— --  ^« *  ^      .       ,      .  traffic."    In  consequence  of  this  measure,  which 

LAWS  AND  USAOTIS  OF  WAR.  A  code  of  failed  to  pass,  he  lost  his  seat  in  Parliament 
law  governing  the  conduct  of  civilized  warfare,  j^  the  following  year.  On  his  father's  death,. 
It  has  special  reference  to  the  treatment  of  pris-  j^  xggy^  he  succeeded  to  the  family  title  and 
oners,  non-combaUnts,  spies,  traitors,  private  estates,  and  in  1868,  as  a  follower  of  Mr.  Glad- 
property,  rights  of  <»pture,  occupation  and  con-  gtone,  was  again  returned  to  Parliament  for 
qu^t,  blockades,  rights  and  obligations  of  neu-  Carlisle.  He  represented  that  city  until  1885,. 
trals.  Red  Cross,  etc.  Many  of  the  clauses  of  j^  ^hc  meanwhile  having  the  satisfaction  of  see- 
the code  have  been  approved  and  agreed  to  by  j^g  ^is  Local  Option  Bill  pass  by  a  majority 
international  conventions,  while  others  have  be-  ^,f  twenty  six  votes  in  1880,  a  success  repeated  in 
come  sanctioned  by  long  usage  and  the  demands  jggi  ^nd  1883.  After  a  defeat  by  ten  votes  in 
of  civilization.  See  Wab;  International  Law.  the  preceding  year,  in  1886  Sir  Wilfrid  waa 
LAW  SCHOOL.  A  school,  or  institution  of  elected  by  a  large  majority  to  represent  th& 
learning,  where  students  are  taught  the  knowl-  Cockermouth  Division  of  Cumberlana  in  Parlia- 
edge  of  the  law.  The  term  is  used  loosely  to  ment  as  a  Gladstonian  Liberal.  He  was  agaiu 
include  any  organization  devoted  to  this  end,  returned  in  1892  and  in  1895,  but  in  1900  lost. 
whether  an  incorporated  highly  organized  body  his  seat  by  109  votes.  Sir  Wilfrid  was  elected 
such  as  many  modem  law  schools,  or  a  simple  the  president  of  the  United  Kingdom  Temper- 
private  school  for  such  instruction.     See  Legal  ance  Alliance. 

Education.  LAWSOIOA.    An  African  and  Asiatic  shrub, 

LAW^SON,    Cecil   Gobdon    (1851-82).     An  the  flowers  of  which  are  used  as  a  cosmetic.    Se» 

English  painter,  bom  at  Wellington,  Shropshire.  Henna. 

He  was  a  pupil  of  his  father,  William  Lawson,  a  LAW  TEBMS.    The  usual  law  terms  in  Eng- 

Sootdi  portrait  painter,  and  had  some  instruc-  land  and  Ireland  are  those  periods  of  the  year 

tion  from  his  brother  Wilfred,  but  was  mainly  during  which  the  law  courts  sit  in  banc  or  in 

self-taught.    He  had  exhibited  for  eight  yeare  full  court  to  dispose  of  business.    These  are  of 

before  his  works  were  finally  appreciated,  but  ancient  origin,  and  are  now  fixed  by  statute  as- 

in  1878  the  "Minister's  Garden"  won  immediate  follows:    Hilary  term  l^egins  January  11th,  ends 

recognition.     W.  M.  Rossetti  says  that  Lawson  January  31st;   Easter  term  begins  April  15th,. 

"has   three  precious  qualities — strength,   sweet-  ends  May  8th;   Trinity  term  begins  May  22d, 

ness,    and    sentiment."    Other    works    by    him,  ends  June   12th;   Michaelmas  term  begins  No- 

nearly  always  of  English  subjects,  are:     "The  vember  2d,  ends  November  25th. 

Hop  Gardens  of  England,"  and  "In  the  Valley,  a  LAW'TOIT,    Henby    Wabe    (1843-99).      An. 

Pastoral."      Consult:    Gosse,    Cecil    Lawson,    a  American  soldier,  bom  in  Lucas  County,  Ohio. 

Memoir  (London,  1883).  Hg  served  with  the  volunteers  on  the  Union  side^ 

LAWSONy    John    (  ?-1712).      An    American  in  the  Civil  War,  and  rose  to  the  rank  of  brevet 

Colonial  official  and  writer.     Seeking  adventure,  colonel.    After  the  war  he  was  appointed  second 

he  came  to  Carolina  from  England  in  September,  lieutenant  in  the  Forty-first  Infantry,  was  trans- 

1700,  and  landed  at  Charleston.    Thence  he  made  ferred  to  the  Twenty-fourth  Infantry  in   1869, 

the  trip  on  horseback  to  the  settlements  on  the  and  to  the  Fourth  Cavalry  in  1871.     His  opera- 

Neuse,  in  the  Northern  Colony.    On  the  way  he  tions  in  the  West  against  the  Indians,  especially 

kept  a  journal  describing  minutely  the  coimtry,  against  Geronimo,  were  eminently  successful,  and 

the  settlers,  the  Indians,  animals,  and  plants,  by  gradual  promotion  he  attained  the  rank  of 

Soon  he  was  made  surveyor-general  of  the  Colony,  lieutenant-colonel  and  inspector-general  in  1889. 

and  explored  much  territory  before  unknown.    He  In   the  war   with   Spain  he  was  commissioned 

pnhlished:  A  New  Voyage  to  Carolina,  Containing  brigadier-general,   and  was   in   command   of  th& 

the  Exact  Description  and  Natural  History  of  Second  Division  of  the  Fifth  Corps  in  the  opera- 

thai  Country,  together  with  the  Present  State  tions  against  Santiago.     His  leadership  in  the 

Thereof;    and  a  Journal  of  a  Thousand  Miles  action  at  El  Caney  on  July  1,  1898,  was  charac- 

TraveVd  thro'  Several  Nations  of  Indians,  Oiv-  terized  by  skill  and  gallantry^  and  after  the  fall 

ing   a   Particular   Account    of    Their    Customs,  of   Santiago,  he  was  promoted  to  be  major-general,. 

Maimers,    de,     (London,    1709).     His    activity  and  received  command  of  the  Department  of  San* 


LAWTOV.  86 

tiago.    In  December,   1898,  he  was  aasigned  to  King  lioenaes  the  counsel,  and  litigants  are  free 

the  Philippines  as  second  in  command  to  General  to  employ  any  of  such  favored  students  of  the 

Otis,  and  was  actively  engaged  through  the  year  law.    The  bar  now   becomes   an    integral   part 

1800  until  he  fell  in  battle  at  San  Mateo,  Luzon,  of  the  judicial  system,  having  rights,  duties,  and 

on  December  10th.  functions  as  distinct  and  almost  as  important 

LAWTOV,  WuuAM  Cranston  (1863-).  An  ^^,^^^  ^/  ^'^^  J»^<;^-    Ffom  this  time  on,  the 

American   author   and  educator,   born   at   New  oP""on  oi  /*;e  f&^^  professiwi     is  among  the 

Bedford,    Mass.     A   graduate    of    Harvard,    he  ^5^  P^^^'^'^Jj'%^^®  ^""^^^  ^^*^  *^P*  ^"^  ^^"^ 

taught  the  classics  in  his  native  town,  then  stud-  of  fnglMid.    See  Legal  Education. 
led  abroad    (1880-83),   tought   in   Boston,   and      .  Acf^drng  to  the  census  of  1900,  the  profes- 

finally  took  a  chair  of  the  classics  in  Adelphi  ?V?^i,^!7®"  ^^  the  United  States  numbered 

College,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.    Among  his  works  are:  113,460,   thus   constituting  one   in  every   three 

Three  Dramas  of  EuHpides  (1880) ;   Art  of  Hw  hundred  and  fifty  of  our  male  population.    Two- 

manity  in  Homer   (1896) ;   New  England  Poets  l^^*"^*  ^^  ^5  Presidents  have  been  lawyers.     A 

(1898);    Suooeaaors  of  Homer   (1898);    and  a  like  proportion  has  obtained  among  our  United 

volume  of  poems.  Folia  Diaperaa  (1895).  states  Senators,  while  more  than  half  of  our 

* __._       .  .    ^  ,.1,  «  Representatives  in  Congress,  as  well  as  of  our 

LAWYEB.    A  generic  term  applicable  to  all  state  legislators,  have  been  members  of  the  legal 

persons  who  have  made  a  special  study  of  the  profession.    Consult:  Maine,  Ancient  Law  (New 

law  and  who  are  entitled  to  the  privilege  of  York,  1878) ;  Muirhead,  Uoman  I/air  (Edinburgh, 

advising  and  representing  clients.    It  includes  1886) ;  Pollock  and  Maitland,  History  of  Eng- 

advocate  (q.v.),  attorney  (q.v.),  counselor  (q.v.),  Ugh  Law   (Cambridge,  1895). 
barrister  (q.v.),  proctor  (q.v.),  solicitor  (q.v. ) ,        lAwYBB.    A  local  name  in  the  middle  parts 

and  even  the  judicial  officers  who  collectively  ^^  ^^^  United  States  for  (1)  the  bowfln  (^r.), 

make  up  the  bench    (q.v  )   and  bar   (q.v.)      In  ^^^    ^2)    the  gray  snapper    (Neomenis).     The 

pnmitive    communities    the    lawyer    is    also    a  burbot  is  sometim^  callVd  lake  lawyer.' 

priest.    There  is  but  one  set  of  rules  of  human        »  .  ^  . , .        »    ,    ,        .         , 

conduct,  and  these  are  at  once  religious  tenets  ,  I-AXATIVB  (from  Lat.  laaattvus,  loosening, 

and  civil   codes.    As   the    Stote   develops,    mu-  from  teowre,  to  loosen,  from  loams,  loose).     A 

nicipal    law    becomes    separated    from    religion,  medicine  which  simply  unloads  the  bowels,  and 

the  usual  division  of  labor  takes  place,  and  law-  !«  not  able  to  cause  active  purgation,  even  if 

yers  who  are  only  laymen  form  a  class  distinct  g»ven  m  large  doses.    Purgatives  are  stronger, 

and  apart  from  those  who  are  avowedly  priests.  Purging  actively,  while  not  capable  of  acting  as 

In  some  stages  of  political  development,  and  in  poisons,  even  when  used  in  large  amount.    There 

some  countries  to-day,  the  canonist  plays  almost  ^^  two  qualities  by  virtue  of  which   food  is 

as  large  a  part  in  legal  aflfairs  as  the  secular  laxative.    The  principal  one  is  bulk.    All  ali- 

l^gist  or  civilian.  ment  which  contains  a  large  amount  of  innu- 

At  Rome,  the  era  of  civil  lawyers  begins  tritioi*  material  affords  a  large  residuum.  It 
about  three  hundred  years  before  Christ  with  therefore  distends  the  intestines,  and  stimulates 
Coruncanius,  the  first  plebeian  pontifea  mawimus.  ^^^  onward  propulsion  of  the  intestinal  contents. 
From  his  time  prudentea,  persons  learned  in  the  Articles  of  diet  which  are  very  largely  assimila- 
law  of  the  State,  were  a  recognized  class,  acting  We  and  afford  but  little  residuum  are  conatipat- 
as  professional  counsel  and  public  expositors  of  i^g.  Flesh-eating  camivora  are  habitually 
legal  principles.  In  some  respects  their  work  constipated,  while  herbivora  are  the  opposite, 
and  influence  differed  widely  from  those  of  the  While  'cracked  wheat'  is  a  laxative,  fine  wheat 
English  lawyer.  In  the  first  place,  they  were  ^our,  from  which  the  wheat-husk,  constitutmg 
called  on  by  the  magistrates  for  opinions  in  ^ran»  ^^^  *>een  removed,  favors  costiveness.  Un- 
Utigated  cases.  Oftentimes  these  magistrates,  ^^^  Aour,  Indian  meal,  and  oatmeal  are 
such  as  prators  and  curule  »diles,  had  no  legal  laxative.  Molasses,  brown  sugar,  ripe  fruito, 
learning,  and  hence  were  forced  to  seek  advice  especially  those  of  the  citrus  family,  as  well  as 
from  others.  But  it  was  also  customary  for  pnines,  figs,  tamarinds,  etc.,  are  among  the 
those  who  had  enjoyed  a  legal  training  and  ex-  substances  exerting  a  decided  laxativeness. 
perience  to  call  in  the  assistance  <rf  other  Cassia  fistula,  manna,  magnesia,  and  sulphur 
prudentes.  In  this  way  it  happened  that  the  are  the  drugs  usually  included  under  tlie  sub- 
Roman  lawyer  exercised  an  influence  over  judicial  division  laxatives  of  the  group  cathartics.  See 
decisions  which  has  never  belonged  to  the  Eng-  Cathabtio;  Puboative. 
lish  bar.    See  Civil  Law  ;  Jubisconsult.  LAXENBUBO,    lttx'en-b55ro.     A   village   of 

The  first  official  recognition  of  lawyers  as  a  Lower  Austria,  nine  miles  south  of  Vienna.  Pop- 
professional  class  in  England  appears  in  the  ulation,  in  1890,  1128.  It  is  noted  for  its  hand- 
reign  of  Edward  I.,  when  the  Statute  of  West-  some  Imperial  park  and  gardens,  in  which  are 
minster  1  declares  the  penalty  for  certain  the  old  castle  (founded  in  1377),  the  new  castle 
misconduct  by  'serjeant-counters.'  Its  evolu-  (begun  in  16(K)),  and  the  Franzensburg  in  a 
tion  had  undoubtedly  been  slow,  but  the  statute  mediaeval  style  of  architecture,  built  on  an  islet 
just  referred  to  is  evidence  that  'serjeant-advo-  in  the  lake,  between  1799  and  1836,  and  contain- 
eates'  had  gained  a  foothold  in  English  courts  ing  fine  art  collections. 

prior  to   1275.    Apparently  the  King  was   the        LAY,    Benjamin    (1677-1759).      A    British- 

^rst  to  employ  professional   counsel,   for  their  American  philanthropist,  and  one  of  the  earliest 

earliest  title  is  Serjeants  or  servants  of  the  King,  opponents  of  slavery,  born  of  Quaker  parentaga 

Having  asserted  this  privilege  for  himself,   he  at  Colchester,  England.    At  the  age  of  eighteen 

eonceded    it    to    others.      For    a    time    private  he  became  a  sailor,  but  subsequently,  after  his 

litigants  are  forced  to  obtain  a  special  license  marriage  in  1710,  lived  for  a  time  at  Colchester, 

from  the  King  as  a  condition  of  employing  coun-  A  few  years  later  he  settled  as  a  merchant  in 

-sel   to   appear   for  them  in   court.     Later   the  the  island  of  Barbados,  where  he  soon  became 


87 

convinced  of  the  great  iniquity  of  slavery.  His  Trojans,  it  was  believed,  were  taken  to  Greece* 
agitation  against  the  system  rendered  him  so  where  their  descendants  were  living  as  slaves, 
unpopular  that  he  left  the  island  and  removed  They  are  freed  by  Brut  and  conducted  to  Albion, 
to  Philadelphia.  Here  he  continued  to  oppose  From  this  point  Layamon  relates  the  history  of 
slavery,  and  lost  no  opportunity  to  give  expres-  Britain  down  to  the  death  of  Cadwalader,  who, 
sion  to  his  abhorrence  of  it.  He  wrote  a  number  according  to  tradition,  was  the  last  of  the  Celtic 
of  tracts  against  it,  one  of  which.  All  SUwe-  kings.  He  mentions  Gymbeline,  and  tells  the 
Keepers,  that  Keep  the  Innocent  in  Bondage,  story  of  Lear  and  his  unkind  daughters,  and 
Apostates,  was  published  by  Benjamin  Franklin,  a  larger  section  of  his  poem  is  devoted  to  the 
He  lived  to  see  a  great  change  in  the  attitude  of  deeds  of  Arthur.  The  Brut  is  of  great  philo- 
the  Friends  toward  the  question  of  slavery,  and  logical  interest.  It  exists  in  two  manuscripts 
it  was  partly  owing  to  his  efforts  that  the  society  which  are  assigned  respectively  to  about  1200 
ultimately  resolved  to  disown  all  members  who  and  1250.  The  older  and  better  manuscript  con- 
persisted  in  holding  slaves.  Lay  was  also  a  tains  32,243  short  lines.  The  verse  is  at  times 
reformer  along  other  lines.  In  1737  he  proposed  alliterative  as  in  Old  English  or  Anglo-Saxon ; 
humane  improvements  in  the  cruel  criminal  code  and  again  assonance  or  rhyme  is  employed  in 
of  the  time,  and  he  opposed  also  the  use  of  imitation  of  the  French.  There  occur,  however, 
tobacco,  tea,  and  animal  food.  His  appearance  not  more  than  a  hundred  words  of  French 
was  very  extraordinary,  for  he  was,  according  to  origin;  a  fact  to  which  attention  has  often  been 
Benjamin  Rush^  not  much  over  four  feet  in  called  to  show  that  in  Layamon's  time  the 
height,  was  hunchbacked,  and  wore  odd  clothes.  French  and  English  tongues  had  hardly  begun 
He  died  at  Abington,  Pa.,  and  was  buried  in  the  to  intermingle.  The  two  manuscripts  were  edited 
Friends'  burial-ground.  Memoirs  of  him  were  with  translation  by  F.  Madden  for  the  Society  of 
published  by  Vaux  and  Francis.  Antiouaries  (3  vols.,  Londcm,  1847).  Consult 
.  LAY,  HEXOtY  CHAMPLm  (1823-85).  An  Ameri-  also  Ten  Brink,  Early  English  Literature,  vol.  i. 
can  Bishop  of  the  Episcopal  Church.  He  was  trans.  (New  York,  1883).  See  Geoffrey  of 
bom  at  Richmond,  Va.,  graduated  at  the  Uni-  Monmouth. 

versity  of  Virginia  in   1842,  and  subsequently        LAY'ABD,    Sir   Austen  Hbnby    (1817-94). 

at  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Alexandria.    Or-  j^   English   traveler,    archseologist,   and   diplo- 

dained  deacon  in  1846,  he  was  minister  at  the  matist.    He  was  bom  in  Paris  of  English  parents 

Church  of  the  Nativity,  Huntsville,  Ala.,  from  a^d  gp^nt  several  years  of  his  youth  with  his 

1847     to     1858;     was    consecrated    Missionary  father  at  Florence,  in  Italy.    He  began  the  study 

Bishop  of  the  Southwest  in  1859,  and  was  trans-  ^f  i^^^  ^^t  before  finishing  set  out  on  a  course 

ferred  to  the  Diocese  of  Easton   (Md.)   in  1869.  of   Eastem   travel,   visited   several   districts   of 

He  wrote  Studies  in  the  Church    (1872)    and  Asiatic  Turkey,  and  acquired  a  love  for  Oriental 

The  Church  and  the  Nation  (1885).  studies,  which  he  never  lost.     In  1842  he  paid 

LAY,  John  Louis  (1832-99).  An  American  a  second  visit  to  Mosul,  where  the  French 
inventor,  bom  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y.  He  secured  an  Consul,  P.  Botta  (q.v.),  was  conducting  excava- 
appointment  as  second  assistant  engineer  in  the  tions  on  the  site  of  the  ancient  Nineveh.  Layard, 
navy  in  July,  1862,  and  in  1864  invented  the  several  years  before  Botta,  had  recognized  the 
torpedo  with  which  Lieutenant  Cushing  (q.v.)  importance  of  these  ruins,  and  formed  the  deter- 
destroyed  the  Confederate  ram  Albemarle,  After  mination  to  continue  the  examination  of  the  site 
the  evacuation  of  Richmond  by  the  Confederate  of  the  ancient  city.  In  1845  he  was  able  to  begin 
forces,  he  was  employed  in  clearing  the  James  his  excavations,  being  liberally  assisted  by  Lord 
River  of  obstructions  which  impeded  the  ad-  Stratford  de  Redcliffe,  then  British  Ambassador 
vance  of  Admiral  Porter's  fleet.  On  the  close  at  Constantinople.  In  1848  he  received  a  gen- 
of  the  war  he  resigned  from  the  service  and  went  erous  subvention  to  carry  on  the  work  under 
to  South  America,  where  the  Government  of  the  auspices  of-  the  British  Museum.  His  ex- 
Peru  engaged  him  to  mine  the  harbor  of  Callao  cavations  were  successful  to  a  remarkable  degree, 
as  a  defense  against  an  expected  attack  by  the  He  sent  to  the  British  Museum  a  mass  of 
Spanish  fleet.  He  returned  to  the  United  States  sculptures  and  inscriptions,  and  discovered 
in  1867,  and  soon  after  perfected  the  Lay  dirigi-  among  other  remains  the  library  of  King  Asshur- 
ble  submarine  torpedo,  which  he  sold  to  the  banipal.  (See  Assyria.)  The  results  of  his 
United  States  Government.  labors  were  embodied  in  his  works,  Nineveh  and 

LAYAMON,  la'yA-mon  (c.l200).  The  author  Its  Remains  (1848),  and  Nineveh  and  Babylon 
of  the  Brut,  a  metrical  chronicle  of  Britein.  (1853).  In  1852  Layard  became  member  of 
All  that  is  known  of  him  is  told  in  the  opening  Parliament  for  Aylesbury,  and  was  for  a  short 
lines  of  his  poem.  He  was  a  priest  dwelling  at  time  Under-Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs 
Emley  on  the  Severn  (Arley  Regis,  in  North  under  Lord  John  Russell.  In  1855-56  he  served 
Worcestershire) .  It  came  to  his  mind,  he  says,  as  lord  rector  of  Aberdeen  University.  In  1860 
to  relate  the  noble  deeds  of  the  English;  and  to  he  was  elected  to  Parliament  from  Southwark. 
this  end  he  traveled  about  to  procure  noble  From  1861  to  1866  he  was  again  Under-Sec- 
books.  The  book  he  made  most  use  of  was  the  retary  of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs.  He  was 
Roman  de  Brut  (1155),  by  an  Anglo-Norman  appointed  chief  commissioner  of  works  and  privy 
•  poet  named  Wace.  Wace's  poem  in  turn  was  councilor  in  1868,  and  in  1869  went  as  British 
derived  largely  from  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth's  Ambassador  to  Spain.  In  1877  he  was  sent  as 
History  of  the  British  Kings,  written  in  Latin  Ambassador  to  Constantinople,  where  he  re- 
prose  (about  1139).  But  in  his  wanderings  mained  until  1880.  He  was  honored  with  the 
Layamon  gathered  other  traditions  which  he  Order  of  the  Bath  in  1878,  and  in  1890  became 
turned  to  good  account.  His  poem  derives  its  a  foreign  member  of  the  Institute  of  France.  He 
name  from  Brut,  or  Brutus,  a  great-grandson  of  died  in  London,  July  5,  1894.  Besides  the  works 
iBneas.    After  the  fall  of  Troy  many  of  the  mentioned    above,    Layard    published:      Monu- 


LAYABD.                                88  TiAZATlTTiTiO  DE  TOBMES. 

0ie»to  of  Nineveh  (series  i.,  100  plates,  1849;  He  aooompanied  thef  latter  to  Rome,  where 
aeries  ii.,  71  plates,  1853) ;  Irucriptiona  in  the  Pope  Paul  111.  appointed  him  a  professor  in  the 
Cuneiform  Character  from  the  Aaeyrian  Monu-  College  of  the  Sapienza  (1537).  Loyola  died  in 
menta  (08  plates,  1851);  Early  Adventures  in  1556,  and  Laynez  was  elected  general  of  the 
Persia,  Suaiana,  and  Babylonia  (2  vols.,  1887;  Order  of  the  Jesuits  in  1558.  Offered  a  cardinal'a 
2d  ed.,  abridged,  1  vol.,  1894) ;  and  several  hat,  he  refused  it,  preferring  to  devote  his  life 
works  on  art.  See  Abstbia;  Nixeveh.  Consult  to  the  service  of  the  new  Order.  He  represented 
the  Autobiography,  ed.  by  Bruce  (2  vols.,  New  it  in  the  Council  of  Trent,  and  there  and  else- 
York,  1902).  where  sustained  by  discussion  and  controversy 

LAYBACH,  U^b&o.    A  city  of  Austria.    See  his  tenacious  ideas  in  favor  of  the  absolute  in- 

JjAiBACU.  fallibility  of  the  Pope.    He  laid  the  foundation 

LAY'COCK;  Thomas  (1812-76).    An  English  *<^  Y^"***  ^^  *  college  of  Jesuits,  and  placed 

physician.    He   was   bom    in    Wetherby,    York-  SP®?***  l^^^  .^^  **»  importance  of  education 

Bhire;  was  educated  at  University  College,  Lon-  ^^^'^h  should  influence  the  minds  of  the  young 

don;  studied  for  the  medical  profession  in  Paris  ^S'^  ^'^^  SOod  of  the  Church     He  died  in  Rome, 

and  in  G»ttingen.    He  became  known  as  a  spe-  January  19,  1565.    He  published  little,  and  his 

cialist    in    brain    and    nervous    disorders   by   a  manuscripts  are  almost  illegible.     His  speeches 

number  of  learned  treatises  and  contributions  to  ^^   ttie   Council   of  Trent   and   selectiona   from 

the  leading  medical  societi^  and  journals,  and  o^^^'  y"^!"*" ,  "'^Tfo^'^  5?***®^,^*'?'.^"**^  i:^ 

in  1855  succeeded  Dr.  Alison  as  professor  of  the  ^^   ^p    .'"in'oex®®^'     ^^^^^^  ^^^  ^*f^  ^^ 

practice  of  phjrsic  and  clinical  medicine  in  Edin-  -^oero  (Fans,  1895). 

burgh   University.    In    1861    he  was  elected  a  LAY  OF  THE  LAST  HINSTBEL,  The.    A 

Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh,  and  narrative   poem   by   Sir   Walter   Scott    (1805). 

in  1869  was  appointed  physician  in  ordinary  to  This  long  metrical  romance  is  a  tale  of  the  wild 

the  Queen  in  Scotland.    Of  his  numerous  writ-  life  of  the  Scottish  Border  in  the  sixteenth  cen- 

ings,  the  more  important  are:     A  Treatise  on  tuiy. 

the  Nervous  Diseases  of  Women,  Comprising  an  LAY  BEADES.     In  the  Anglican  Commun- 

Inquiry  into  the  Nature,  Causes,  and  Treatment  ion,  a#  layman  who  is  licensed  by  the  bishop  to 

of    Spinal    and    Hysterical    Disorders    (1840);  read  morning  and  evening  prayer  (with  the  ex- 

Principles  and  Methods  of  Medical  Observation  ception  of  the  absolution),  officiate  at  funerals, 

and  Research  (1856)  ;  The  Social  and  Political  and  read  the  sermons  of  approved  divines.    The 

Relations   of   Drunkenness    (1856);    Mind  and  first  reformed  ordinal  prepared  under  Edward 

Brain,  or  the  Correlations  of  Consciousness  and  VI.  contains  an  office  for  the  admission  of  read- 

Organization  with   Their  Applications   to  Phi"  ers,  and  in  the  following  year    (1560)    five  of 

losophy,  Physiology,  Mental  Pathology,  and  the  them  were  'ordained'  in  London.     It  seems  to 

Practice  of  Medicine  (2  vols.,  1859).    In  the  last,  have  been  the  intention  of  the  reformers  to  pre- 

his  most  important  work,  the  fundamental  prin-  serve  the  ancient  minor  order  of  readers  (q.v.), 

ciples  of  the  unconscious  action  of  the  brain  but  the  office  became  extinct  in  the  eighteenth 

and  the  theory  of  evolutionary  development  of  century.    The  last  diocese  in  which  lay  readers 

nerve-centres  were  first  promulgated.     He  also  were  licensed  was  that  of  Sodor  and  Man,  under 

translated    and    edited    Unger's    Principles    of  Bishop  Wilson  (died  1775).    The  office  was  re- 

Physiology    (1851)    and    Prochaska's    Disserta-  vived  by  Convocation  in  1866,  and  now  nearly 

Hon  on  the  Functions  of  the  Nervous  System  2000  are  commissioned  in  England  and  about 

(1851).  the  same  number  in  the  Episcopal  Church  in 

LAY  DAYS.     In  maritime  law,  the  number  America,  where  a  canon  passed  in  1871  regulates 

of  days  granted  in  the  charter-party  to  the  char-  the  exercise  of  their  office.     Consult  Restarick^ 

terer  or  freighter  of  a  vessel  to  load  or  unload  Lay  Readers  (New  York,  1894). 

in.    Within  the  lay  days  no  charge  is  made,  but  LAYS  OF  ANGIEKT  BOME,  The.    Classl- 

after    their    expiration    a    sum,    stated    in    the  cal    ballads,    by    Thomas    Babington    Macaulay 

charter-party,  is  charged  and  called  demurrage.  (1842).     They  are  four  in  number,  of  which 

Lay  days  begin  upon  the  arrival  of  the  vessel  at  "Horatius"  is  best  known. 

the  usual  place  for  discharging  cargo.     Sundays  LAZABILLO  DE  TOBXES,  Wthk-T^j6  oft 

are  counted  in  reckoning  lay  days,  unless  there  tftr'mfts.     The  first  Spanish  novel  of  the  class 

be  provisions  to  the  contrary  in  the  charter-party.  ^^^^^    picaroon    or    picaresque.      It    was    long 

See  Demurbage  ;  Maritime  Law.  thought  to  be  the  work  of  Hurtado  de  Mendoza 

LAYEBINO,  Arguation.    An  artificial meth-  (q.v.),    but    recent   investigation   has    made    it 

od  of  plant  reproduction  closely  resembling  the  practically  certain  that  it  cannot  be  attributed 

stolon  in  nature.    A  layer  is  an  unservered  branch  to  him.    The  story  seems  to  have  had  its  origin 

or  stem  surrounded  by  a  medium  such  as  soil  or  at  Burgos.     There  appeared,   in   1553,  what   is 

moss  in  which  it  may  strike  root.     Generally  a  generally  thought  to  be  the  first  edition  of  the 

.wound  is  made  to  hasten  the  process  of  rooting,  Lazarillo,  and  the  publication  of  this  was  quick- 

but  with  most  plants  this  is  not  essential.  Some  \y  followed  by  the  appearance  of  a  long  series 

plants    require    only   a    few   days,    others   even  of  similar  romances  of  roguery.    The  Lazarillo  is 

two  years.     Layering  is  a   favorite  method   of  the  unblushingly  told  autobiographv  of  a  rogue 

multiplying  woody  plants,  such  as  quince  and  who  began  his  adventures  as  the  guide  {lazarillo) 

gooseberry,  which  do  not  give  satisfactory  results  of  a  blind  man,  and  then  passed  some  time  in  the 

with  cuttings.  service,   respectively,    of   a   priest,    an    indigent 

LAYNE2^  lI^nftth,or  LAINEZ,  Diego  (1512-  noble,  a  begging  friar,  a  seller  of  indulgences, 

65).    Second  general  of  the  Order  of  Jesuits.    He  and  so  on,  ending  as  a  town  crier  at  Toledo, 

was  bom  at  Alraazan.  Castile,  in  1512;  educated  The  language  of  the  story  is  pure  Castilian.    It 

at   the   University  of   Alcal&,   visited   Paris   in  was  translated  into  English  by  David  Rowland 

1533,  and  became  an  ardent  follower  of  Loyola,  in  1586  and  by  James  Blakeston  in  1670.    Con? 


LAZABILLO  DE  TOBUES.                89  LAZBa 

mH  Butler  Clark's  reprint  of  the  first  edition  *a24r,  God  has  helped).    (1)  The  name  (probably 

of  the  Spanish  text    (London,  1897) ;   Foulch^  fictitious)  given  by  Jesus  to  the  poor  beggar  in 

Delboac's  edition  (Madrid,  1901);  Stahr,  "Men*  the  parable,  Luke  xvi.  19-31.    The  unsupported 

doza's  Lazarillo  de  Tormes,"  in  the  Deutaohes  idea  that  he  was  a  leper  has  given  rise  to  the 

Jahfhucher  fur  PoUtik  und  Literatur   (Berlin,  term  'lazar-house/  meaning  leper  hospital.     (2) 

1862).  The  brother  of  Martha  and  Mary  (q.v.)   and  a 

I.AZ'ABISTS,  or  Cohoimoation  of  the  Mis-  V'if'**-  *"^J**  -*  ^'"?V  °f  *"  *^°'f ^^k*"*'?  *" 

Blow.     An  Orde^  of  miwionaty  prferts  in  the  ^fji  *»•  '""^  ",V  "»*  'i**"'  t™"*  °*  ^'^  "^t'^ 

Roman  Catholic  Chuwh,  found^  by  Saint  Vin-  °f  ^^  resurrection  of  Lazarus  there  given  has 

cent  de  Paul.    Being  toi  a  time  in  the  country,  been  seriously  questioned  in  many  quarters.    A 

I..   t.n^^A   ~>»«*   .^j    «.»-   ^i:»:»..<.   .■-.*«._<.!/-  number  of  attempts  have  been  made  to  explain 

^J,^tj^*iJ^^l^L  ^«f  17w?^«™^  it  so  as  to  preserve  its  lofty  teaching  and  at  the 

to  exist  among  the  peasants,  and.gathered  several  ^^  time  eliminate  the  iiracle.     Consult  the 


•  n                lyi:    il    V    """•"«"""  w«  urn-  consult    Smith    and    Cheetham,    Dictionary    of 

cially  approved  by  the  founder's  patron,  Fnm-  christian  Antiquitie,,  vol.  i.,  pp.  049-950   (Lon- 

cois   de   Gondi,   Archbishop   of   Pans,   in    1626,  ^^^^    1876-80)                                                         • 

and   in    1632   by   Pope   Urban   VIIL    As   their  ' 

primary  object  was  to  instruct  and  edify  the  LAZ'ABUS,  Emma  ( 1849-87 ) .    An  American 
peasants,  it  was  stipulated  in  the  original  deed  Jewish  poetess  and  philanthropist,  bom  in  New 
of  endowment  that  they  should  "neither  preach  York  City,  July  22,  1849,  and  privately  educated, 
nor  administer  any  sacrament  in  towns  which  S^®  was  attracted  in  youth  to  poetry,  and  pub- 
are  the  seat  of  bishops,  archbishops,  or  courts  Hshed  a  volume  of  poems  and  translations  at 
of  justice,  except  in  cases  of  extreme  necessity."  **>«  «^»e  of  eighteen.    Admetus  and  Other  Poems 
Besides  their  special  work,  they  sought  to  reform  followed  in   1871,  and  showed  ripening  talent; 
the  clergy  by  means  of  conferences  and  the  estab-  hut  her  first  mature  work   is   Altde,   a   prose 
lishment  of  seminaries.    Saint  Vincent  prudently  romance,  based  on  an  episode  m  (Joethe's  life 
gave  his  rule  no  final  shape  until  after  many  years  (1874).      The   Spagneletto,   a   tragedy    (1876), 
of  experience,  in  1658.     In  his  own  lifetime  mis-  "^^^  ^uch  praised.    Poems  and  Ballads  of  Heine 
sionaries  had  been  sent  to  Italy  in  1638,  Tunis  followed  in  1881,  and  her  original  poems.  Songs 
in   1643,  Algiers,  Ireland,  and  the  Hebrides  in  of  a  Semite,  in  1882.    When  the  Jews,  expelled 
1646,  and  Madagascar  in  1648;  and  before  his  in  great  numbers  from  Russia,  began  to  appear 
death   in   1660  the  congregation  numbered  622  in   destitute   multitudes    in   New   York    in   the 
members.    The  first  house  in  Spain  was  founded  winter  of  1882,  Miss  Lazarus  interested  herself 
by  a  colony  from  R<5me  in  1704;  the  Spanish  actively  in  providing  technical  education  to  make 
Lacarists  kept  persistently  at  their  work,  in  spite  them  self-supporting.     She  wrote  also  In  Exile 
of  difficulties  with  liberal  and  revolutionary  gov-  (1882),  The  Crowing  of  the  Red  Cook,  and  The 
emments,  and  now  possess  sixteen  houses.    The  Banner  of  the  Jew  (1882).    A  collection  of  Poems 
French  congregation  also  suffered  severely  from  j^  P^ose  (1887)  was  her  last  book.     Several  of 
the  Revolution,  but  was  restored  in  1804,  receiv-  J^^r  translations  from  mediaeval  Hebrew  writers 
ing  15,000  francs  from  the  public  exchequer  and  ^ave  found  a  place  in  the  ritual  of  American  . 
ahospital  in  Paris.     Napoleon,  however,  abol-  synagogues.    Her  Complete  Poems  with  a  Memoir 
ished  them  once  more  in  1809  and  confiscated  appeared  m  1888,  at  Boston. 
their   property,    which   was   restored   by   Louis  LAZAJtUS,ia'ts&-rtR58,MoBiTZ(  1824-1903).  A 
XVin.    in    1816;    they    subsequently   possessed  German  philosopher  and  psychologist.     He  was 
fifty-six  houses  in  Prance.    They  were  invited  to  bom  at  Filehne  in  Posen,  and  studied  in  Ber- 
Gennany  in  1781  by  the  Elector  Palatine  Charles  Hn.     In  1859  he  became  prominently  connected 
Theodore,  who  intrusted  to  them  some  institutions  ^ith    philosophical    thought   by    founding   with 
which  had  been  conducted  by  the  Jesuits  before  Steinthal  the  Zeitachrift  fur  Volkerpsychologie 
their  suppression.    They  began  work  in  Prussia  und  Sprachwissenschaft,  and  became  a  leader  in 
In  1850,  and  had  already  eight  houses  when  they  the  modem  Herbartian  School.    In  1860  he  was 
were  driven  out  by  the  Kulturkampf  of   1873.  chosen  professor  at   Bern;   in   1868  he.  became 
They  maintained  a  mission  in  Madagascar  from  teacher  of   philosophy   at   the    Berlin   Military 
1648  to  1825.     In  China  they  have  had  a  long  Academy,  and  in  1873  was  made  professor  at  the 
and  notable  career  from  1697  to  the  present  day,  University  of  Berlin.    His  more  important  works 
and   several   of   them   have   filled   the   office,  of  are:  Das  Lehen  der  Seele  in  Monographien  (3d 
ricar  apostolic.     The  first  Lazarist  to  work  in  ed.   1883  sqq.)  ;   Zur  Lehre  von  den  Sinnestdu- 
North  America  came  there  in   1815  under  the  achungen  (1867);  Ueher  den  Uraprung  der  Sitten 
leadership  of  Dubourg,  the  future  Bishop  of  New  (2d  ed.  1867)  ;  Ueher  die  Ideen  in  der  Oeachichte 
Orleans;  the  Order  in  the  United  States  is  now  (2d  ed.   1872)  ;   Ideate  Fragen    (3d  ed.   1886) ;  ' 
divided  into  two  provinces,  with  over  a  dozen  Erziehung  und  Oeachichte    (1881);    Waa  heiaat 
houses.    See  Vincent  de  Paxil,  Saint;  and  con-  nattonale    (1880)  ;    Unaer  Standpunkt    (1881) ; 
ault  the  works  mentioned  there,  and  Recueil  des  Ueher  die  Reize  des  Spiels  (1883)  ;  and  Ethik  des 
principaJes  drculaires  des  supMeurs  g4n&raux  de  Judentums  (2d  ed.  1901). 
ia  Congregation  de  la  Mission    (3  vols.,  Paris,  -  avrcs    m/  «        At.        t.     «  j.t.    -ftx-        i* 
1877) :  JTAnoires  de  la  Oongrigation  de  la  Ui^-  ^^^^  !*'««;•     f  branch  of  the  Mingr^l  an 
•*o»  (9  vohi.,  ib..  1863) ;  AnnaUe  de  la  CongrS-  ^f**'""  °'.  **•«  Georgian  stock,  dwelling  in  the 
gatiim  de  la  Uisaion  (66  vols.,  ib.,  1834-89).  P»»ff»"«  J"  the  Batum-Trebizond  region,  chiefly 

in  Turkish  territory.     By  some  they  are  con- 

IiAZABTTB    {Ok.  Ait^pM,  Lazaroe,   more   cor-  sidered  to  be   the   descendants  of   the   ancient 

ivetly  *tXiiitifM,  Bleaiarot,  from  the  Heb.  'El  Colchians.    The  Lazian  language,  which  is  spoken 


LAZES.                                  40  LEAD. 

in  Beveral  dialects,  was  studied  by  Rosen,  who  UnionidsB    and    his    collections    of    gems    are 

published  an  essay,  Ueher  die  Sprache  der  Lazen  deposited  in  the  National  Museum  at  Washing- 

( Berlin,  1843).  ton.     Scudder  gave  a  literary  biography  of  Lea 

LAZHETCHNIXOFFy    U-zhech^n^kdf,  Ivan  ^  the  Bulletin  of  the  United  States  National 

IVANOViTCH    (1794-1869).     A   Russian   novelist  Museum,  No.  23  (Washington), 

and  dramatist.    His  first  success  was  his  sketch  LEA,  Mathew  Caeet  (1823-97).    An  Ameri- 

of  military  life  published  after  his  retirement  can  chemist,  bom  in  Philadelphia.     He  devoted 

from  the  army  in  1819.    His  dramas  did  not  meet  himself  chiefly  to  tie  chemistry  of  photography, 

with  the  success  gained  by  his  historical  novels,  to  which  he  made  a  number  of  important  con- 

among  which  the  most  important  are:    PoalednU  tributions.    His  publications  include  numeroua 

Novik   (1833);    Ledianyi  Dotn,  translated  into  papers  on  the  chemical  action  of  light  and  an 

German  with  the  title  Eispalast    (1835);   and  eiLcellent  Manual  of  Photography  (2d  ed.  1871). 

Baaurman    (1838).     His   complete  works  were  •«-*«,   ^m-              -n,            .-.^^^-.^^^y 

published  at  Saint  Petersbui^  in  1858.  ^  LEACH,  William  Eltobd  ( 1790-1836 ) .    ^ 

▼  A  irrrr  t    u>t  mi4%u    i          n  J   ^--.      •*     ui  English    uaturalist,    bom    at    Plymouth.     He 

LAZULI  riNCT    (so  called  from  its  blue  ^^^^^^  medicine  at  Saint  Bartholomew's  Hos- 

color),  or  Lazuli  BraTj^     a  small  finch  (Cy-  ital,  and  in  the  medical  department  of  Edin- 

OMsp^afMjena)  of  the  Western  United  SUtes,  £      j,  University,  from  which  he  graduated  in 

where  it  ^places  the  indigo-bird  .(q-v.)    of  the  igi^    He  became  interested  in  zodlogy,  however. 

East,  which  It  closely  resembles  m  habits  and  ^^^  j^  ^g^g  accepted  a  position  in  tiie  British 

song.     It  IS  frequently  reared  as  a  cage-bird.  Museum.    In   1815  he  published  the  beginning 

The  male  has  the  head  and  upper  parts  a  deep  ^^  ^  work  on  British  cnlstaceans  which  hi  neve? 

turquoise  blue,  with  two  white  bars  upon  the  finished.     He  was  appointed  assistant  curator 

wmgs;  the  breast  is  yellowish  tawny,  the  abdo-  ^^  ^^i^  ^^ural  history  department  of  the  museum 

men  white.    The  female  is  grayish  brown.  j^   ^^^l,  but  was  obliged  to  relinquish   active 

LAZniLITE    (from  lazuli).     An  aluminum  work  in  the  very  same  year,  owing  to  an  affection 

phosphate  with  iron  and  magnesium  hydroxides  of  the  brain  induced  by  overwork.     He  spent 

that  crystallizes  in  the  monoclinic  system.    It  is  most  of  his  remaining  years  in  Italy,  and  died 

of  an  azure-blue  color,  resembling  lapis-lazuli,  of  cholera,  near  Tortona.    Among  his  most  im- 

with  which  it  has  been  frequently  confoimded.  portant  works  are:     The  Zodlogical  Miscellany 

This  mineral  is  found  both  massive  and  crystal-  (3  vols.,  1814-17) ;  Systematic  Catalogue  of  the 

lized  in  Styria,  Switzerland,  Sweden,  and  Brazil;  Specimens    of    the   Indigenous    Mammalia    and 

and  in  the  United  States  in  Gaston  County,  N.  C,  Birds  (1816) ;    and  A  Synopsis  of  the  Mollusoa 

and  in  Lincoln  County,  Ga.  of    Great   Britain,    published   posthumously    in 

LAZZABOKI,    lftd'z&-re/n6     (It.,    beggars).  1852. 

The   name  by  which   the   lowest  class   of   the  LEA^GOCK,  Hamble  Jambs  (1795-1856).    An 

population  is  designated  in  Naples.     They  be-  African  missionary.    He  was  bom  in   Barbados, 

came  prominent  during  the  Revolutionary  and  where  his  father  was  a  slave-holder.    He  became 

Napoleonic    era,    when,    as    supporters    of    the  a    clergyman    and   gave   the    privileges    of    the 

Bourbons,  they  attacked  with  great  ruthlessness  Church  to  all  slaves  of  his  parish,  at  the  same 

the  wealthy  middle  class  and  liberal  nobility.  time  freeing  his  own  slaves.    Difficulty  with  the 

LEA,  Henby  Chables  ( 1825— ) .    An  Ameri-  ^is^pp,  insurrection  of  the  slaves,  depreciation 

can   historian.     He  was  bom   in   Philadelphia,  ^  JJ®  valiw  of  property  occurring,  he  removed 

September  19,  1825.    For  many  years  he  was  in  *?  ^}^  y^"^^  ^^^'  TIt®     %  "^^      t  ^o« 

the  publishing  business,  but  retired  in  1880.    He  pntuc^,  Tennessee,  and  New  Jersey     In  1855 

was  promineSt  in  patriotic  service  during  the  J^^*''^^.'^''  tH"^  ''^  ?  missionary  of  tiie  West 

Civil   War,   and  hii   displayed   an   active  and  J?^**^,  ^^.^'^^  Association,  and  founded  a  sto- 

honorable  interest  in  public  affairs.    He  will  be  i?<>°  at  Rio  Pongas,  Sierra  Leone.     Consult  his 

remembered,    however,    for   his   studies   in   me-  biography,  by  Caswall  (London,  1857). 

diseval    ecclesiastical    history.      His    published  LEAD.     A  city  in  Lawrence  County,  8.  D., 

works  include:     Superstition  and  Force  (1866);  just   south   of   the   county-seat,   Deadwood;    on 

An  Historical  Sketch  of  Sacerdotal  Celibacy  in  railways   connecting   with   the   Burlington    and 

the  Christian  Church  (1867);  A  History  of  the  Missouri    River,    and   the   CJhicago   and    North- 

Inquisition  of  the  Middle  Ages  (1888);  A  His-  westem  lines   (Map:   South  Dakota,  B  5).     It 

tory  of  Auricular  Confession  and  Indulgences  in  has  a  hospital   and  the  Hearst   Free  Library. 

the  Latin  Church  (1896);  The  Moriscos  of  Spain  The  city  is   in  the  noted  Black   Hills   mining 

(1901).  region,  and  there  are  extensive  gold-mining  ana 

LEA,  Isaac  (1792-1886).    An  American  con-  ?T2fn"iil.!?*^'^^'    Population,  in  1890, 2581 ; 

chologist,  bom  at  Wilmington,  Del.     He  was  a  »»  1^^'  ^^lO. 

business  man,  a  partner  of  a  large  publishing  LEAD  (AS.  lictd,  Dutch  lood,  MHG.  l6t,  Ger. 

house  in  Philadelphia,  who  devoted  his  leisure  Lot;  connected  with  Olr.  ludide,  lead).    One  of 

to  the  collection  and  study  of  objects  of  natural  the  well-known  metallic  chemical  elements.     It 

history.    He  was  especially  interested  in  fresh-  is  mentioned  in  the  Book  of  Numbers  as  part 

water  and  land  mollusks,  and,  during  fifty  years,  of  the  spoils  taken  from  the  Midianites,  and  also 

continued  to  make  contributions  to  the  trans-  in  the  Book  of  Job.     Pliny  gave  the  name  of 

actions  of  the  scientific  societies  of  Philadelphia  plumbum  nigrum  to  lead,  while  tin  he  called 

concerning  'these  animals.     His  most  important  plumbum  candidum.    Among  the  alchemists  lead' 

writings  are:     Observations  on  the  Oenus  Unio  was  designated  by  the  character  which  is  sup- 

(13  vols.,  1827-73)  ;  Synopsis  of  the  Family  of  posed  to  represent  the  scythe  of  Saturn.    It  is 

Naiads  (1852-70).    G.  W.  Tryon,  Jr.,  published  found  native  in  small  quantities,  usually  with 

a  full  account  of  Lea's  conchological  work  in  a   little   silver  and   antimony.     Its   compounds 

Philadelphia  in  1861.    His  immense  collection  of  found  in  nature  include  the  sulphide^  the  car* 


LBAD.  41  LEAD. 

bonate,  the  sulphate,  the  phosphate,  a  chloroar-  tion  period  follows  immediately  after  the  process 

senate,  as  well  as  numerous  compounds  with  rare  of  roasting;  in  hearths  the  roasting  and  reduc- 

elements,  such  as  chromium,  selenium,  tellurium,  tion     proceed     simultaneously.     In    the    rever- 

Tanadium,  etc.  beratoiy  furnace  process  a  charge  of  ore  weigh- 

Lbad  Ores.  The  principal  ore  of  lead  is  ing  from  one  to  four  tons  is  placed  in  the 
galena  (PbS),  which  contains  86.6  per  cent,  of  furnace  and  subjected  to  roasting  at  a  constantly 
metal.  The  sulphate  (anglesite),  the  carbonate  increasing  temperature  for  from  two  to  four 
(cerusite),  and  the  phosphate  (pyromorphite).  hours.  "Hie  temperature  is  kept  down  by  keeping 
are  occasionally  found  in  sufficient  quantities  to  the  furnace  doors  open,  and  the  charge  is  con- 
warrant  exploitation;  while  the  arsenate,  chro-  stantly  stirred.  The  furnace  doors  are  then 
mate,  vanadate,  molybdate,  and  oxide  have  little  closed  and  the  fire  urged  for  a  period  varying 
metallurgical  importance.  Galena  always  con-  from  an  hour  in  some  forms  of  the  process  to 
tains  some  silver  and  usually  a  little  arsenic,  seven  hours  in  other  forms.  During  this  opera- 
antimony,  copper,  zinc,  and  gold.  When  the  tion  metallic  lead  is  formed  and  runs  into  the 
content  of  silver  reaches  several  ounces  a  ton,  furnace  slumps,  whence  it  is  drawn  at  intervals 
the  ore  is  known  as  argentiferous  galena,  and  is  into  suitable  ladles.  The  temperature  is  then 
treated  for  the  separation  of  the  metals.  Galena  lowered  and  another  period  of  rocusting  takes 
is  a  widely  disseminated  mineral,  although  it  place;  this  is  followed  by  a  second  increase  of 
rarely  occurs  in  large  deposits.  Along  the  At-  temperature,  during  which  more  metallic  lead 
lantic  border  of  the  United  States  there  are  is  obtained.  These  alternate  periods  of  roasting 
numerous  localities  where  it  is  found  in  veins  and  reaction  are  continued  until  the  ore  has 
tiiat   cut   through   the  Archaean   and   Paleozoic  given  up  all  its  lead. 

rocks,    the    gangue   material    being    quartz    or        In  the  hearth  process  the  operations  are  in 

calcite.     These  deposits  have  not  been  worked,  outline  as  follows:     On  the  hearth,  which  has 

however,   for  many  years,   owing  to  the  great  been  previously  almost  filled   with   lead,   some 

abundance  of  rich  ores  in  the  Western  States,  coal  is  strewn,  and  when  the  fuel  is  well  lighted 

One  of  the  roost  productive  mining  regions  is  and  glowing,  the  residue  from  a  previous  opera- 

in  Southeastern  Missouri.     The  ore-  is  dissemi-  tion  is  placed  on  it.    As  soon  as  the  ore  begins 

nated  in  limestone  through  a  thickness  of  about  to  separate  out  a  quantity  of  ore  mixed  usually 

200  feet«  and  it  has  been  taken  out  in  enormous  with  a  little   lime   is   thrown   on  the  glowing 

quantities  from  the  workings  at  Mine  La  Motte,  mass  and  covered  with  a  small  portion  of  fuel. 

Doe  Run,  and  Bonne  Terre.     Galena  associated  After  ten  or  fifteen  minutes  the  under  side  of 

with  zinc  blende  is  found  in  Illinois,  Wisconsin,  this  mass  is  stirred  together  and  is  then  broken 

and  Iowa  in  proximity  to  the  Mississippi  River,  up  and  withdrawn  on&  the  workstone,  the  top 

and  also  in  southwestern  Missouri  in  Jasper  and  portion  of  the  mass  now  sinking  down  in  the 

Newton  counties,  and  across  the  Kansas  border  hearth.    On  the  workstone  the  slag  is  separated 

in    Cherokee    County.      The    argentiferous    lead  from  the  incompletely  decomposed  ore,  and  the 

ores    of    the    Rocky   Mountain    States    are   the  latter,    mixed    with    a    fresh    quantity    of    ore 

'principal  sources  of  supply  at  the  present  time,  and  a  little  slacked  lime,  is  put  back  into  the 

The  ore  bodies  are  found  in  carboniferous  lime-  hearth,  the  separated  slag  being  collected  and 

stone,  for  the  most  part  along  the  contact  with  worked  up  on  the  slag-hearth.     After  five  or 

sheets  of  porphyry;   they  yield  hard  and  soft  ten  minutes  the  slag  on  the  hearth   is  again 

ores  containing  cerusite  and  silver  chloride.    In  broken  up,  the  lower  and  partially  smelted  part 

the  deeper  workings  the  oxidized  ores  give  way  withdrawn  from  the  hearth  and  treated  as  before, 

to  the  imchanged  sulphides.     Lead-silver  mines  A  constant  repetition  of  this  operation  constitutes 

are  operated  at  several  localities  in  Utah.  Large  the  hearth  process.     The  separated  lead  trickles 

quantities  of  lead  in  crude  form  are  imported  through  the  fuel  into  the  hearth,  which,  when 

into  the  United  States  from  Mexico  and  British  full,  overflows  into  suitable  ladles. 
Columbia  and  refined  by  Western  smelters.  In  the  roasting  and  carbon  reduction  process 

Metallubgt.    For.  metallurgical  purposes  the  the  ore  is  first  roasted  in  heaps  or  in  roasting 

chief   ore   of   lead   is   galena.     Next   come   the  furnaces  of  various  forms,  with  the  addition  of 

carbonate  and  the  sulphate,  the  former  of  which  quartz  to  bring  the  lead  in  the  ore  into  the  form 

is  rarely  smelted  by  itself  and  the  latter  very  of  oxide  and  silicate.    The  roasted  ore  is  next 

exceptionally  treated  alone.     The  following  de-  smelted    in    blast-furnaces,    alternate    layers    of 

scription,  therefore,  refers  entirely  to  the  reduc-  f^d   and  ore  being  charged  at  the  top   and  a 

tion  of  galena.     There  arg  three  general  proc-  ^last  of   air  being   introduced   at   the  bottom, 

ess^  for  reducing  galena  ore  which  are  known  rj,^^  products  of  the  blast-furnace  are  metellic 

as  the  air  reduction  process,  the  roasting  and  lead,   lead   matte,    slag,   and   sometimes   speiss. 

carbon  reduction  process,  and  the  precipitetion  The  molten  lead  is  ready  for  refining,  but  the 

or  iron  reduction  process.    All  of  these  processes  ^„xx^  „„j  o,^^:„a  «,««<.  \L  »^k;<.^^^  T«  a,*4^v^« 

renuire   a    subaeouGnt    refinini?   nroceaa    for    the  ™*^*®  *°^  ®P*'*®  ™"®^  ^  subjected  to  further 

require   a    suosequeni    renning   process   lor   xne  -..-.^pg-   x^   tutoMrt^   fh«»   mpfnllip   IpbiI    nnnfAinMl 

production  of  commercial  lead  pig.  process  to  secure  tne  metallic  lead  containea. 

In  the  air  reduction  process  the  galena  is  first  ^J  ^^^  ,^f^  of  matte  this  process  consists  first 

roasted  to  such  a  degr^  that  a  mixture  of  lead  ?^  roasting  and  second  of  smelting  exactly  as 

sulphide,  oxide,  and  sulphate  is  produced  con-  ^^  }^^  ^^^  "^^J^^,  o"ginal  ore.    The  roasting 

taining  the  three  compounds  in  definite  proper-  *^^  carbon  reduction  process  is  the  one  most 

tions,   and   then  the  temperature  is   increased,  ^^^ely  used  for  smelting  lead  from  galena, 
causing  a  reaction  between  the  elements  named,        In  the  iron  reduction  process  the  galena  is 

which     produces     metallic     lead     and     sulphur  smelted  in  reverberatory  furnaces  or»  more  com- 

dioxide.     The  operation  is  performed  in  rever-  monly,  blast-furnaces,  with  the  addition  of  iron 

beratory  furnaces  or  in  hearths,  the  former  being  ore  or  metallic  iron  to  produce  a  matte.    The 

the  more  common  method.    When  the  process  is  matte  is   then   roasted  and   smelted  to   obtain 

conducted  in  a  reverberatory  furnace  the  reduc-  the  metallic  lead.    This  process  is  seldom  used 


LBAD.                                   42  LEAD. 

alone,  but  is  practiced  to  a  considerable  extent  ment,  also  in  the  manufacture  of  flint  glass,  as 

in  combination  with  other  processes.  a  cement  for  making  steam-tight  joints,  and  in 

The  preceding  processes  are  all  employed  with  the  manufacture  of  secondary  batteries.  (See 
galena  ores.  Lead  carbonate  is  smelted  in  blast-  Minium.)  Lead  combines  with  carbon  dioxide 
furnaces  with  suitable  fluxes — limestone  and  slag  to  form  the  carbonate,  which  is  found  native 
from  previous  operations — the  metallic  lead  as  cerusite  (q.v.).  White  lead,  or  basic  car- 
draining  into  suitable  slumps  at  the  bottom  of  bonate  of  lead,  Pb(0H),.2PbC0a,  is  a  white 
the  furnace.  Lead  sulphate  is  usually  smelted  in  heavy  powder.  It  is  extensively  used  in  the 
connection  with  other  ores,  generally  galena,  but  arts  as  a  pigment  and  as  a  body  for  other 
it  may  be  smelted  alone  by  one  of  several  colors  in  the  manufacture  of  paints.  It  is 
methods.  produced   artiflcially   by   the    decomposition    of 

The   lead   obtained  by  any  of  the  processes  basic  acetates  of  lead  by  means  of  carbon  di- 

described   contains   impurities    such   as   copper,  oxide.    (See  Paints.)  -  Z/ead  acetate,  or  sugar  of 

arsenic,  antimony,  zinc,  iron,  bismuth,  tin,  and  lead,  Pb(CsHsOs)s.3H30,  is  made  by  adding  lead 

sulphur,  and  their  removal  where  they  exceed  oxide  to  acetic  acid  and  gently  heating  the  mix- 

a   certain   proportion    is    necessary   to    produce  ture.     It  is  used  in  medicine,  in  the  arts,  as  a 

marketable     lead.    Refining     processes     resolve  clarifying  agent  in  the  refining  of  sugar,  and 

themselves    into    the    separation    of    copper    by  to  a  certain  extent  in  chemical  analysis.     Lead 

liquation  or  by  means  of  zinc,  and  the  extrac-  sulphate,  which  is  found  native  as  anglesite,  may 

tion  of  the  other  metals  with  the  exception  of  he  obtained  artificially  by  precipitating  a  lead 

bismuth  and  the  precious  metals  by  melting  in  salt  with  sulphuric  acid,  yielding  a  heavy  white 

an  oxidizing  atmosphere.    In  liquation  the  copper  powder  which  is  sometimes  used  as  a  substitute 

rises  to  the  surface  of  the  molten  lead  in  the  for  white  lead.    The  various  lead  chromates  are 

form  of  scum  which  is  skimmed  oflT,  and  in  the  colored  yellow;    they  are  used  as  pigments  and 

zinc  process  it  combines  with  the  zinc  to  form  in  calico-printing. 

zinc  scum,  which  is  similarly  removed.    Oxida-  Medicinal  Uses  of  Lead  Compounds.  A  num- 

tion  of  the  other  metals  is  brought  about  by  her  of  lead  compounds  are  employed  in  medi- 

meltlng  and  heating  the  lead,  when  they  pass  off  cine  as  astringents  and  sedatives.    Most  of  them 

one  after  another  as  the  proper  temperatures  are  are  thus  applied  externally  for  weeping  eczema 

reached.    The  melting  is  usually  done  in  pots,  and  ulcerations.    The  acetate  is  given  internally 

but  hearths  and  reverberatory  furnaces  are  also  as  a  remedy  for  diarrhoea  in  typhoid  fever,  for 

employed.    Lead   containing  silver  may  be  re-  gastric  ulcer,  for  intestinal  hemorrhage,  etc.    The 

fined   by   electrolysis.    After   being   refined   the  astringent  action  for  which  principally  lead  com- 

molten  lead  is  cast  in  molds  into  pigs  and  is  poimds  are  used,  both  externally  and  internally, 

then  ready  for  the  market.  .  For  a  concise  de-  is  very  powerful.  While  they  have  no  effect  on  the 

scription    of    the    metallurgy    of    lead,    consult  healthy  unbroken  skin,  they  speedily  form  a  coat- 

Schnable,    Handbook    of    Metallurgy    (London,  ing  of  coagulated  albumin  on  sores  and  ulcers, 

1898).  and  cause  coagulation  of  albumin  in  the  tissues 

Pbopebtees  of  Lead.  Metallic  lead  (symbol,  and  contraction  of  the  small  vessels.  For  their 
Pb;  atomic  weight,  206.0)  is  a  bluish-gray  lus-  excellent  sedative  effects,  lead  salts  are  used  in 
trous  metal  that  is  exceedingly  malleable  and  pruritus.  Ordinary  'lead  water*  contains  lead 
ductile,  and  has  a  specific  gravity  of  about  11.4.  in  the  form  of  suh-acetate.  Lead  carbonate 
It  melts  at  320"*  G.  (608**  F.).  It  is  very  (basic)  is  a  10  per  cent,  constituent  of  the 
soft,  being  easily  cut  by  a  knife  and  scratched  official  'ointment  of  lead  carbonate.'  Lead  iodide 
by  the  nail,  and  readily  receives  impressions,  is  a  10  per  cent,  constituent  of  the  ointment 
It  leaves  a  black  streak  on  white  paper,  and  is  bearing  its  name.  Lead  oleate  is  contained 
an  inferior  conductor  of  both  heat  and  electricity,  in  ordinary  lead  plaster  and  in  the  'Diachylon 
Metallic  lead  is  extensively  used  for  piping,  both  ointment*  which  is  made  from  it. 
for  gas  and  water.  As  lead  is  somewhat  soluble  Lead-Poisoning.  Acute  poisoning,  which  is 
in  water,  it  is  particularly  desirable  that  caution  hut  seldom  met  with,  is  due  to  the  irritant  action 
should  be  taken  to  draw  off  water  that  has  been  of  lead  salts  on  the  alimentary  canal.  The  treat- 
standing  in  pipes  before  using,  especially  when  ment  consists  in  administering  an  emetic  (say, 
required  for  drinking.  Owing  to  the  fact  that  20  grains  of  zinc  sulphate),  washing  out  the 
lead  resists  the  action  of  acids,  it  has  been  stomach,  and  then  giving  a  dose  of  Epsom  salt, 
extensively  used  in  the  construction  of  lead  cham-  Much  more  common  and  important  is  the  chronic 
bers  in  the  manufacture  of  various  acids,  espe-  ^orm  of  lead-poisoning.  Chronic  lead- poisoning 
ciallv  sulphuric.  It  is  also  emploved  in  the  ™ay  ^e  due  to  drinking-water  that  has  passed 
manufacture  of  shot.  The  alloys  of  lead  with  through  new  lead  pipes  (in  course  of  time,  a 
other  metals  have  been  sufficiently  described  un-  deposit  of  insoluble  salts  forms  on  the  inner 
der  Alloy.  walls  of  pipes,  and  thus  the  danger  of  lead  be- 

CoMPouNDS  OF  Lead.     The  two  most  impor-  ing  dissolved  in   the  water   is  considerably  di- 

tant  among  the  compounds  of  lead  with  oxygen  minished),  or  water  that  has  been  kept  for  some 

are  litharge  and  minium.     Litharge  is  obtained  time  in  lead  cisterns. '  The  amount  of  lead  that 

when  molten  lead  is  heated  at  a  moderate  tem-  ™*y  thus  be  dissolved  depends  much  on  the  qual- 

perature  in  the  air  with  constant  stirring.     It  ity  of  the  water.    Considerable  amounts  are  dis- 

is  used  in  the    arts  in  the  manufacture  of  flint  solved  if  the  lead  is  exposed  alternately  to  the 

glass,  as  a  glaze  for  earthenware,  for  the  prep-  action  of  air  and  of  water.     Another  source  of 

aration  of  lead  salts,  as  a  paint,  and  for  dry-  chronic  lead-poisoning  is  in  the  often  uncleanly 

ing  oils.     Minium,  which  has  been  known  since  habits   of  painters^   plumbers,   and  workingmen 

the  time  of  Pliny,  is  a  scarlet  crystalline  granu-  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  lead  compounds, 

lar  powder,  usually  prepared  by  carefully  heat-  Absorbed  for  the  most  part  by  the  kidneys,  lead 

ing  very  finely  divided  pure  litharge  or  white  may    cause    pronounced    symptoms    of    anaemia, 

lead.    It  finds  extensive  use  in  the  arts  as  a  pig-  gout,  chronic  infiammation  of  the  kidneys,  chron- 


LBAD.  48  LEADING  OF  VOIGEa 

ic  inflammation  of  the  peripheral  nerves,  miiscu-  which  had  appeared  in  English,  she  began,  in 

lar  paralysis,  and  more  rarely  certain  forms  of  1670,  to  have  visions.    These  she  recorded  in  sue- 

epilepsy  and  insanity.     A  well-known  symptom  cessive  volumes.    One  of  them,  in  1693,  fell  into 

consists    in   the   formation   of   a   characteristic  the   hands   of  Fischer  of  Rotterdam,  and  was 

dark-blue  line  on  the  gums,  due  to  the  precipita-  translated  by  him  into  Dutch.     Other  volumes 

tion  of  black  sulphide  of  lead,  the  sulphur  coming  and  translations   followed,  and  Mrs.   Lead   be- 

from  the  food  or  from  tartar  on  the  teeth.    An-  came  a  recognized  leader  among  the  mystics  of 

other  common  symptom  is  known  as  'painter's  Eneland,  Holland,  and  G«rmany.    Her  followers 

colic'     The  treatment  of  chronic  lead-poisoning  called    themselves    'The    Philadelphia    Society,' 

consists    in   the   administration    of   opiimi,   ca-  and  believed  her  to  be  a  true  prophet.     About 

thartics,  sour  lemonade,  soluble  sulphates  (Glau-  1693  she  made  the  acquaintance  of  Francis  Lee, 

ber's  salt  or  Epsom  salt),  and  potassiimi  iodide,  a  young  Oxford  scholar  (because  of  his  Oriental 

Of  course,  care  must  be  taken  to  remove  the  learning   called   Rabbi   Lee),   who   became   her 

cause  and  thus  prevent  further  poisoning.  amanuensis  and  adopted  son,  and  married  her 

Consult:  Putnam,  "Toxic  Affections  from  Ar-  daughter.    She  died  in  an  almshouse  at  Stepney, 

senic  and  Lead,"  in  Keating's  Cyclopwdia  (Phila-  London,  August  19,  1704.    Her  writings  number 

delphia,   1890);    Oliver,  Lead  Poisoning  in  Its  16  titles  and  were  once  popular,  but  now  are 

Acute  and  Chronic  Forma  (Edinburgh  and  Lon-  scarce.     A  few  have  been  lithographed  in  the 

don,  1891).  Manuscript  Library    (Glasgow,   1884  sqq.),  e.g. 

I^EAD,  Sounding.  A  device  for  obtaining  The  Heavenly  Cloud  Now  Breaking:  The  Lord 
soundings.  It  almost  invariably  consists  of  a  Christ's  Ascension  Ladder  Sent  Down  (1681), 
lead  bar  of  prismatic  shape,  in  length  five  or  treating  of  death  and  resurrection;  The  Bevela- 
six  times  its  diameter,  having  a  cup-shaped  *«>»  of  Revelations  (1683),  recounting  her  vis- 
recess  in  the  larger  (which  is  the  lower)  end,  and  ions;  and  The  Wonders  of  God's  Creation  Mani- 
a  hole  for  the  lead-line  in  the  other.  The  recess  fested  in  the  Variety  of  Eight  Worlds,  as  They 
in  the  bottom  of  a  lead  is  for  the  arming,  which  •  ^"ere  Made  Known  Eatperimentally  Unto  the 
usually  consists  of  tallow;    this  strikes  the  hot-  Author  (1695). 

tom  when  the  lead  is  cast,  and  some  sand  or        LEADENHALL  MABXET.     A  great  Lon- 

mud   or   whatever   the  bottom   is  composed  of  don  market  for  the  sale  of  poultry,  game,  and 

adheres  to  the  arming  and  may  be  examined,  hides.    Its  name  is  derived  from  the  lead-roofed 

If  the  bottom  is  clean  and  rocky  this  may  also  manor  of  Sir  Hugh  Neville  which  anciently  oe- 

be    determined    by    the   effect    on    the    arming,  cupied  the  site. 

Sounding  leads  are  of  different  sizes;  hand  leads        LEADENHAIX   8TBEET.      A   well-known 

weigh  from  6  to  14  pounds;   coasHng  leads  from  London  street,  tKe  continuation  of  Comhill.    On 

25    to    60    pounds,    and    deep-«ea    (pronounced  j^   formerly   stood    the   East   India   House,   re- 

dtpsy)  leads  from  75  to  120  pounds.    For  sound-  moved  in  1862. 

ings  greater  than  20  fathoms  soundinfir  machines        -  -, .  -.«<»      mi_  •        ±    s.^        _^ 

a»  now  largely  used.    See  Sound,  Sounding.  .  I-EABEB.    The  name  given  to  the  perfonner 

Lkad-Line.  The  lead-lines  are  made  of  white  *^  *^  orchestra  who  plays  the  prmcipal  first 
line,  wetted  and  carefully  stretched  before  mark-  ^;o"?- ,  ^^c  is  also  called  concert-master.  It  is 
ing  and  frequently  examined  and  measured  to  bis  duty  to  attend  to  a  uniform  bowmg  of  the 
see  that  they  have  not  stretched  or  shrunk.  Jiohns,  as  it  would  look  awkward  if  some  per- 
The  marking  on  hand  lead-lines  is  as  follows:  formers  used  the  up  stroke,  while  others  used  the 
At  1  fathom,  a  toggle  or  piece  of  leather;  at  2  down  stroke.  He  is  supposed  to  be  able  to  take 
fathoms,  two  strips  of  leather;  at  3  fathoms,  the  conductor's  place  in  case  of  emergency.  In 
three  strips  of  leather;  at  5  fathoms,  a  white  8™ajl  orchestras  the  leader  is  generally  also  the 
rag;  at  7  fathoms,  a  red  rag;  at  10  fathoms,  a  conductor  (q.v.)  and  uses  his  bow  as  a  bAton  in 
piece  of  leather  with  a  hole  in  it;  at  13,  16,  and  passages  that  offer  rhythmic  difficulties. 
17  fathoms,  the  same  as  at  3,  5,  and  7 ;  and  at  LEADING  OF  VOICES.  A  term  applied  to 
20  fathoms,  2  knots.  The  other  fathoms  are  the  progression  of  the  individual  parts  or  voices 
not  marked  and  are  called  deeps,  the  lead-line  in  a  musical  composition,  Whether  vocal  or  in- 
being  said  to  be  divided  into  marks  and  deeps,  strumental.  What  constitutes  good  or  bad  writ- 
For  hydrographic  work  hand  lead-lines  are  ing  depends  chiefly  upon  the  skill  with  which  the 
marked  at  eveiy  fathom,  the  deeps  being  shown  various  voices  are  led.  The  fundamental  prin- 
by  a  small  rag  at  8,  9,  16,  18,  and  19  fathoms;  ciple  of  securing  a  masterly  leading  of  the  voices 
at  4  fathoms  a  piece  of  leather  with  4  tails,  and  is  the  progression  by  seconds  or  steps  whether 
at  11  and  12  the  same  as  1  and  2  (omitting  the  they  be  whole  or  half  steps,  diatonic  or  chromatic, 
toggle) .  In  addition,  every  foot  up  to  5  fathoms  Another  important  principle  is  the  retention  in  the 
is  shown  by  a  very  small  piece  of  white  rag  game  part  of  the  same  note  if  it  is  common  to  two 
worked  into  the  lay  of  the  rope  and  every  half-  or  more  chords.  The  leading  of  the  bass,  how- 
fathom  by  a  piece  of  twine.  Deep-sea  lead-lines  ever,  is  an  exception  to  these  rules,  since  the 
are  marked  at  20  fathoms  with  a  piece  of  twine  tendency  of  the  bass  part  is  to  proceed  from  the 
having  two  knots ;  at  30,  with  three  knots ;  at  fundamental  tone  of  one  chord  to  the  f undamenUl 
40,  with  four  knots,  and  so  on;  while  at  every  of  the  next.  Although  progression  by  steps  is 
intermediate  5  fathoms  there  is  a  small  piece  of  generally  desirable,  it  is  not  always  practicable 
twine  with  one  knot.  in  modem  music.    This  is  especially  true  in  the 

LEAD,  or  IiEADE,  Mrs.  Jane  (1623-1704).  case  of  the  (generally  highest)  part  having  the 

An  English  mystic.     She  was  bom  Ward  in  the  melody,  which  frequently  proceeds  in  harmonic 

county  of  Norfolk.     Her  first  call  to  mysticism  skips.    The  leading  of  the  voices  is  far  more  free 

was  m  1639.     In  1664  she  married  a  relative,  in  modem  music  than  it  was  formerly,  and  hence 

William  Lead,  who  died  in   1670,  and  thence-  a  distinction  is  made  between  strict  and  free 

forth  Mrs.  Lead  lived  quietly  in  London.     Influ-  style.     The  former  avoids  in  the  progression  of 

enced  by  the  writings  of  Jacob  Boehme   (q.v.),  voices  all  difficult  intervals  (augumented  seccmd, 
ToL.  xn.— 4. 


LBADiNa  or  VOICBa  4 

fourth),  whereBs  the  Utt«T  adraitg  such  intervalB 
under  certain  ciTcumatanceB.  Again,  there  ia 
greater  freedom  in  the  progreaaioii  of  voices  in 
inatruiDeiital  campoiitiona  than  in  vocal,  becaiue 
pure  intonation  of  difficult  intervale  is  more  eas- 
ily attained  hj  means  of  an  instrument  than  by 
the  htiman  voice.  In  the  leading  of  voices  it  is 
also  of  great  importance  whether  a  voice  or  part 
■  is  real  or  wily  reenforeing. 

LEAUrNa  TOITE  OB  NOTE.  In  music,  the 
major  seventh  of  the  diatonic  scale,  ot  the  semi- 
tone below  the  octave,  to  which  it  leads.  The 
resolution  of  this  note  in  a  chord  is  always  a 
■emistep  above.  Hence  it  can  never  be  doubled, 
as  open  octaves  would  result  in  the  progression 
to  the  next  chord.    See  Habuont. 

LEAD-POISOHINa.     See  Lkad. 

LEASB,  TjiE  (It.  /  Piombi).  The  prison  cells 
under  the  leaden  roof  of  the  Doges'  Palace  at 
Venice.     They  were  destroyed  in  17B7. 

LEAjyVHiliE.  A  city  and  the  county-seat  of 
Lake  County,  Colo.,  7S  miles  in  a  direct  line 
southwest  of  Denver;  on  the  Colorado  Midland, 
the  Denver  and  Rio  Grande,  and  other  railroads 
(Map:  Colorado,  D  2) .  The  surroundinf;  scenei? 
offers  magnificent  attractions;  and  the  city  it«elf, 
at  an  elevation  of  10,S(X>  feet,  affords  much  of 
unusual  and  etriking  interest.  There  are  large 
sampling,  reflning,  and  reduction  works,  and 
smelting  furnaces ;  also  a  handstmie  theatre, 
the  Tabor  Opera  House;  hospitals;  and  a  United 
States  fish-hatcheiy.  iJeadviUe  was  incorporated 
as  a  town  in  1BT7,  and  as  a  citf  in  1878.  Popu- 
lation, in  1S90,  10,384;  in  1000,  12,4E6. 

Settled  in  1860,  Leadville  soon  became  promi- 
nent as  the  centre  of  an  active  gold-mining  in- 
dustry. The  apparent  exhaustion  of  the  gold 
depcwite  during  the  following  decades,  however, 
gave  a  serious  set-back  to  its  progress,  and  it 
did  not  regain  its  importance  until  1870^  after 
large  bodies  of  lead-silver  ores  had  heea  opened 
in  California  Gulch,  from  half  a  mile  to  four  miles 
distanL  The  population  increased  from  about 
300  in  1877  to  at  least  6000  in  the  following 
year  and  to  15,000  in  1879.  Other  rich  silver  de- 
posits were  soon  found  on  Carbonate,  Iron,  and 
Fryer  hills  in  the  Mosquito  range,  and  the  min- 
eral output  for  Leadville  during  the  period 
1876-82  reached  the  total  of  »170,000,000.  Fur- 
ther prospecting  has  since  been  rewarded  by  the 
discovery  of  rich  ores  within  the  city  itself, 
thus  assuring  a  long  life  to  its  mining  industry. 
For  some  time  the  region  about  Leadville  held 
flrst  place  in  the  production  of  lead  and  silver, 
and  it  is  now  gaining  a  prominent  position  as  a 
producer  alao  of  gold,  zinc,  copper,  bismuth,  and 
manganese  or«s. 

LEAF  (AS.  leaf.  Goth,  laufa,  OHG.  Eoub,  Ger. 
Laub,  leaf),  A  lateral  usually  green  outgrowth 
from  the  stem  of  a  pinnt,  whose  principal  func- 
tion is  to  elaborate  food.  The  moat  conspicuous 
form  is  the  foliage  leaf;  that  is,  one  which  con- 
tains green  tissue  and  is  prominently  concerned 
in  food  manufacture.  (See  Photo8tsthbsi5.) 
Very  simple  expansions  of  green  tissue,  which  are 
commonly  called  leaves,  occur  among  the  alg«, 
especially  the  more  complex  marine  forms,  and 
In  the  case  of  the  leafy  liverworts  and  the  mosses. 
But  the  highly  organized  foliage  leaf  is  found 
only  in  the  fern-plants  (pteridophytes)  and 
Beed-plauta    (spermatophytes),    associated    with 


the.  vascular  syatem.  Such  a  leaf  may  develop 
several  distinct  regions,  the  most  conspicuous  at 
which  is  the  expanded  portion  or  blade.  In  many 
cases  where  the  blade  arises  directly  from  the 
axis,  and  no  other  region  appears,  the  leaf  is 
called  sessile.  Very  frequently,  however,  thfr 
blade  has  a  stalk  of  greater  or  less  length,  called 
the  petiole.  In  many  cases,  also,  the  petiole 
bears  at  or  near  its  junction  with  the  axis  a  pair 
of  app«idages  of  various  form,  called  stipulea. 
The  stipules  may  be  conspicuous  and  leaf -like  or 
merely  minute  bract-like  bodies;  they  may  be 
distinct  from  one  another  or  united  m  various 
ways.  In  the  smartweeds  they  unite  and  form 
a  conspicuous  sheath  about  the  stem  just  above 
the  insertion  of  each  leaf.  Still  another  leai 
region  which  may  appear  conspicuously  in  grasses 
ia  tho  sheath,  which  more  or  less  surrounds  the 
stem.  The  angle  formed  by  the  petiole  with  the 
stent  is  called  the  axil. 

FoBiis  OF  Leaves.  The  form  of  the  bladtt 
varies  greatly,  and  has  given  rise  to  a  long  list 
of  descriptive  terms,  which  are  of  service  only 
to  the  specialist  in  classiflcation.  These  terms 
apply  to  the  general  outline  of  the  leaf,  as  linear, 
lanceolate,  ovate,  cordate,  etc. ;  or  to  the  char- 
acter of  its  margin,  as  entire,  serrate,  toothed, 
lobed,  etc.;  or  to  the  character  of  its  apex  or 
base,  as  acute,  obtuse,  etc.  The  greatest  modi- 
flcation  in  the  form  of  the  blade  arises  from  its 
branching,  in  which  case  the  general  blade  be- 
comes divided  up  into  smaller  Uades  called  leaf- 
lets. Such  branching  leaves  are  usually  called 
compound,  and  the  compounding  may  occur  twice 
or  thrice  or  even  more  times,  resulting  in  a  gen- 
eral blade  made  up  of  very  numerous   leaflets. 


1,  puaUel ;  S,  ploi 


The  stalks  of  the  leaflets  are  called  petiolules,  and 
their  stipules  are  stipels.  Closely  associated  with 
the  contour  and  branching  ot  leaves  is  the  sys- 
tem of  veining  or  venation  (q.v.).  Two  general 
types  of  venation  are  recognized,  called  the 
parallel  and  the  reticulate  (or  net-veined)  types. 
In  a  parallel -veined  leaf  the  prominent  veins  run 
approximately  parallel  from  the  base  to  the  apex 
of  the  blade,  resulting  in  a  comparatively  nar- 
row and  elongated  outline  and  an  entire  margin, 
as  in  grass-blades.  This  type  of  venation  is 
characteristic  ot  the  monocotyledons,  although 
all  of  them  do  not  possess  it,  nor  is  it  absolutely 
restricted  to  them.    A  more  significant  phrase  for 


LBAT.  i 

this  ^pe,  perhaps,  is  closed  Tenation,  Impljdng 
tbkt  uto  yciiu  do  not  end  freely  in  the  margin. 
As  a  remit  of  Uub,  audi  leaveB  do  not  become 
toothed  or  lobed,  sor  do  thej  branch.  In  a 
reticulatelj  veined  leaf  the  veins  branch  freely  in 
Tarions  directions,  and  there  is  usually  evident, 
fBpecially  on  the  lower  surface,  a  distinct  and 
often  conspicuous  network  of  veins.  Such  leaves 
may  be  characterized  as  exhibiting  open  venation, 
as  many  of  the  veins  have  free  ends,  espeeiany  in 
the  margins,  resulting  in  a  tendency  to  toothing, 


irregular  but  continuous  intercellular  [ 
vajs.  This  region  is  called  the  apon^  i 
phyll.  The  third  histological  regim  of  the  foliage 
leaf  is  the  vascular  region,  represented  by  the 
veins  which  traverse  the  mesophyll  in  every  direc- 
tion. The  epidermis  does  not  hermeticaily  seal  the 
meaopbyll  tissue  from  the  outside  air,  but  in  leaves 
exposed  to  air  it  is  perforated  by  numerous  very 
small  openings,  called  stomata   (Fig.  3],  popu- 


also  have  open  venation,  but  the  veins  fork  re- 
peatedly, tlut  is,  they  are  dichotomous,  (See 
UicBOTOVT.)  Seticulately  veined  leaves  exhibit 
two  prominent  types,  the  palmate  and  the  pin- 
nate.    In  the  former,  three  or  more  main  ribs 


s  through  the  blsde  from  base 


larly  known  as  'breathing-poTcs.'  They  are  auto- 
matic gateways  in  the  sense  that  the  calibre  of  the 
poie  may  be  enlarged  or  diminished  in  response  to 
various  conditions,  thus  regulating  the  amount  of 
exchange  between  the  air  in   the  mesophyll   r~ 


BhowlDK  upper  and  lower  «ptilann!a  with  atoniKta  (■). 
Bb^hunber  11).  In  pblUada  pannehjina,  Bad  Kctlon  of  a 
vMn  In  the  siniiflT  parendijma. 

to  apex,  and  gives  rise  to  lateral  riba  of  secondary 
importance,  resulting  in  a  comparatively  narrow 
otttline.  When  such  leaves  are  lobed  or  branched 
tbey  are  aa id  to  be  pinnately  lobed  or  compound. 
Fem-leaves  ('fronds')  are  very  commonly  pin- 
nately  compound,  and  a  special  terminology 


a  anatomy 


SrsncTDwt  of  Ltatm. 
or  hiatolo^  ot  the  ord: 
nniform.  "nie  upper  and 
•d  by  a  single  fayer  of  colorless  compact  cells, 
foTinmg  the  epidermis  (Fig.  2).  Between  these 
two  layers  of  epidermis,  above  and  below,  the 
working  cells  of  the  leaf  are  found,  called  collec- 
tively mesophyll.  The  roesophyll  cells  contain  the 
KTtcn  coIor-Dodiea  (cbloroplasts) ,  and  in  ordinary 
horizontal  leaves  are  orgonlted  into  two  distinct 
regions.  The  celts  against  the  upper  epidermis  are 
elongated  and  atand  closely  side  by  aide,  with  the 
long  axis  at  right  angles  to  the  leaf  surface. 
This  is  called  the  palisade  region  of  the  mesophyll, 
and  it  is  explained  by  the  fact  that  this  surface 


irrognlar  In  form  and  loosely  aggregated,  leaving 


ceils,  which  face  each  other,  and  which  may 
change  the  aise  of  the  opening  between  them,  as 
the  lips  may  regulate  the  opening  of  the  mouth. 
Stomata  occur  in  any  epidermis  which  overlies 
green  cella,  and  therefore  they  are  naturally 
found  in  greatest  numbers  on  the  leaves.  In  the 
ordinary  horJEontal  (dorsiventral)  leaves  they 
occur  for  the  meet  part  and  sometimes  exclusive- 
ly on  the  under  surface,  averaging  about  60,000 
to  ths  square  inch,  although  in  some  cases  the 
number  may  reach  over  400,000.  Leaves  which  are 
exposed  to  the  light  on  both  aides  havs  the 
stomata  equally  distributed  upon  the  two  sur- 
faces. In  floating  leaves  the  stomata  are  upon 
the  upper  surface  only.  The  significance  ot  the 
occurrence  of  stomata  chiefly  upon  the  under  side 
of  horiEontal  leavea  ia  found  in  the  fact  that  the 
intercellular  paaaageways  with  which  stomata 
communicate  are  best  developed  on  th«  under 
side  of  the  leaf.  Associated  with  the  eptdermi* 
of  leaves  there  are  also  numerous  hairs  iaet  Tbi- 
CHOUES),  whose  occurrence  and  character  form 
part  of  the  deacriptions  of  systematic  botany. 
For  example,  if  hairs  are  absent,  the  leaf  ia 
apoken  of  aa  glabrous;  and  if  present,  the  terms 
pubescent,  hirsute,  tomentose,  woolly,  etc.,  de- 
scribe their  character. 

Modified  Leaves.  There  are  numerous  struc- 
tures in  plants  which  have  long  been  regarded  as 
modified  leaves— that  is,  leavea  which  have  been 
diverted  from  their  ordinary  work  as  foliage 
leaves  to  serve  some  other  purpose  either 
exclusively  or  in  addition  to  their  ordinary 
work.  It  is  ft  matter  for  serious  doubt 
whether  all  such  structurea  have  actually  been 
derived  from  foliage  leaves,  but  they  all  may  b« 
grouped  as  foliar  organs.    In  addition  to  follaga 


LEAP.  46  LEAF. 

leaves,  therefore,  prominent  aniong  other  foliar  the  normal  BirangeineDt,  since  the  atem  axis  is 
oi^na  are  the  following:  Pitchert,  aa  in  the  not  always  perfectly  straight  in  its  growth. 
yariouB  'pitcher  plants'  for  entrapping  varioua  Ecoldot  of  THK  Leaf.  Ecologically,  the 
iiwecta;  Bensitive  fly-traps,  as  in  aundews  and  leaves  of  plants  may  be  conaidered  from  the 
Dioniea  (q.v.)  (see  Cabnivobous  Pi^nxs)  ;  standpoint  of  the  Tarioua  leaf  forms  found  in 
storage  organs,  as  in  bulb-scalesj  and  many  seed  nature,  and  (2)  from  that  of  the  evidence  oh- 
leaves  (cotyledona)  ;  Bud-scales,  used  for  pro-  tained  by  experimenta  to  determine  the  cauae 
teeting  young  parts;  tpinea,  as  in  the  barberry  of  the  various  forms.  In  general,  leaves  are 
and  holly,  where  every  gradatirai  between  spiny-  expanded  organa,  and  they  also  have  a  poai- 
toothed  leaves  and  true  spines  is  found;  ten-  tion  which  ia  in  most  cases  perpendicular  to 
driU,  which  are  often  leaves  or  leaf-parta  adapted  the  majority  of  incident  rays  of  light.  This 
for  climbing;  bracts,  which  are  leaves  modi&ed  position  ia  technically  termed  diaheliotropio. 
in  size  and  color  and  associated  with  flowers;  It  can  readily  be  seen  that  these  conditions 
the  floral  organa,  as  sepals,  petals,  stamens,  car-  favor  the  absorption  of  the  largest  quantities 
pels,  all  of  which  may  be  regarded  as  foliar  struc-  of  radiant  energy;  and,  inasmuch  as  radiant 
tures,  but  probably  not  modified  foliage  leaves  as  energy  is  essential  to  the  growth  and 
is  commonly  stated.  life   of    plants,    it   is  clear   that   the   expanded 

Abrakoeuert  of  Leaves.  The  distribution  of  form  and  the  diaheliotropio  position  are  distinct- 
leaves  on  the  atcm  has  given  rise  to  a  subject 
called  phyllotasy,  which  undertakes  to  study 
the  laws  which  govern  the  distribution.  The 
general  conclusion  reached  is  that  leaves  are 
distributed  so  aa  to  economize  space  and  to  ob- 
tain a  light  exposure,  but  this  is  to  be  regarded 
as  the  result  of  the  arrangement  rather  than  its 
cause.  The  most  fundamental  clasaiScation  of 
leaves  on  the  basis  of  arrangement  is  into  the 
cyclic  and  spiral  arrangements.  In  the  former, 
two  or  more  leaves  stand  together  at  the  same 
joint  (node)  of  the  stem,  dividing  the  circum- 
ference between  them.  If  the  cycle  consists 
of  two  leaves  they  are  called  opposite,  while 
if  it  consists  of  three  or  more  they  are  called 
whorled  or  verticitlate.  In  the  spiral  arrange- 
nienta  the  leaves  stand  singly  one  after  an- 
other— that  is,  each  point  of  the  stem  bears  but 
a  single  leaf,  and  they  are  commonly  apolcea 
of  aa  alternate.  It  is  the  spiral  arran^ment 
which  haa  developed  the  largest  discussion  In 
reference  to  the  laws  of  phyllotaxy,  for  th« 
cyclic  arrangement  represents  merely  two  or  more 
spirals  ascending  the  stem.  In  the  simplest  alter- 
nate arrangement  the  second  leaf  stands  upon  the 
opposite  side  of  the  stem  from  the  first,  and  the 
third  leaf  stands  directly  over  the  first.  This 
results  in  two  vertical  rows  of  leaves,  one  on 
each  side  of  the  stem,  an  arrangement  indicated 
by  the  fraction  one-half.  The  whole  fraction  signi- 
fies the  angular  divergence  l>etween  two  successive 
leaves,  the  denominator  the  number  of  vertical 
rows.  The  next  higher  arrangement  ia  one  in 
which  the  angular  divergence  between  two  suc- 
cessive leaves  is  one-third  of  the  circumference, 
and  as  a  consequence  the  leaves  occur  in  three 
vertical  rows,  and  the  fractional  expression  ia 
one-third.  The  next  higher  arrangement  is  indi- 
cated by  the  fraction  two-fifths,  which  means    that 

the  angular  divergence  ia  two-fifths  of  the  circum-  fio.  *.  bkiitiim  ot  bassJIill 

ference  of  the  stem,  that  there  are  five  vertical  icvnptnal*  roeoodrtbWa)  which  hu  ■usand  Injnrj,  and 
rows,  and  that  the  spiral  Ime  makes  two  turns  ha*  in  coiuMiiencs  drrsloped  basal  aK^enile)  ImTsa  npoa 
around  the  stem  before  it  reaches  the  aame  naa*^""  Tlil»remiltlia«Bl«)  beeaiweribul  tottmlllnml. 
vertical  row  with  which  it  started.     The  curious 

feature  of  the  system  appears  at  this  point  ly  advantageous,  though  it  by  no  means  follows 
Succeeding  fractions  may  be  obtained  by  adding  that  the  need  for  light  has  caused  either  the 
the  numerators  and  denominators  of  the  two  pre-  form  or  the  position.  Large  numbers  of  leaves 
ceding  fractions.  For  example,  the  fraction  are  finely  divided;  this  ia  conspicuously  true  In 
which  follows  the  one-half  and  one-third  arrange-  the  hydrophytes  (q.v.),  but  it  is  also  true  of  a 
ments  is  two-fifths,  and  the  next  would  be  three-  vast  number  of  plants  with  atrial  leaves.  While 
eighths,  and  ao  on.  The  higher  numbers,  such  we  can  hardly  believe  that  compound  leaves  have 
as  five-thirteenths,  eight  twenty- firsts,  etc.,  oc-  been  caused  in  any  such  way,  it  ia  nevertheless 
cur  In  certain  pine-cones,  but  in  ordinary  foliage  true  that  a  larger  amount  of  leaf  surface  can 
leaves  the  lower  numhers  of  the  aeries  are  the  be  presented  to  the  sunlight  than  in  the  case  ol 
Common  ones.    It  is  often  difficult  to  determine    plants  with  entire  leaves.     Perhapa  the  moat 


mdrantageoiu  leaf  type  of  all  U  that  which  is 
illuatrated  bf  the  grasses ;  here  vertical  leaves 
or  leaves  which  are  approximatelj  vertical  are 
grouped  together  in  vast  numbers,  probablj  ae- 
curing  the  greateat  leaf  surface  in  a.  given  space 
that  is  found  anywhere  in  the  plant  kingaom. 
Simple  experimentation  shows,  however,  that  the 
vertical  position  of  grass'leaves,  at  least  in  manj 
eaaes.  is  due  to  mechanical  causes  and  has  little 
or  DO  relation  to  light  stimuli.  Another  condi- 
tion  which  favors  the  admission  of  light  is  the 
presence  of  petioles.  MapIe-leavcB  which  are  de- 
veloped in  the  strong  sunlight  have  short  petioles. 


r  LBAT-BEETLE. 

turgor  is  thereby  increased.     Od  the  contraty, 
in    a   drj    air    leaves   grow   small    because    the 

transpiration    is    increased   and    the   turgor   re- 
duced.    In  other  words,  anything  which  tends  to 


tion,  if  that  be  possible.  Petioles  thus  give-  a 
much  ereater  plasticity  and  flexibility  to  leaves. 
Other  leaves  have  the  power  of  motility  which  is 
strikingly  illustrated  in  the  sensitive  plant  and 
clover.  The  advantage  of  this  motility  is  not  al- 
together clear,  especially  since  the  closing  of  tha 
leaf  occurs  chiefly  in  the  night  rather  than  in 
the  day.  (For  a  further  discussion  of  this  topic. 
Me  XxBOPHTTEB. )  Tbo  placing  of  the  leaves  on 
the  stems  also  varies  to  a  high  degree  in  nature, 
and  in  general  there  seems  to  be  a  sort  of  rela- 
tion between  the  phyllotactic  arrangement  and 
type  of  leaf  arrangement,  since  the  out«r  leaves 
are  more  commonly  farther  apart  than  small 
ooea.  Rosette  plants  present  a  very  interesting 
type  of  leaf  arrangement,  since  the  outer  leaves 
ott«n  have  long  petioles  and  the  inner  ones  none 
at  all;  not  only  this,  but  the  phyllotactic  arrange- 
meot  is  such  that  the  shading  of  one  leaf  by 
another  is  largely  prevented.  In  one  way  or 
another,  then,  it  seems  that  there  is  a  general 
tendency  in  nature  for  plants  to  dispose  their 
leaves  in  such  a  way  as  to  prevent  shading.  It 
is  very  doubtful,  however,  if  this  can  be  regarded 
as  a  direct  result  of  the  light  stimulus.  If  in 
nature  leaves  are  not  seen  to  shade  each  other 
to  any  great  extent,  it  may  not  be  that  this  is  an 
adaptation  by  natural  selection,  but  rather  that 
the  leaves  which  were  shaded  have  been  compelled 
to  die  through  getting  insufficient  food;  this 
results  in  a  survival  of  the  unshaded  leaves,  A 
•tudy  of  the  leaves  of  a  patch  of  rank  weeds 
shows  that  all  the  lower  leaves  have  died  and 
that  only  the  uppermost  have  been  able  to  en- 
dure. 

Recent  experimental  studies  on  leaves  by 
Goebel,  Brenner,  and  others  have  contributed 
much  to  the  solution  of  the  question  of  the 
causes  of  leaf  shape  and  form.  Goebel's  theory  is 
that  light  is  the  chief  factor  in  the  matter.  His 
experiments  on  cacti  and  on  the  harebell  have 
shown  that  if  the  light  is  weak  large  leaves  de- 
velop, whereas  strong  light  develops  small  leaves. 
Other  experiments  which  have  been  made  more 
recently  Uirow  grave  doubt  upon  Goebel's  results ; 
in  the  first  place,  many  instances  have  been  cited 
in  which  light  favors  rather  than  retards  the 
development  of  leaves;  and  secondly,  other  fac- 
tors which  Qoebel  did  not  reco^ize  have,  even  in 
tbevery  forms  which  he  studied  produced  the  very 
resnlts  which  he  referred  to  light  (Fig.  4).  Kohl 
and  more  recently  Brenner  have  considpred  that 
moisture  is  the  chief  element  which  affecti;  leaf 
shape,  particularly  the  relation  which  legists  be- 
tween absorption  and  transpiration.  To  illus- 
trate, in  ft  moist  atmosphere  leaves  grow  large 
beokiue   tha  transpiration   is  checked  and  the 


or  decrease  cell  turgescence  tends  to 
modify  not  only  the  leaf  size  but  also  the  leaf 
form  itself  (Fig.  S).  It  is  not  possible  at  present, 
on  account  of  the  very  small  number  of  experi- 
ments, to  reach  any  very  definite  conclusions.  A 
great  many  diilerences  which  leaves  show  cannot 
now  be  referred  to  any  mechanical  cause,  byt  it 
surely  seems  to  be  the  present  tendency  to  adopt 
an  explanation  of  this  kind  for  the  variations  in 
leaves  rather  than  to  give  a  teleological  explana- 

The  structure  of  leaves  varies  a^  well  as  tha 
external  form,  and  here  also  two  prominent 
theories  have  been  advanced  to  account  for  tha 
changes  observed.  The  chief  chsnges  which  have 
been  observed  are  associated  with  the  chlorophyll 
cells  and  the  epidermis.  Stahl  in  particular  has 
held  that  incr^sed  light  causes  the  development 
of  palisade  cells.  This  view  has  been  rather 
generally  accepted  and  at  present  there  seems  to 
t>e  no  valid  reason  for  serious  objection  to  it. 
It  may,  however,  rightly  be  a  subject  for  further 
investigation  to  settle  the  question  of  the  precise 
effect  of  light  upon  cell -structure.  Leaves  which 
are  grown  in  a  moist  atmosphere  develop  a  thin 
wall,  whereas  a  thick  wall  is  developed  in  a  dry 
atmosphere.  Perhaps  the  cause  in  the  latter 
case  is  to  be  referred  to  the  greater  concentration 

tiroduced  by  excessive  transpiration.  This  might 
ead  to  a  deposition  of  cell-wall  material.  Sto- 
mata,  as  a  rule,  are  less  subject  to  experimental 
change  than  are  the  other  leaf-organs.  However, 
some  plants,  as  the  mermaid  weed,  do  not  d^ 
velop  stomata  when  submerged.  The  stimulating 
cause  for  this  change  has  not  been  suf;gcsted. 
For  bibliography,  see  Botaht.     See  also  Eia- 

lOLOQY. 

LEAP-BBBTLB.  Any  one  of  a  larjfe  family 
of  beetles,  the  Chrysomelida,  so  called  becauso 
both  adults  and  larvc   feed  on  the  leaves  o( 


48  LBAE-INSECT. 


plants.    The  family  is  an  enormous  one,  as  it  tularis,  a  species  common  to  Europe  and  the 

comprises  about  18,000  species.     The  great  ma-  United  States,  uses  the  leaves  (not  the  petals) 

jority  are  found  in  the  tropics,  but  600  species  of  roses,  fitting  the  pieces  together  so  as  U)  form 

occur  in  North  America.     The  leaf-beetles  are  one   thimble-shaped  cell   within   another,   in   a 

nearly  all  small,  the  potato-beetle  being  one  of  long  cylindrical  burrow,  the  bottom  of  each  cell 

the  largest  of  the  family.    The  eggs,  as  a  rule,  are  containing  an  egg  and  a  little  pollen  paste.    A 

laid  on  the  food  plant.    The  larvsB  of  many  spe-  single  female  will  build  30  or  more  cells  and 

cies  live  on  the  leaves,  either  exposed  or  covered  will  occupy  20  or  more  days  in  the  work.    Me- 

with  grass.     Some  cany  perfectly  constructed  gachile  acuta  of  the  United  States  is  a  carpenter 

cases;  others  are  leaf -miners,  as  the  Hispini;  still  as  well  as  a  leaf -cutter,  and  excavates  its  tunnels 

others  are  root-borers  and  stem-borers,  and  a  few  in  soft  or  partly  decayed  wood.    In  each  tunnel 

are  aquatic — ^a  remarkable  diversity  of  habit  in  thimble-shaped  cells  are  made  of  pieces  of  rose- 

the  larvie  of  a  single  family.     The  larvs  cover  leaves  and  are  filled  with  pollen  and  honey.    One 

themselves  with  excrement.     The  most  remark-  egg  is  laid  in  each  cell,  which  is  then  sealed 

able  covering  formed  by  any  insect,  perhaps,  is  with  circular  pieces  of  rose-leaf.     The  cells  of 

that  made  by  a  tropical  American  leaf-beetle  of  the  leaf-cutter  bees   are   also  not  infrequently 

the  genus  Porphyraspis,  which  lives  on  cocoa-  placed  in  cracks  of  houses  or  trees,  under  stones 

palms  at  Bahia.     The  larvse  are  covered  by  a  and  boards  in  deserted  earthworm  holes,  or  in  tiie 

sort  of  bird's-nest-like  coating  of  fibres  or  threads  holes  of  carpenter  bees  (q.v.),  in  auger-holes,  or 

attached  to  the  anal  extremity,  which  are  wood  in  lead  pipe;  and  they  have  even  been  found  in 

fibres  that  have  passed  through  the  alimentary  tibe  nozzle  of  an  old  disused  pump.    See  Plate  of 

canal  and  have  been  stuck  together  again.   Some  Bees. 

of  the  tropical  species  of  this  group  are  extreme-  LBAF-rBOO.  One  of  the  small  American 
ly  beautiful  and  mounted  m  gold  are  used  as  tropical  frogs  of  the  family  Cystignathida  and 
jewelry.  With  the  species  of  temperate  regions  genus  Hylodes,  of  which  about  50  species  are 
the  color  usually  fad^  and  becomes  sordid  after  known.  All  are  less  than  two  inches  long,  are  as 
death.  Among  well-known  destructive  leaf-  ^  rule  brightly  colored  and  changeable,  and  have 
beeties  are  those  of  the  genus  CnocCTis  (see  the  general  habits  of  tree-frogs  (q.v.).  The 
Abpabagus  Insects),  the  potato-beetle,  and  fingers  as  well  as  the  toes  are  provided  with 
the  cucumber-beetle,  and  its  allies  of  the  genus  ^ig^s,  enabling  the  animals  to  cling  to  the  leaves 
piabrotica.  In  California  the  adults  injure  ^f  ^i^^ts  and  trees,  as  they  habitually  do.  The 
fruit  and  fruit-trees,  and  in  the  East  they  males  have  vocal  sacs  and  make  chirping  sounds, 
eat  the  leaves  of  cucumber,  squash,  and  melon  ^  remarkable  species  is  the  coqui  {Hylodes  Mar- 
vin^, and  the  young  bore  into  the  stems  and  tiniensia),  of  Porto  Rico,  Haiti,  and  the  Antilles, 
roots  of  the  same  and  other  food  plants,  (^e  ^y^^^  y^^^  undergo  their  whole  metamorphosis 
CoBN-lNBECTS.)  All  the  Diabroticas  are  diffi-  i^fo^e  emerging  from  the  protection  of  the  egg. 
cult  insects  to  combat.  Another  group  of  o^i-  xhe  female  glues  about  20  large  eggs  enveloped 
cultural  pests  m  this  family  is  that  of  the  ffea-  j^  ^  f  ^^  ^  l^^oad  leaf/S  in  the  aril 
beetles  (q.v.).  The  brown  and  black  larva  of  ^f  a  flag,  and  then  seems  to  remain  near  by 
the  grapevine  flea-beetle  feed  on  the  upper  sur-  awaiting  developments.  Each  embryo  (tadpole) 
face  of  grapeleaves.  A  well-known  and  destrac-  ^  g,  maturity  within  its  egi,  developing 
tive  species  18  theimported  elm-leaf  beetle.  (See  ^^j^her  gills  nor  gill-openings,  but  apparently 
Elm-Insects.)  On  the  sweet-poteto  and  morn-  b^eathinl  through  the  highly  vasculari^  teil. 
ing-glory  vines  small,  flattened,  beautifully  in-  ^^  ^^^  f^^  food-yolk  and  liqliiids  of  the  egg  are 
descent  ^f-beetles  ocair,  which  are  gold  and.  exhausted,  the  till  is  rapidly  absorbed,l^d  a 
green.     (See  Golden  Beetiz  )     Consult:  Dim-  ^^^^   ^it  perfectly   fomed   frog  brekks   the 

T'^^iiV^Ji^  ^"*r''',jS**'''^'7''^-/o.^^°*'  sl^ell  and  hops  awa/.     A  frog  of  the  Solomon 

ton,  1884)  ;  Sharp    Camhrtdge  Natural  History,  inlands  has   a  similar  method  of  development 

vol.  VI.  (London,  1899).  ^^^in  the  egg.    See  Hylodes. 

LEAP-BUG.  Any  hemipterous  insect  of  the  LEAF-HOPPEB.  A  bug  of  the  family  Jas- 
family  Capsidae.  The  leaf-bugs  form  the  largest  gid«.  The  leaf-hoppers  are  among  the  most 
family  of  the  true  bugs.  They  are  usually  rather  abundant  of  the  bugs,  and  comprise  a  great  com- 
small,  slender  and  delicate  msects.  More  than  plexity  of  forms.  By  most  modem  writers  the 
1000  species  have  been  described,  of  which  250  in-  group  is  considered  of  superfamily  rank,  and  is 
habit  the  Unit«i  States,  but  there  are  many  more  known  as  Jassoidea.  All  are  small  insects.  One 
undescribed  and  unnamed  forms.  They  are  found  apecies  {Cicadula  eadtiosa)  infesU  winter  wheat, 
chiefly  upon  the  leaves  of  plants,  but  are  not  all  The  grapevine  leaf-hopper  {Erythroneura  vitis) 
true  plant-feeders,  and  very  few  of  them  occur  in  often  occurs  in  great  numbers  on  the  vine,  and 
sufficient  numbers  to  become  important  crop  ig  very  injurious  to  it.  It  is  known  to  grape- 
enemies.  The  four-lined  leaf -bug  (PtBcilooapsus  growers  as  'the  thrips*  or  'grapevine  thrips,'  a 
lineatus)  is,  however,  a  common  garden  pest,  all  misleading  name.  (S^  Thbips.)  Scores  of  spe- 
through  the  Eastern,  Central,  and  Southern  cies  feed  upon  grasses  and  bring  about  a  very 
United  States,  sucking  the  sap  of  gooseberry  extensive  although  probably  unnoticed  damage 
bushes,  currants,  dahlias,  and  many  other  gar-  to  the  grazing  ranges  of  the  West, 
den  plants.  Those  species  which  are  not  plant-  leaP-INSECT,  or  Wauono-Leaf.  One  of 
feeders  are  predaceous  and  destroy  other  insects.  ^  ^^^  remarkable  ^oup  of  insects  of  the  orthop- 

LEAP-CTTTTEB  BEE.    A  name  given  to  cer-  terous  family  Phasmidae,  natives  of  tropical  coim- 

tain  species  of  solitary  bees    (see  Bee)    of  the  tries,  chiefly  of  the  East  Indian  region,  having 

genus  Megachile  in  consequence  of  their  habit  of  wings  exfremely  like  leaves,  not  only  in  color, 

lining  their  nests  with  portions  of  leaves,  or  of  but  in  the  way  they  are  ribbed  and  veined.    The 

the  petals  of  flowers,  which  they  cut  out  for  this  j'oints  of  the  legs  are  also  extended  in  a  leaf-like 

purpose  with  the  mandibles.    MegacJ^le  centuruh  manner.    So  close  is  the  resemblance  that  the  na- 


lAAV-IKBBCT.                          49  LEAGUE  OF  THE  PBINCE& 

tiYes  of  the  countries  where  they  ahotind  firmly  or  in  some  species  many  of  them  may  hind  all 

believe  that  they  were  once  real  leaves,  which  by  the  leaves  of  a  branch  into  one  common  nest, 

some  metamorphosis  of  habit  have  taken  to  walk-  The  yellow  active  larvse  of  one  species  ( Oacwoia 

ing.     There  is  also  a  marvelous  similarity  be*  oerasivorana)  makes  such  a  nest  on  the  wild  or 

tween  their  eggs  and  plant-seeds,  even  in  minute  choke  cherry.    The  larvs  change  to  pups  within 

structure.    These  insects  spend  their  lives  among  the  nest,  but  just  before  the  moth  emerges  the 

foliage,  move  slowly,  and  would  be  much  exposed  pupa  makes  its  way  to  the  outer  surface  of  the 

to  every  enemy,  did  not  their  leaf-like  appear-  nest,  where  it  hangs  attached  by  caudal  hooks. 

ance  preserve  them  from  observation.     Spectro-  The  rolling  of  the  leaves  with  the  solitary  spe- 

soopic  analysis  of  the  coloring  matter  of  these  cies  is  due  in  part  to  the  individual  work  of  the 

insects'  wings  shows  a  slight  distinction  from  larva,  in  part  to  the  contraction  of  the  silk  in 

that  of  chlorophyll,  but  that  it  does  not  differ  drying,  and  in  part  to  the  changes  in  the  growth 

from  that  of  living  leaves.    Confined  leaf-insects  of  the  vegetable  tissue.     Some  tortricid  larvn 

will,  in  the  absence  of  leaf  food,  eat  one  another's  are  not  leaf-rollers,  but  inhabit  fruit,  like  the 

wings.    See  MiMiCBT.  codling-moth    (q.v.)f  the  well-known  enemy  of 

LSAP-KANNA.    See  Lerp-Insect.  apples  and  pears;  Carpocapsa  splendana,  which 

lives   m  acorns  and  walnuts;    and  Carpooapaa 

LSAP-XINEBi.     A  member  of  a  group  of  aaltitana,  which   inhabits  the   seeds   known  as 
very   small    moths,   known   as   the   Tineids,  of  'jumping  beans*    (q.v.).     Certain  beetles    (wee- 
serial  or  superfamily  rank,  containing  a  number  vils)  have  a  similar  habit  of  rolling  leaves. 
^familiM  and  more  than  4000  described  species.  LEAF-SPOT.     A   plant   disease.     See   Dis- 
The  popular  name  'leaf-mmer'  refers  to  the  fact  xases  of  Plants. 
that  the  larve  of  very  many  species  mine  out  the  »*i*«tt«  /*   *     xv    ▼   x   .        %       a 
chlorophyll  from  between  the  upper  and  lower  ^^^™  ^^""T  ^^  ^^  ^^-    ^  measure 
surfaces  of  the  leaves  of  plants.    The  leafminers  ^  ^^^^  °J  8Teat  antiquity.    It  was  used  by  tje 
proper  belong  especially  to  the  tineine  families  Romans,  who  derived  it  from  the  Gauls,  and  esti- 
Gracillariidae,  Lavemid®,  Elachistid®,  Lithocol-  ^^^  *^  *»  eqrnva  ent  to  1600  Romaji  paces,  or 
letidjB,  Lyonetiidtt,  and  Nepticulidae,  but  some  Jf ^ modern   English  miles.     The  league  was 

of  the  Tineid«  and  Gelechiidse  are  also  leaf-min-  *?.^'^^f  ^  '^J^  w?^"'^.^^  *^?  ^"""^al'.  ^"^ 

era.    Others  of  the  tineine  series  are  leaf-rollers,  ^H^^*^^®!.®  ^t*  battle  of  Hastings   (1066),  and 

leaf -Webbers,  seed-feeders,  twig-borers,  gallmak-  ^^f  ^J?^}^}^  **™®  lengthened  to  two  Enrfish 

ers,  and  root-feeders,  and  othf rs  still  feed  upon  ??^®^°^  *****  *1"5'  ^'  2.9  modern  English  miles. 

animal  matter  such  as  skins,  fur,  woolen  goods  ^*  ^^  P'^?°*  ^J  ^^X  H*^^..*?v*   ^^*V»1 

<8ee  Clothes-Moth),  and  also  upon  dried  fruits,  measure,  and  signifies  the  twentieth  part  of  a 

stored  grain,  and  similar  substances.     Some  of  degree-i.e ,  three  gBOgraphi<»l  miles,  or  3.466 

them  are  leaf-miners  only  in  early  life,  and  later  ?i**^*«  miles.    The  French  and  other  nations  use 

construct   cases   which  they  bear  around  with  the  same  najitical  league,  but  the  former  natw^ 

them  while  feeding  externally  on  the  foliage  of  ^a^    (until  the  mtroduction  of  the  metric  sys- 

planU.   This  habit  is  characteristic  of  the  fam-  *«°»     two  land-measures  of  the  same  name,  the 

uy  Coleophorids  ^®8»1  postmg-league,  2.42  English  miles,  and  the 

Althoi^h  very*  small,  the  tineines  are  frequent-  ^^f^  ^^  ^6  to  the  degree,  2.76  statute  English 

ly  very  beautiful  and  are  ornamented  with  bril-  ™**^' 

liant  metallic  scales.    The  wings  are  usually  very  LEAGUE  (OP.,  Fr.  ligue,  ML.  liga,  lega,  bond, 

narrow,  sometimes  lance-shaped,  and  bear  long  from  Lat.  ligare,  to  bind).     In  French  history, 

marginal  fringes.     Two  species  of  Tinea  have  «•  name  specifically  applied  to  the  Holy  League 

been  recorded  as  viviparous.     Examples  of  tine-  (Sainte   Li^e)    organized   in    1576   by   Henry, 

ines  are  very  difficult  to  collect  and  to  preserve,  Duke  of  Guise  (q.v.),  in  opposition  to  the  grant- 

and  this  accounts  for  the  fact  that,  although  me  of  the  free  exercise  of  their  religion  and 

4000  species  have  been  described,  entomologists  political   rights   to  the  Huguenots.     While   its 

are  really  only  just  beginning  the  study  of  the  ostensible   object   was   the   maintenance   of   the 

group,  which  surely  comprises  very  many  thou-  Koman  Catholic  religion  in  its  predominance,  the 

sands  of  species.  'e^l  &im  of  the  Guises  was  rather  to  exclude 

Certain  other  insects  aside  from  these  little  the  Protestant  princes  of  the  blood  from  the  suc- 

moths  are  leaf-miners  in  the  larval  stage,  as  cer-  cession  to  the  throne.     For  an  account  of  the 

Uin  leaf-beetles  of  the  tribe  Hispini;  certain  flies  civil  war  that  ensued,  see  France;  Henbt  III.; 

of  the  families  Oscinida  and  Anthomyiidc;  and  Henbt  IV.;  Huquewots.     Consult  also  Mignet, 

certain   saw-flies  of  the   family  Tenthredinidflc.  Hisioire  de  la  Ligue  (6  vols.,  Paris,  1829).    See 

Ck)nsult:   Sharp,  Cambridge  Natural  History,    Holy  League.       

Tol.  vi.   (London,  1899) ;  Comstock,  Manual  for  LEAOTJE  OF  THE  PEINCES  (Ger.  FUrst- 

ihe  Study  of  Iruecta  (Ithaca,  1896).    See  But-  enhund),    A  league  originated  by  Frederick  the 

TEBFUXS  AiCD  MoTHS;  Saw-Flt.  Great,  in  1786,  to  oppose  Joseph  II.  in  his  pur- 

X.EAF-XOHKET.     See  Langub.  P?*^.^|  altering  the  constitution  of  the  German 

Empire,  and  extending  the  Austrian  power  m 

IJIAF-BOLIfES.    A  small  nocturnal  or  ere-  South  Germany  by  the  acauisition  of  Bavaria  in 

puBCular  moth  of  the  family  Tortricidffi,  most  of  exchange  for  Belgium.     The  league  was  formed 

which  in  the  larval  stete  roll  themselves  within  between  Prussia,  Saxony,  and  Hanover  on  July 

the  leaves  of  plante,  fastening  them  with  silken  23,    1786,    and    was    afterwards   joined   by   the 

threads.     They  are  generally  less  than  an  inch  dukes  of  Brunswick,  Mecklenburg,  Saxe-Weimar, 

in  breadth  across  the  expanded  wings,  and  have  and  Saxe-Gotha,  the  margraves  of  Anspach  and 

naked   antenn».     The    fore   wings   are   usually  Baden,  the  Elector  of  Mainz,  and  other  princes. 

marked   with    spote   and   bands,   but   the    hind  Having   eifected    the   abandonment   of   Joseph's 

wings  are  without  ornament.     The  larva  either  plans,  the  league  was  dissolved  at  Frederick's 

roUa  a  leaf  into  a  nest  in  which  it  lives  singly,  death,  and  a  later  attempt  by  Charles  Augustus 


LEAGUE  OF  THE  PBINCEa              50  LEANING  TOWES. 

of  Weimar  to  make  it  the  basis  of  a  Gennan  desert,  but  arrived  only  after  the  capitulation  had 

union  imder  the  leadership  of  Prussia  was  un-  been  signed.    In  1801  he  made  a  careful  survey 

successful.    Consult  Ranke,  Die  deutachen  MUchte  of  Upper  Egypt,  and  in  1804  traveled  through 

und  der  Furatenlmnd  (2d  ed.,  Leipzig,  1876).  the  greater  part  of  Turkey  and  Greece,  surveying 

LEAGUE  OF  THE  PUBLIC  WEAL   (Pr  ^^®  coasts  and  fortresses  and  making  collections, 

Ligue  du  hien  public).    An  alliance  of  the  great  ^^jch  are  now  in  the  British  Museum.     After 

French  nobles  igainst  Louis  XL,  formed  in  1465  undertaking  extensive  explorations  m  the  Orient 

under  the  leadership  of  Charles,  Count  of  Cha-  ?o^  J55o^"*^.?u  ^^^^^^f'^^^  (1808.13),  he  retired 

rolais    (Charles  the  Bold  of  Burgundy).     The  ^.  1823   with  the  grade   of   lieutenant-coloneL 

ostensible  object  of  the  nobles  was  to  put  an  end  ?"  P™^^Pf^  ^^'*"  *^/  Researches  *n  (h^oe 

to  the  tyrannical  government  of  Louis  XL;  but  (l^l^) ;    The    Topography   of   AiheM    {IS21) ; 

in  fact  their  objecte  were  purely  selfish,  their  Journal  of  a  Tour  tn  Asta  Minor  wtthCompara- 

only  aim  being  to  regain  the  old  extensive  feu-  Uve  Renuirks  on  the  Ancteni  and  Modern  Geog- 

dal  privileges,  which  had  enabled  them  to  defy  ^«P^y  ^f^l!^*  Cotm^ry   (1824)  ;   Travels  in  the 

even  the  royal  power.    They  gained  a  victory  over  ^<^«*    (1830) ;    Travels    m    Northern    Oreeoe 

Louis  XL  on  jSy  16,  1465,  at  Montrhfiry,  and  in  <  1835) ;    and    Numismatuxi    Hellenvca    (1864). 

October,  in  the  Peace  of  Conflans,  the  King  was  Consult  Maiden,  Br%ef  Memoir  of  theUfe  and 

forced  to  make  great  concessions.     But  the  ad-  Writings  of  W.  Jf.  Leake  (London,  1864). 

vantage  gained  by  the  nobles  was  of  short  dura-  LBAMINCKTON,  l6m^g-ton.     A  fashionable 

tion,  for  the  crafty  monarch  succeeded  in  crush-  watering-place  in  Warwickshire,  England,  on  the 

ing  them  individually,  and  made  the  royal  power  Leam,  a  tributary  of  the  Avon,  about  two  miles 

supreme  in  France.    See  France;  Louis  XL  from  Warwick  (Map:  England,  E  4).    Leaming- 

LEAXE,  Sir  John  (1656-1720).    An  English  ton  is  of  modem  growth  and  owes  its  importance 

admiral.    He  was  bom  at  Rotherhithe,  Surrey,  to  its  mineral  waters,  saline,  sulphurous,  and 

England ;    early  entered  the  navy,   and  distin-  chalybeate.    It  has  a  proprietary  college,  erected 

guished  himself  under  his  father  in  1673  in  the  in  1847  in  the  Tudor  style.    In  the  centre  of  the 

action   between   Sir   Edward   Spragg  and    Van  town  is  a  pump-room,  a  handsome  structure. 

Tromp,  and  afterwards,  when  appointed  captain.  The  manufacture  of  cooking-ranges  is  an*impor- 

convoyed  victualers  into  Londonderry,  thus  com-  tant  industry.     The  town  owns  the  Spa  baths, 

pelling  the  enemy  to  raise  the  siege.    In  1702  he  open-air    baths,    water-supply,    gas,    tramways, 

was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  commodore,  and,  ^^d  cemeteries,  and  maintains  free  libraries,  tech- 

in  command  of  a  squadron,  destroyed  the  French  nical  schools,  and  beautiful  public  gardens  and 

settlements  at  Newfoundland,  restoring  the   is-  parks.     Population,   in   1891,   26,900;    in   1901, 

land  to  the  English.    For  these  services  he  was  26,850.    Consult  Guide  to  and  History  of  Leam- 

made  on  his  retum  rear-admiral,  and  soon  after-  ington   (London  and  New  York,  1888). 

wards  vice-admiral  of  the  blue,  and  knighted.  LEANDEB,  U-ftn^dSr.    See  Hebo. 

In  1704  he  displayed  creat  skill  and  .gallantry  in  maNDEB,  lA-anM©r,  Bichabd.    The  pseudo- 

relieving  Gibraltar  wlen  on  the  pomt  of  bemg  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^  B\f^YiKTii 

taken.by500  Spaniards  who  had  climbed  up  the  ^^^  Volkmann  (q.v.). 

rock.     Soon  after  he  was  made  vice-admiral  of  ^i     ' 

the  white,  and  again,  in  1705,  relieved  Gibraltar  LEAN^DEB,  Saint  (c.650-c.601).  Arch- 
by  destroying  the  French  squadron.  In  1706  bishop  of  Seville.  He  was  born  at  Cartagena, 
he  relieved  Barcelona  when  reduced  to  great  ex-  Spain,  and  became  a  monk.  His  zeal  in  convert- 
cremity  by  the  Spaniards  and  French,  obliging  ing  the  son  and  successor  of  King  Leovigild  waa 
King  Philip  to  raise  the  siege.  In  the  same  punished  by  banishment.  He  betook  himself  to 
year  he  commanded  the  fleet  which  captured  Constantinople,  and  there  formed  a  lasting  friend- 
Alicante,  Cartagena,  and  the  island  of  Majorca,  ship  with  Gregory,  afterwards  Pope  Gregory  the 
He  was  now  made  adipiral  of  the  white  and  Great  (590-604).  About  584  Leander  was  made 
oommander-in-chief  of  the  Mediterranean  fleet.  Archbishop  of  Seville,  and  in  699  Gregorjr  sent 
In  1708  he  reduced  Sardinia  and  Minorca.  In  him  the  pallium,  and  also  dedicated  to  him  his 
1709  he  was  made  rear-admiral  of  Great  Britain.  Moralia  in  Johum,  Leander's  most  important 
The  same  year  he  was  appointed  Lord  of  the  achievement  was  the  conversion  of  the  West 
Admiralty,  and  continued  high  in  office  till  the  Goths  from  Arianism  to  Catholic  Christianity, 
death  of  Queen  Anne  He  was  several  times  a  LEANING  TOWEB.  A  tower  which  over- 
member  of  Parliament  for  Rochester.  On  the  ^  .^^  ^^^  ^^  ^^^  gj^^  The  most  celebrated 
accession  of  George  I.  he  was  superseded  on  a  ^^^  j^  .^  ^y^^  Campanile  of  Pisa,  which  has  an 
pension  of  £600  a  year.  He  died  at  Greenwich,  ^^liquity  of  13  feet  in  a  height  of  179.  It  waa 
on  August  21^  1720.  The  Life  of  8ir  John  Leake,  ^^„  ^^  ^^^  architect  Bonannus  of  Pisa  in  1174, 
by  Stephen  Martin  Leake,  his  nephew,  was  pri-  ^Q^tinued  by  William  of  Innsbruck  and  others, 
vately  printed  m  London  (1750).  ^^^   completed    in    1350.      It    is    built    in    the 

IfEAKE,  William  Mabtin  (1777-1860).  A  Romanesque  style,  to  correspond  with  the  cathe- 
British  officer  and  archaeologist,  bom  in  Lon-  dral,  and  is  surrounded  by  open  arcades  of  col- 
don.  He  was  educated  at  the  Royal  Military  umns.  Other  well-known  examples  are  in  Bo- 
Academy  at  Woolwich,  received  a  commission  as  logna,  the  Torre  Asonelli  (1109),  and  the  Torre 
second  lieutenant  in  the  artillery  service,  and  Garisenda  (1110),  both  built  of  brick,  the  latter 
in  1794  was  ordered  to  the  West  Indies.  Here  well  known  through  a  passage  in  Dante*s  Inferno. 
he  remained  for  four  years,  and  in  1799  was  The  fallen  Campanile  of  Venice  also  leaned 
sent  as  captain  to  instruct  the  Swiss  in  artillery  slightly;  there  are  other  examples  at  Pisa,  Ra- 
practice.  Leaving  Constantinople  in  1800  to  venna,  and  elsewhere  in  Northern  Italy,  and  a 
join  the  Turks,  who  were  then  fighting  the  few  in  other  parts  of  Europe.  It  is  a  disputed 
French  in  Egypt,  he  traveled  through  Asia  question  as  to  whether  the  slant  of  these  towers 
Minor,  Jaffa,  and  Egypt,  and  even  traversed  the  is  accidental.    That  of  Pisa  shows  an  increased 


IiEANINQ  TOWEB.                       51  LEASE  AND  BELEASE. 

• 
height  in  each  successive  story  on  the  leaning  or  leasehold,  as  it  is  technically  called.  Formerly 
aide  which  has  been  attributed  by  some  (Rohault  all  leases,  excepting  leases  for  life  (which  re- 
de Fleuzy,  Mothes)  to  attempts  of  the  architects  quired  the  same  ceremonial  as  was  requisite  for 
to  rectify  a  sinking  while  the  tower  was  being  the  conveyance  of  a  fee),  were  effected  by  parol, 
built.  Others  (Grassi,  Ricci,  Goodyear)  have  ad-  But  the  Statute  of  Frauds,  passed  in  the  twenty- 
vanced  arguments  to  show  that  the  slant  here  ninth  year  of  Charles  II.,  made  a  writing  essential 
and  elsewhere  was  intentional.    The  latter  is  the  to  the  validity  of  all  leases  for  terms  exceeding 

?revailing  opinion.    Consult  the  article  "Leaning  three  years.    This  provision  has  in  many  of  the 

'ower,"  in  Sturgis,  Dictionary  of  Architecture  United  States  been  modified  by  statutes  requiring 

(New  York,  1901-02).    For  illustration,  see  Pisa,  leases  for  more  than  one  year  to  be  in  writing. 

IiEAPmO-FISH.    See  Mudskippeb.  ^^?  ij^nfiat^  effect  of  a  lease  for  years  is  to 

»^*^    »^      w  o        x-».  ^^g^  ^  ^^  lessee  an  interest  in  the  land,  knoVhi 

IiEAP  IHSECT.    See  Lerp  Insect.  technically  as  an  interesse  termini,  which  has 

IiEAP-YEAB.  A  vear  of  366  days  (see  Cal-  ™*°y  ^f  the  characteristics  of  a  leasehold  estate, 
JOfDAB),  so  called  because  it  leaps  forward  a  day  ^^t  which  requires  the  entry  of  the  lessee  upon 
as  compared  with  an  ordinary  year.  It  so  hap-  ^^^  land  to  make  his  title  as  tenant  complete. 
pens  that  the  leap-years  coincide  with  the  years  ?"«»  ^^  possession  the  lessee  becomes  the  vir- 
that  are  divisible  by  four  without  remainder,  and  J^^l  o^"  ^f  the  premises  .for  the  period  of  his 
thus  they  may  be  known.  Of  the  years  divisible  le^sej  he  has  a  true  estate  in  the  land,  which  he 
by  100,  only  those  are  leap-years  which  are  di-  fan  defend  against  the  lessor  as  well  as  against 
visible  by  ^.  The  term  hisaextiU,  applied  by  ^^^  J^^.  °^,  the  world,  and  which  is  limited  only 
the  Romans  to  leap  years,  arose  from  their  reck-  ?y  \}^  .rules  of  law  governing  the  relations  of 
oning  the  sixth  before  the  calends  of  March  (Feb-  landlord  and  tenant.  ^  ,  .  .  , 
Tuary  24th)  twice  (6w),  whereas  we  add  a  day  ^»  ^^  understood,  a  lease  is  a  simple  con- 
to  the  end  of  the  month,  making  February  29th.  veyance  having  no  other  effect  than  the  creation 

of  the  bare  propertv  relation  of  landlord  and 

IiEAB,  Edwabd   (1812-88).     An  English  ar-  tenant.     The  instrument  by  which  the  lease  is 

tist  and  poet,  bom  at  Holloway,  in  London,  May  effected  may,  however,  include  a  variety  of  col- 

12,  1812,  into  a  large  family  of  Danish  stock,  lateral  agreements  on  the  part  of  the  lessor  or 

As  a  boy  he  showed  a  liking  for  painting  and  the  lessee,  or  both,  creating  contract  relations  be- 

natural  history;   at  Jhe  age  of  nineteen  found  tween  them  in  addition  to  the  property  relations, 

employment  as  draughtsman  in  the  ZoSlogical  Of  this  nature  are  the  usual  stipulations  of  the 

Gardens;  soon  won  the  attention  of  the  Earl  of  lessee  to  pay  a  fixed  rent,  to  keep  the  premises 

Derby,   for   whom  he  drew   the   plates  to   The  in  repair,  to  make  no  assignment  of  the  lease,  or, 

Kno^csley  Menagerie;  traveled  extensively  on  the  on  tne  part  of  the  lessor,  to  grant  a  renewal  of 

Continent  and  in  the  East,  filling  his  books  with  the  lease,  to  pay  for  improvements  at  the  expira- 

drawinga;    settled   in   Italy;    and   died   at   San  tion  of  the  term,  and  the  like.    These  agreements, 

Remo,  January,  1888.    His  work  was  rated  very  if  the  instrument  be  under  seal,  become  incorpo- 

high  by  Ruskin  and  Tennyson.     He  captivated  rated  in  the  leasehold  estate  and,  as  the  expres- 

young  and  old  with  his  humorous  verse :  Book  of  sion  is,  run  with  the  land,  binding  successors  of 

A'on«en«e,   made   for  the   children  of  the   Earl  the  lessor  and  lessee  respectively  as  well  as  the 

(1846)  ;  Ifonsense  Songs  (1871)  ;  More  Nonsense  original  parties  te  the  transaction. 

Songs  (1872)  ;  Laughable  Lyrics  (1877).    Other  it  should  be  noticed,  however,  that  a  formal 

works    are:     Illustrations    of    the    Family    of  and  valid  lease  is  not  necessary  in  all  cases  to 

the  PmttacidcB  (1832)  ;  QUanings  from  the  Me-  create  the  relation  of  landlord  and  tenant.    This 

nagerie  at  Knowsley  Ball  (1846)  ;  and  the  jour-  may  arise,  as  a  tenancy  at  will  or  from  year  to 

nals  of  travel  in  Italy   (1846),  Greece  and  Al-  year,  by  the  entry  of  a  tenant  under  a  void  lease, 

bania    (1851),  the  Ionian  Islands    (1868),  and  or,  like  a  tenancy  at  sufferance,  by  the  continued 

Corsica     (1870).      Consult    Tennyson's    Poems,  occupation  without  authority  of  a  tenant  whose 

illustrated  by  Lear,  with  memoir  by  Lushington  lawful  term  has  expired.     Nor  is  it  necessary 

(London,  1889).  that  a  lease  shall  specify  all  the  obligations  of  the 

IiEABy  Tobias  ( 1762-1816) .  An  American  parties  thereto.  The  most  important  of  these,  as 
diplomatist,  bom  at  Portsmouth,  N.  H.  In  1783  the  obligation  of  the  landlord  to  defend  his  ten- 
he  graduated  at  Harvard,  and  in  1785  was  ap-  ant's  title,  and  the  tenant's  liability  for  waste  and 
pointed  private  secretary  to  Washington,  in  repairs,  are  the  legal  incidents  of  the  relation 
which  position  he  remained  until  Washington's  of  landlord  and  tenant,  and  exist  without  refer- 
death.  From  1802  to  1804  he  was  consul-general  ence  to  the  terms  of  the  lease.  See  Estate; 
at  Santo  Domingo,  and  in  the  latter  year  became  Leasehold  ;  Landlobd  and  Tenant,  and  consult 
consul-general  at  Algiers.  He  was  appointed  in  t^«  authorities  referred  to  under  the  last  of  these, 
1805  to  conclude  a  peace  with  Tripoli,  and  de-  and  under  Real  Pbopertt. 

spite  sharp  censure  from  some  quarters  arranged  LEASE  AND  BELEASE.  An  old  form  of  con- 
terms  approved  throughout  by  the  United  Stetes  yeyance  of  land.  It  had  ite  origin  in  the  practice 
Government.  Subsequently  he  was  connected  of  leasing  land  to  a  tenant  for  a  term,  as  one 
with  the  War  Department  at  Washmgton  as  an  yp^r  ^nd  then,  after  his  entry  upon  the  land  and 
accountant  until  his  death  by  suicide.  during  his  term,  releasing  the  reversion,  or  es- 

IiEASB.  The  act  or  instrument  whereby  any  tate  of  the  landlord,  to  him  by  a  deed.  The  two 
estate  in  land  less  than  a  fee  is  created.  In  its  transactions  together  had  the  effect  of  transfer- 
most  extended  sense  the  term  thus  includes  the  ring  the  entire  freehold  estate  of  the  grantor, 
conveyance  of  a  life  estate,  as  well  as  the  parol  which  otherwise  could  be  effected  only  by  the 
agreement  which  results  in  a  tenancy  at  will  or  notorious  process  of  feoffment  (q.v.),  or  livery  of 
from  year  to  year.  More  frequently,  however,  it  seisin  (q.v.).  It  had  the  advantage  over  the 
is  applied  to  the  writing  (not  usually  a  deed)  or  latter  of  being  a  secret  conveyance,  but  was  sub- 
the  parol  declaration  creating  an  estate  for  years,  ject  to  the  disadvantage  of  requiring  the  actual 


LEASE  AND  UKTiEAflE,  52  LEAST  SQUABBS. 

• 
entry  of  the  tenant  upon  the  land  before  he  be-       Technically,  the  proper  mode  of  creating  an 

came  capable  of  taldng  the  rerertdon  by  the  deed  estate  for  years  is  by  a  lease,  or  demise,  fol- 

«f  release.    This  difficulty  was  obyiated  by  the  lowed  by  the  entry  of  the  lessee.    Ai^  form  of 

construction  put  by  the  courts  upon  the  famous  words  showing  the  intention  to  create  the  relation 

Statute  of  Uses  (27  Hen.  VIII.,  c.  10) ,  which  per-  of  landlord  and  tenant  will  suffice.    See  Ebtaix; 

mitted  the  creation  of  a  complete  leasehold  es-  Fkbholo;  Lanolosd  and  TKnaht;  Isase. 


Tise-  lor  a  year,   ine  siaiuie  in  quesuon,  oy  exe-  j  r    ..  —  i  iz  '        £ 1  uV —  >y--'   —  — 

cnting  the  Iise,  i.e.  by  transferriig  to  the  tenant  deduction  of  the  most  probable  value  .from  a 

*  lej^l  tiUe  coextensive  with  WS  use,  or  equi-  ^''^  ?^  observations,  each  of  which  is  liable 

table  title,  vested  the  possession  in  him  and  ttus  to  certain  accidental  errors.     The  methods  by 

rendered  him  instantV  «»pable  of  teking  the  ^''»«1'  **»»  ".  ^"""^  1^7  ^  y^''^  '"'?'  * 

landlord's  estate  by  Kleasl.     The  two  iistru-  ?"«'»  example.    Let  it  be  found  that  a  givoi 

menta  of  lease  and  of  release  could  thus  be  •»'  ^i  **  *•»«  temperature  of  20%  40%  60% 

executed  in  quick  succession,  and,  Uter.  the  two  t^  ««    ,^  ^^^^'^L^  ^t  ^'^^\  ^^"^i 

acta  became  simultaneous  and  were  merged  in  J*?^;"?-  ^<^?°\ "f **  ^"*i".^  Tk"™*^'  T'J 

one  and  the  same  instrument.    This  pro^  of  }f*  »*  ^  reqmred  to  ascertam  the  coefficient  of 

lease  and  release  was  the  usual  mode  of  convey-  '«'*".'  e»P»«w«>n.  >•«•.  t^e  amount  of  linear  ex- 

ance  in  Enghind  for  three  hundred  years,  aid  P"*"""?.  P!'  ff««f  °f  ^f^P*"*",";.    ",*•  ^ 

prevailed  i£  the  United  States  as  well,  until  "S*?"  the  length  of  the  bar  at  0°  C.  o  the  co- 

«.*^«<,<wi^  K«.  ♦!,«  „;».«vi^«  .»^«»»««*.^^  K«  ^-«wi  ^4  efficient  of  linear  expansion,  and  It  the  lenffth 

^rtt^nl^^ifnow  iS  vn^rfr^^^  «'  ^^  bar  at  «•  C,  then  l.+  tc^lt     SubBtitlit. 

^BeZ    Ge^JZ^^^^^  ^«  respectively  20  and  40  for  t.  and  the  corre. 

bee  UEED,  UBANT,  KA}N\KYAJXCE.  spending  values  of  It  we  get  io  +  20o  =  1000.22 

LEASEHOLD.    In  English  law,  the  technical  and     J,  +  40c  =  lOOOios.       Solving    these    two 

description  of  an  estate  for  years.    It  arises  upon  equations  for  k  and  c,  we  obtain:   l»  =  090.79, 

a  lease,  and  constitutes  a  valid  title,  or  estote,  and  c  =  0.216.    But  if  these  values  of  l.  and  o 

in  the  premises  for  the  period  described.    It  may  are  then  substituted  in  the  equations  correspond- 

be  for  any  period  of  time,  however  brief  or  long,  w  to  *  =  60  and  I  =  60,  we  find,  respectively, 

whether  for  a  week  or  for  a  thousand  years,  and  ^  =:  iooo.87,   ho  =  1001.08,   instead  of  the  ex- 

18  subject  to  no  restriction  excepting  that  the  perimentel    figures    1000.90   and    1001.06.     The 

Imut  of  its  duration  shall  be  definitely  fixed,  difference  between  the  1000.87  and  the  1000.90, 

If  a  conveyance  of  land  be  indefinite  it  is  not  a  _  o.03,  is  called  the  residual  of  the  third  equa- 

leasehold,  even  though  it  be  measured  m  yeara.  tion,  while -f  0.03  is  obviously  the  residual  of 

Owing  to  the  circumstances  of  ite  origin,  the  the  fourth  equation. 


and  not,  like  real  property  to  h"  heir.    Ancient-  ^^^    ^J^.^^   equations    would   be  +  0.02,  +  0.06. 

ly  such  an  interest  was  not  regarded  as  property  ^^^^  combinations  of  the  given  equations  would 

at  all   (the  feudal  conception  of  estates  m  land  ^^^  ^^her  residuals,  and  the  smaller  the  resid- 

being  confined  to  the  class  of  interests  known  as  ^^^  ^he  closer  the  probable  approximation.     It 

freeholds),  but  as  a  mere  contract  right,  enforce-  ^^  y^  ^Yiovm  analvticallv  and  exDerimentallv 

able  only  against  the  lessor  or  owner  of  the  ^^^^  .^  ^  ^^j^^  ^^  observations  affected  by  accf- 

land,  and  against  him  only  by  an  action  for  dam-  ^^^^al  errors,  errors  whose  law  of  recurrence  is 

ages     But  in  the  course  of  time,  partly  as  the  ^^^^  ^hat  in  the  long  run  they  are  as  often 

result  of  statutes  and  partly  through  a  growing  .^.^^  ^  negative,  the  number^  of  errors  of  a 

Z^^ri^l^^'L^r^^^                       a"  vl:  |-n  magnitude  is  a  function  of  that  magnitude, 

riety  of  actions,  of  which  the  action  of  ejectment  This  particular  function  is  f  («)    =:  A»-^e-^«% 

was  the  most  important,  whereby  he  might  re-  where    fc    is    a    constant    for    all    observations 

cover  the  land  itself  either  from  his  lessor  or  ^^    ».  series,   and    ir  and    e   have   their    usual 

from  any  other  intruder.    The  right  of  the  lessee  meanings.    The  distribution  of  residuals  follows 

thus  became  a  true  esUte  in  the  land,  strictly  this  Uw,  which  is   represented  graphically  by 

analogous  to  the  freehold  estates  previously  rec-  the  curve  y  =  hw  ^e  **".       If  dp  =  0,  y  =  hr^, 

ognized,  but  it  was  now  too  late  to  secure  its  and    therefore    varies    directly    as    h;    but    as 

recognition  as  inheritable  real  property.    As  the  a  becomes   very   large,   y  becomes   very  small, 

right  of  action  for  breach  of  contract,  which  was  'That  is,   the   number   of  errors   of  very  small 

all  that  the  lessee  formerly  had,  passed  to  his  ex-  magnitude  is  relatively  large,  and  the  number 

ecutor,  so  the  leasehold  estate  which  developed  of  errors  of  very  large  magnitude  is  small.     It 

out  of  that  contract  right  has  continued  to  do  to  has   further   been   found   that  the   sum   of  the 

the  present  time.    It  is  distinguished  from  other  squares  of  the  residuals,    2«*,  varies   inversely 

personal  property  by  the  phrase  'chattel  real.'  as  %,  and  hence  when  h  is  largest,  2aj*  is  small- 

This  contract  origin  of  the  leasehold  is  respon-  est ;    in  other  words,  that  the  most  probable  val- 

sible,  also,  for  some  of  the  advantages  whicn  it  ues  of  the  unknowns  are  those  which  make    So)^ 

enjoys  over  the  freehold.     Not  only  may  it  be  a   minimum.     From  this   is  derived  the   name 

created  and  assigned  with  less  difficulty  and  for-  Method  of  Least  Squares, 

mality,  as  by  parol  or,  at  the  most,  by  a  simple  For  example,  suppose  a  circumference,  «,  bi- 

-writing,  while  a  deed  is  requisite  to  the  creation  sccted  by  a  diameter,  is  measured  and  found  to 

or  transfer  of  a  freehold ;  but  it  has  always  been  be  c,  and  the  two  semicircumferences  are  also 

capable  of  being  created  so  as  to  take  effect  at  measured  and  found  to  be  «i,  «•.  nnd  we  are  re- 

a  future  time,  which,  in  the  case  of  freeholds,  was  quired  to  find  the  most  probable  value  of  ». 

not  possible  at  the  common  law.  The   residuals   are  o—'W,   Si-—  ^x,      «,  —  ^z. 


LEAST  SQUABBS.                        58  I<EATHEB. 

Hence,  assuming  only  accidental  errors,  f  (0)  ==  was  introduced.    B7  1825  English  tanners  were 

(0  —  «)*  4-   («i  —  i^)*'\-  («i —  i»)"  =  a    min-  attempting  to  introduce  new  methods  by  which 

imum,  or  f^{a)  =2  (0  —  0)  +i^  —  <i  +   \x  the  tanning  process  could   be   shortened.'    One 

—  «a  =  0,  whence  w  z=  \  (2o  +  ^  +  ^)«  the  of  the  pioneers  in  these  experiments  wa^  John 

most  probable  value.  Burridge,  the  inventor  of  the  'barkometer,'  an 

The  method  of  least  squares  is  due  to  Legendre  instrument  for  determining  the  strength  of  tan- 

(1806),    who    introduced    it    in    his    Nouvellea  ning-liquors. 

fit^thodes  pour  la  determination  dea  orhitea  dea  Tanning  Industby  in  the  United  States. 

eonUtes,     In  ignorance  of  Legendre's  contribu-  The  first  tannery  in  America  was  built  in  Vir- 

tion,  however,  an  Irish- American  writer,  Adrain,  ginia,  in  1630.    A  few  years  later  a  second  one 

editor    of    The   Analyst    (1808),    first    deduced  was  established  in  Lynn,  Mass.     The  tanning 

the  law.    He  gave  two  proofs,  the  second  being  industry  was  well  represented  among  the  early 

essentially    the    same    as    Herschel's     (1850).  settlers    of   Massachusetts,    for    it   is    recorded 

Gauss  gave  the  first  proof  which  seems  to  have  that  no  fewer  than  51  tanners  had  come  over  to 

been    Imown    in   Europe    (the  third   after   Ad--  the  new  colony  before  1650.     There  was  ffreat 

rain's)    in  1809.     To  him  is  due  much  of  the  demand  for  their  labors,  for  skins  accumulated 

honor  of  placing  the  subject  before  the  mathe-  so  rapidly  that  in  1640  it  was  found  necessary 

matical  world,  both  as  to  the  theory  and  its  to  pass  a  law  "that  every  hide  and  skin  should 

applications.  be  dried  before  it  corruptis,  and  sent  where  they 

For  an  introduction  to  the  method  of  least  may  be  tanned  and  dressed."     The  tanning  in- 

squares,    consult    Comstock,    Method    of   Least  dustry  was  also  encouraged  throughout  the  col- 

Squares  (Boston,  1890) ;  and  for  the  history  of  onles  by  many  laws  forbidding  the  exportation  of 

the  method,  consult  Merriman  in  the  Transaotiona  untanned  leather.     Tanneries  flourished  every- 

of  the  Connecticut  Academy   (1877,  vol.  iv.,  p,  where,  and  by   1810  their  annual  output  was 

151,  with  a  complete  bibliography).  $20,000,000.     See  paragraph  Statistics. 

LEATHER    (AS.    lefer,    OHG.    leder,    Ger.  Manutacturino    I^^bes      The   hides   of 

Leder,  leather).    The  sk&  of  an  animal,  dressed  S^S?""^  w  *"^  ^'^'^^^^^  ^^^  tanneries  in  four 

for  ule  by  8ome  process  which  shall  render  its  ^^fferent  forms :  either  they  are  simply  'green'  or 

texture     ^rmaneSt     in     character.     Untreated  ^^^^  ^^^es    direct  from  the  slaughter-houses, 

fresh   skin   is  easilv   nutrescible-     drv  skin   is  ^^>  ^  ^*®  ^^^  ^^®  **®®°  shipped  from  a  long 

hard  and  homy  and^afmost  impenetrable  to  air.  distance,    they    are    wet^lted.    dry-salted,    or 

By  converting  a  skin  into  leatW,  however,  its  ^^1^^7,   dn«L      The    preliminary    process    of 

nature  is  entirely  changed  and  it  is  rendered  preparmg  the  hides  for  .tannmg  differs  some- 

practically    impefishabl^    porous,    and    flexible,  what  with  the  conditic«  m  whi5h  they  are  re- 

the  skin  of  an  animal  coisists  of  two  layers:  ceived,  salted  and  dried  hides  requiring  much 

the  outer  or  epidermis,  which  has  no  blood-ves-  "o^e    thorough    cleansing    and    wltenmg    than 

sels  and  is  hard  and  homy,  and  the  inner  tme  skin  P^^  ^^^e*.    The  nrocess  also  differs  somewhat 

or  corium,  which  is  made  up  of  gelatinous  flbres.  l»   ?'??"?«  «^^™^^^  hamess-leather    and 

This  inner  layer  or  tme  skin  is  the  basis  of  Pressed  leather.     The  first  step  is  to  soak  the 

leather,  and  the  process  of  leather-making  con-  s>P?t  ^^  ^^^^es  in  water,  to  soften  them,  after 

sisU  of  applying  to  this  skin  certain  substances  which  every  vestige  of  adherent  flesh  is  scraped 

which  shaTll  enter  into  combination  with  the  gela-  ^'*0'»  the  inside.    They  are  then  laid  m  heaps  Jot 

tin  in  such  a  manner  as  to  produce  the  desired  »  ^^^^'^  *»™«?  f^^  afterwards  hung  m  a  heated 

characteristics  of  durability,  penetrability,  and  '^°*'  ^l  which  means  a  slight  putrefactive  de. 

flexibility.    Three  methods  of  Accomplishing  this  composition  is  started  and  the  hair  becomes  so 

have    bein    practiced    from    very    early    times:  loose  as  to  be  easily  detached.    This  process  of 

Tanning,  in  which  the  gelatin  is  combined  with  pl^f  rmg.  called  Wting '  is  mostly  followed 

tannin  or  tannic  acid,  or,  by  a  much  later  proc  »°  America  for  making  sole-leathers,  while  the 

ess,  with  chromium  siUs.    Tawing,  in  which  the  P'.9?«»»  ?/  ^'^'"'S  or  loosening  the  roote  by  the 

gelatin  is  combined  with  certain  mineral  salte.  ??^^*^,^4^;™  ''  n^^/r  '*''^*'"^  ^^^''a*  -wi"" 

Shamoying,   in  which  the  leather   is  combined  Great  Britem  milk  of  lime  is  used  for  depila^^^^ 

with  on  or  fatty  substences.  °^  all  leathers.    The  process  may  be  hastened  by 

WtJL»toat  nivirTn„w»icT.   .Prnh«Wv  thp  nrla-  ^^c  of  sulphuric  Or  Other  acid.    Hidcs  or  skms 


sour  mux,  various  oiis,  ana  ine  Drains  01  rne  11  j  i.  ^'       i      i.u  -      #    -j  ^ 

animals  themselves  wa^  found  to  improve  the  ?^<^^  <«"«?  hatxng  for  the  purpose  of  reduc 
texture  of  the  leather.  Later  it  was  discovered  Pf  *$«  swelling  or  thickenmj  occasioned  by  the 
that  certain  astringent  barks  and  vegeUbles  ef-  introduction  of  the  lime,  anJ  for  cleansing  the 
fected  permanent  cSanges  in  the  texture  of  skins,  ^^'""J^^'T,  ^"^  l^^  ^^^*^'  impurities.  Thw 
and  stepped  decay.  This  knowledge  was  pos-  J?  ^^^^ .  ^7  working  the  skm  m  a  decoc- 
sessed  by  the  ancient  Egyptians,  fo?  engravfcgs  ^'^  ^^  P??^^ «  °^  ^^/*  ^"°«  *?^  ^*™ 
on  their  tombs  depict  the  process  of  tanning,  water.  This  process  do^  something  more 
In  China  specimens  of  leather  have  been  dis-  than  cleanse  the  leather;  it  effects  a  marked 
covered  in  company  with  other  relics  that  prove  change  in  its  texture,  reducing  it  to  an  ex- 
them  to  be  over  3000  years  old.  The  Romans  tremely  flaccid  condition.  If  the  old  method  of 
used  leather  which  they  tenned  with  oil,  alum,  tenning  is  followed,  the  hides  after  unhairing 
and  bark.  The  earliest  explorers  of  America  are  placed  in  the  tan-pite,  with  layers  of  oak- 
found  the  Indians  wearing  skins  prepared  with  bark  or  other  tenning  materials  between  them, 
buffalo-dung,  oil,  and  clay.  No  improvement  and  when  as  many  layers  of  hides  and  bark 
in  the  general  methods  of  preparing  leather  took  are  arranged  as  the  pit  will  hold,  water  is 'let 
place  from  the  most  primitive  tiroes  until  about  in,  and  the  hides  are  allowed  to  remain  for  an 
1790,  when  ti^e  use  of  lime,  to  loosen  the  hair,  indefinite  period  to  be  acted  on  by  the  tenning 


IiEATHEB.  54 

material.  Various  means  for  shortening  thia  lock  barks.  Besides  this  group  there  are  the 
process  have  been  devised,  such  as  forcing  the  tanning  materials  derived  from  abnormal 
tanning-liquor  through  the  skin  by  pressure,  growths,  caused  by  the  sting  of  insects  or  other 
sewing  the  skins  together  into  a  bag  in  which  injuries,  as  galls  (q.v.)  and  knoppem.  The 
the  liquor  is  suspended,  and  simply  substitut-  so-called  'union'  tannage  is  produced  by  a  com- 
ing for  the  dry  bark  which  was  formerly  used  bination  of  oak  and  hemlock  barks, 
liquid  infusions  of  tanning  materials,  which  are  Undressed  leather,  after  it  is  tanned,  needs 
gradually  increased  in  concentration  as  the  proc-  simply  to  be  rendered  smooth  and  compact,  which 
ess  advances.  The  last-named  method,  though  is  accomplished  by  scouring  and  compressing  the 
the  slowest,  is  found  to  produce  the  best  leather,  surface  with  stones,  brushes,  the  'striking-pin' and 
and  the  process  of  tanning  is  still  a  tedious  one,  rollers,  all  of  which  processes  are  effected  by  ma- 
consuming  weeks  or  even  months.  The  general  chinery.  Dressed  leathers  must,  in  addition,  be 
method  employed  in  American  tanneries  is  de-  'stuffed'  with  oils  to  increase  their  resistance  to 
scribed  by  Sadtler  as  follows:  water  and  their  flexibility;  they  must  frequently 

"The  tan-house  into  which  the  cleansed  and  be  dyed  or  stained  in  black  or  colors  and  'grained.' 
prepared  hides  or  'butts'  now  come  is  provided  These  processes  are  also  performed  by  machinery, 
with  rows  of  pits  running  in  parallel  lines.  In  1860  a  machine  was  invented  for  splitting 
which  are  to  contain  the  butts  during  their  leather  to  any  desired  degree  of  thinness.  The 
treatment  with  tan-liquor.  The  butts  in  most  practice  previously  was  to  shave  the  leather 
cases  are  first  suspended  in  weak  tanning  in-  down,  the  shavings  being  wasted.  The  process  of 
fusions  before  they  go  into  the  first,  or  'handler*  dressing  tanned  leather  known  as  currying  waa 
pits.  The  object  of  this  is  to  insure  the  uni-  formerly  a  separate  industry,  but  is  now  car- 
form  absorption  of  tannin  by  the  skins,  before  ried  on  as  a  part  of  the  general  business  of 
subjecting  them  to  the  rough  usage  of  liandling,'  leather  manufacture.  A  favorite  oil  used  by  cur- 
which  in  the  early  stages  of  the  process  is  riers  for  stuffing  leather  is  the  degras,  or  super- 
liable  to  cause  injury  to  the  delicate  structure  fluous  oil  preset  from  shamoyed  leather.  The 
of  the  skin.  During  this  suspension  the  skins  demand  for  this  oil  is  so  great  that  its  manu- 
should  be  in  continuous  agitation  to  cause  the  facture  has  recently  become  a  separate  industry, 
tannin  to  be  taken  up  evenly.  Both  the  sus-  Chbome-Tanniwo.  The  possibility  of  tanning 
pension  and  the  agitation  are  accomplished  gen-  by  the  use  of  chromium  compounds,  instead  of 
erally  by  mechanical  means.  From  the  suspend-  the  older  tanning  materials,  was  discovered  as 
ers  the  butts  are  transferred  to  the  'handlers,'  early  as  1856  by  a  German  chemist,  but  the  first 
where  they  are  laid  flat  in  the  liquor.  They  are  process  which  attained  commercial  success  was 
here  treated  with  weak  infusion  of  bark,  com-  invented  in  1884  by  Augustus  Schultz.  The 
mencing  at  about  15*  to  20*  By  the  barkometer  introduction  of  this  process  in  Philadelphia 
and  are  handled  twice  a  day  during  the  first  two  caused  it  to  become  at  once  a  great  leatner- 
or  three  days.  This  may  be  done  by  taking  them  manufacturing  centre.  Chrome-tanning  consumes 
out,  turning  them  over,  and  returning  them  to  only  a  few  hours,  as  compared  with  weeks  or 
the  same  pit,  or  more  generallv  by  running  them,  months  required  by  the  older  method,  and  it  pro- 
fastened  together,  from  one  handler  pit  to  an-  duces  a  leather  which  is  extremely  soft  and  pli- 
other.  The  treatment  of  the  butts  in  the  hand-  able,  of  close  texture,  and  thoroughly  resistant 
lers  generally  occupies  about  six  to  eight  weeks,  to  water.  At  the  close  of  the  nineteenth  oen- 
by  which  time  the  coloring  matter  of  the  bark  tury  two- thirds  of  the  glazed  kids  made  in  the 
and  the  tannin  should  have  'struck'  through  United  States  were  chrome-tanned,  but  the  proc- 
about  one-third  of  the  substance  of  the  sldn.  ess  had  not  been  applied  successfully  to  sole- 
Many  of  the  butts  will  have  become  covered,  leather.  The  process  consists  in  treating  the 
moreover,  with  a  peculiar  *bloom'  (ellagic  acid)  skins  at  first  with  a  weak  solution  of  bichromate 
insoluble  in  water.  They  are  now  removed  to  of  potash,  to  which  suflicient  hydrochloric  acid 
the  'layers,'  in  which  they  receive  the  treat-  is  added  to  liberate  the  chromic  acid.  Of  course 
ment  of  bark  and  'ooze'  or  tan-liquor  in  pro-  pickled  skins  may  be  used  without  the  necessity 
gressive  stages  until  the  tanning  is  complete,  of  adding  free  acid.  After  the  skins  have  taken 
Here  the  butts  are  stratified  with  ground  oak-  up  a  bright  yellow  color,  through  their  entire 
bark  or  valonia,  which  is  spread  between  each  texture,  they  are  drained  and  transferred  to  a 
butt  to  the  depth  of  about  one  inch,  and  a  bath  of  hyposulphite  of  soda,  to  which  some  acid 
thicker  layer  finally  on  top.  The  pit  is  then  is  added  to  liberate  sulphurous  acid,  which  re- 
filled up  with  ooze,  which  varies  in  strength  duces  the  chromic  acid  to  green  chromic  oxide. 
from*about  35*  barkometer  at  the  beginning  to  The  sulphurous  acid  is  at  the  same  time  oxi- 
70*  at  the  end  of  the  treatment.  For  heavy  tan-  dized  to  sulphuric  acid,  until  the  whole  of  the 
nages  six  to  eight  layers  are  required,  the  dura-  chromic  acid  is  reduced.  The  leather  so  produced 
tion  of  each  ranging  from  ten  days  in  the  be-  is  of  a  pale  bluish-green  color.  The  combination 
ginning  to  a  month  in  the  later  stages.  Each  of  the  hide  fibre,  or  corium,  with  the  chromium 
time  the  butts  are  raised  they  should  be  mopped  oxide  is  apparently  more  stable  than  its  combina- 
on  the  grain  to  remove  dirt  and  loose  bloom."  tion  with  tannin,  and  yields  less  to  boiling  water. 

Many  materials  besides  oak-bark  are  now  used  The  leather  can  also  be  dyed  successfully  if  the 

to  make  tanning  infusion,   and  some   of  these,  dye  is  applied  while  the  skin  is  still  wet,  but  so 

being  stronger,  have  hastened  the  tanning  proc-  great  is  its  water-repellent  character  that,  once 

ess.     Among  the  most  important  of  these  are  dried,   it  cannot  be  wetted  sufiSciently  to   dye 

valonia,   the  acorn  of  an   evergreen   oak   found  properly. 

in  Asia  Minor  and  Greece,  which  contains  three  Tawii?o  consists  in  dressing  the  skins  in  anti- 
times  as  much  tannin  as  the  strongest  oak-bark;  septic  materials,  so  as  to  preserve  them  from 
the  sumach ;  the  divi-divi  and  algarovilla,  pods  decay ;  but  by  this  operation  no  chemical  change 
of  South  American  trees  closely  allied  to  log-  is  effected  in  the  gelatin  of  the  skin;  hence, 
wood;    and  the  larch,  spruce,  pine,  and  hem-  scraps  and  other  wastes  of  tawed  leathers  can 


55 

be  used  in  the  manufacture  of  glue.  The  prelimi-  from  the  Barbary  Coast,  is  now  prepared  in  the 
nary  process  of  cleansing  and  depiling  is  per-  United  States  from  'goatskins;  sheepskins  are 
formed  as  for  skins  that  are  to  be  tanned,  ^ter  also  used  for  imitation.  It  is  always  dyed  on 
thorough  cleansing,  the  pelts  are  steeped  in  a  pit  the  outer  or  grain  side  with  some  color,  ^  and 
filled  with  lime  and  water,  being  taken  out  from  the  leather-dresser  in  finishing  gives  a  peculiarly 
time  to  time  and  drained  on  sloping  benches.  When  ribbed  or  a  roughly  granulated  surface  to  it  by 
removed  finally  from  the  lime-pit,  the  skins  are  means  of  engraved  boxwood  balls  which  he  works 
worked  with  the  knife,  to  render  them  more  over  the  surface.  Morocco  has  been  largely  super- 
supple,  and  are  then  put  into  the  branning  mix-  seded  by  glazed  kid« 

ture.     This  consists  of  bran  and  water  in  the  Rtissia  leather  is  much  valued  for  its  aromatic 

proportion  of  two  pounds  of  bran  to  a  gallon  odor,  which  it  derives  from  the  peculiar  oil  of  the 

of  water.     From  this  mixture  they  are  trans-  birch-bark  used  in  tanning  it.     The  fact  that 

ferred  to  an  alum  bath  in  a  wooden  tumbler  or  this  odor  repels  moths  and  other  insects  renders 

drum.    For  every  two  hundred  skins  some  twelve  this   leather   particularly   valuable   for   binding 

pounds  of  alum  and  two  and  a  half  pounds  of  books ;  a  few  oooks  bound  in  Russia  leather  be- 

salt,   with   twelve  gallons   of  water,   are   used,  ing  effective  safeguards  against  insect  enemies  in 

After  remaining  in  this  mixture  about  five  min-  a  library.    It  is  also  said  to  destroy  or  prevent 

utes  they  undergo  what  is  called  pasting.     The  the  vegetable  evil  called  mildew,  to  which  books 

paste  is  a  mixture  of  wheaten  bran  and  some-  are  so  very  liable. 

times  flour  and  the    yolk    of    eggs,    which    the  Japanned  leather,  varieties  of  which  are  known 

leather  almost  completely  absorbs.     Lastly  the  as  patent  and  enamel  leather,  which  is  largely 

skins  are  dried  and  examined,  and  if  satisfac-  ^sed  for  fancy  work  and  for  shoes,  is  said  to 

toiy  are  dipped  into  pure  water,  and  worked  or  ^ayg  been  made  in  America  as  early  as  1818,  by 

staked  by  pulling  them  backward  and  forward  Seth  Boyden,  of  Newark;  but  it  is  only  within 

on  what  is  called  a  stretching  and  softening  iron  recent  years  that  the  American  product  has  ap- 

and  smoothed  with  a  hot  smoothing-iron.  proached  in  excellence  that  made  in  Germany  and 

Shamotiivo  is  effected  by  treating  the  skin  France.  The  European  method  of  manufacture 
with  oil.  After  the  skins  have  been  thoroughlv  is  described  substantially  as  follows  in  the 
cleansed  with  lime,  and  then  by  a  bran  drench  Twelfth  United  States  Census  Bulletin  on  the 
to  remove  the  lime,  they,  while  still  wet,  are  Leather  Industry  (No.  195:  Manufactures,  vol. 
oiled  with  fish,  seal,  or  whale  oil  to  which  a  ix.,  pt,  3):  In  the  preparation  of  enameled 
slight  amount  of  carbolic  acid  is  sometimes  leather,  a  foundation  coat  of  lampblack  mixed 
added.  The  oil  works  into  the  skin,  displaces  all  with  linseed  oil  has  been  laid  on  uie  flesh  side, 
the  water,  and  becomes  united  with  the  material,  since  the  infancy  q|  the  industry  in  Europe.  Sue- 
rendering  its  texture  peculiarly  soft  and  spongy,  cessive  coats  of  this  mixture  are  applied,  the  skin 
Wash-leather  or  chamois-leather  is  so  prepared,  being  allowed  to  dry  and  the  surface  ground  down 
and  for  this  purpose  the  flesh  halves  of  split  with  pumice-stone  after  each  coat.  Then  the 
sheepskin  are  chiefly  used.  skins   are  blackened  again  with  a   fluid   black 

The  skins  which  form  the  staple  of  leather  mixed  with  turpentine,  and  hung  up  to  dry  again, 
manufacture  are  those  of  the  ox,  cow,  calf,  buf-  After  the  skins  have  been  allowed  to  settle,  being 
falo,  horse,  sheep,  lamb,  goat,  kid,  deer,  dog,  laid  in  a  pile  for  about  a  month's  time,  or  longer 
seal,  hog,  walrus,  kangaroo,  and  alligator.  The  if  possible,  the  leather  is  tacked  on  to  a  frame 
term  pelt  is  applied  to  all  skins  before  they  are  and  receives  a  brush  coat  of  varnish.  A  baking 
converted  into  leather.  When  simply  made  into  follows  in  an  oven  of  moderate  heat.  The  tem- 
kather  in  the  state  we  find  in  shoe-soles,  it  is  perature  is  gradually  raised  and  the  baking  con- 
called  rough  leather;  but  if  in  addition  it  is  tinned  three  days.  Exposure  to  the  sun  for  ten 
submitted  to  the  process  of  currying,  it  is  hours  completes  the  process.  Recently  American 
called  dressed  leather.  Hides  are  the  skins  of  manufacturers  have  been  making  patent  leather 
large  animals,  as  horses,  cows,  and  oxen.  The  from  chrome-tanned  skins.  The  product  is  quite 
complete  hides  when  rounded,  with  the  cheeks,  different,  as  is  also  the  process  emploved.  The 
shank,  etc.,  cut  off,  are  called  butts;  the  pieces  leather  is  softer,  more  flexible,  and  takes  a  less 
cut  off  constitute  the  offal.  Skins  are  all  the  brilliant  polish  than  that  made  from  bark-tanned 
lighter  forms  of  leather,  as  sheep,  goat,  deer,  in-  leather,  but  it  is  much  less  likely  to  crack  and  is 
eluding  the  skins  of  fur-bearing  animals  in  which  more  suitable  for  shoes  than  the  brittle  and  in- 
the  fur  is  retained.  JSTip*  are  the  skins  of  year-  flexible  leather  made  by  the  older  process, 
lings  and  animals  larger  than  calves.  Alligator  Cordovan  is  made  from  horse-hide  and  is  so 
leather  is  chiefly  used  for  small  fancy  articles,  called  because  it  was  flrst  successfully  tanned  in 
Only  the  skins  of  young  alligators  are  used,  and  Cordova,  Spain.  Most  of  the  hides  of  commerce 
of  these  the  backs  are  thrown  away  as  too  homy,  are  taken  from  the  wild  horses  of  certain  parts 
Walrus  and  hippopotamus  hides  are  tanned  in  of  South  America.  A  portion  of  the  skin,  oval 
considerable  numbers  for  the  use  of  cutlers  and  in  shape,  taken  over  the  rump,  about  three 
other  workers  in  steel  goods ;  buffing- wheels  are  feet  long  and  half  as  wide,  is  all  that  is  used  for 
made  of  them,  often  an  inch  thick,  which  are  of  leather.  Its  distinctive  quality  is  that  it  is 
great  importance  in  giving  the  polish  to  metals  nearly  water-proof. 

and   horn   goods.     Hog-skins   are   used   for  the  Statistics.     According  to  the  United  States 

manufacture  ♦f  saddles  and  fancy  articles.    Dog-  census  for  1900,  there  were  in  this  country,  at 

skins  are  used  for  gloves.     The  'grain  leather*  the  close  of  the  century,  40,751  establishments 

of  commerce  is  leather  that  has  been  made  from  devoted  to  various  branches  of  leather  manufac- 

the  hides  of  neat  cattle,  split  so  thin  by  the  split-  ture.     The  amount  of  capital  invested  is  given 

ting-machine  as  to  be  suitable  for  the  same  uses  as   $173,977,421    and   the  annual   value   of  the 

as  are  goat,  calf,  and  various  other  skins  which  product  $204,038,127.     Of  this  product  leather 

it  is  made  to  imitate.  goods  to  the  value  of  $27,293,019  were  exported, 

Morocco  leather^  formerly  an  article  of  impdrt  while  $6,773,024  worth  of  leather  goods  were  im- 


56 

ported.    The  growth  of  the  induBtiy  during  the  (Philadelphia,  1897) ;  Standage,  Leatherworker^s 

last  half  of  the  nineteenth-  century  and  its  dis-  Manual  (London,  1900) ;  Stevens,  Leather  Manu- 

tribution  into  different  branches  is  shown  by  faciure  (Saint  Louis,  1891) ;  and  Watt,  The  Art 

the  accompanying  table.  of  Leather  Manufacture  (London,  1897). 


BootB  and  shoes,  factonr  product 

Leather,  tanned,  carried,  and  finished 

Saddlery  and  hamees 

Leather  goods,  pocketbooks,  trunks,  and 
valiees ^ 

Boote  and  shoes,  cnstom  work  and  re- 
pairing  

Boot  and  shoe,  cut  stock 

Belting  and  hose,  leather 

Boot  and  shoe  uppers 

Total 

Boots  and  shoes,  factonr  product 

Leather,  tanned,  curried,  and  finished 

Saddlery  and  harness 

Leather  goods,  pocketbooks,  trunks,  and 
Tallses 

Boots  and  shoes,  custom  work  and  re- 
pairing  

Boot  and  shoe,  cut  stock 

Belting  and  hose,  leather 

Boot  and  shoe  uppers 

Leather,  dressed  skins 

Total 

Boots  and  shoes,  faetorr  product 

Leather,  tanned,  curried  and  finished 

Baddleiy  and  harness 

Leather  goods,  pocketbooks,  trunks,  and 
Tallses 

Boots  and  shoes,  custom  work,  and  re- 
pairing  ! 

Boot  and  shoe,  cut  stock 

Belting  and  hose,  leather 

Boot  and  shoe  uppers. 

Leather,  dressed  skins 

Total 

Leather,  tanned,  curried  and  finished 

Saddleiy  and  harness 

Leather  goods,  pocketbooks,  trunks,  and 

▼alises 

Boots  and  shoes. 

Belting  and  hose,  leather 

Leather,  dressed  skins 

Total 

Leather,  tanned,  curried,  and  finished 

Saddlery  and  harness 

Leather  goods,  pocketbooks,  trunks,  and 

Tallses 

Boots  and  shoes 

Boot  and  shoe,  cut  stock 

Belting  and  hose,  leather 

Leather,  dressed  skins 

Total 

Leather,  tanned,  curried,  and  finished 

Saddlery  and  harness 

Leather  goods,  pocketbooks.  trunks,  and 

TiUises 

Boots  and  shoes 

Belting  and  hose,  leather \ 

Leather,  dressed  skins 

Total 


Tear 

Number 
of  estab- 
lishments 

1900 
1900 
1900 

1900 

1900 
1900 
1900 
1900 

1.600 

1,306 

12,984 

772 

23,660 
842 
106 
132 

1900 

40,761 

Capital 


$101»796,288 

178,977,421 

43,364.186 

18,606,819 

9,262,134 

7,008.080 

7,410,219 

273,796 


•866,681.838 


Wage^amers 


ATsrage 
number 


142,922 
62,109 
24,128 

14,990 

9,686 

6,166 

1.667 

266 


261,920 


Total 


$69,176,888 
22,691.091 
10,726,647 

6,679,767 

4,128,861 

2,230,691 

913,937 

126,627 


$106,671,004 


Cost  of 

materials 

used 


$168,604,064 

166,000,004 

33,127,926 

13.486,761 

8,288.664 

17,800,282 

7,600,418 

401,680 


$406,206,784 


Value  of 
products 


$261,028,660 

204.088,127 

62,630,902 

26.906,814 

26.660,678 

28.242.892 

10,628,177 

700,225 


$616,720,896 


1890 

2,082 

1890 

1,749 

1890 

7.981 

1890 

618 

1890 

20,808 

1890 

844 

1890 

98 

1890 

817 

1890 

88 

1890 

88,970 

$96,282,811 
97,668,898 
86,346,620 

U,148.694 

14,280.061 

6,401,834 

4,978,420 

1,216,026 

484,800 


$266,687,684 


188,690 
42,096 
22,672 

10,074 

16,981 

4,992 

1,842 

1,368 

297 


233,496 


$60,667,146 
21.090.176 
10,906.918 

4,448,796 

7.422,877 

1,891,081 

780.616 

609.824 

169.818 


$107,978,196 


$118,786,881 

122.221,962 

24,674,226 

8,786,822 

10.408,883 

13,744,666 

6,182,704 

1,902,926 

724,789 


$307,876,267 


$220,649,868 

171.068,887 

62,970.801 

18,814,886 

84.866.661 

J  7,908.846 

8.688,684 

8,848,002 

1.072.766 


$629,808,269 


1880 

1.969 

1880 

6.426 

1880 

7.999 

1880 

878 

1880 

16.018 

1880 

172 

1880 

97 

1880 

81 

1880 

202 

1880 

82.827 

$42,994,028 
67.117.674 
16.606.019 

3,961,266 

11,864,278 

1.210,800 

2.749.299 

209,264 

6.266,287 


$162,880,880 


111,162 
84.887 
21,06 

6,998 

22,667 

2,886 

1,229 

487 

6,396 


207,096 


$43,001,488 

14.062.466 

7,997,762 

2,787,726 

7.998,706 
736,482 
607,287 
170,426 

2,441,872 


$102,442,442 

146,320.862 

19.968.716 

6.961.089 

12.624.188 

■6.939.249 

6.021.208 

.   448.104 

11,063,266 


$79,747,644,  $306,679,008 


$166,060,864 

184,866,638 

38,081,648 

11.068.749 

80,870,127 

7,631.636 

6,681,249 

790,842 

16,399,3U 


$461,189,648 


1870 
1870 

1870 
1870 
1870 
1870 

7,469 
7,607 

296 

28,428 

91 

110 

1870 

38,990 

$69,784,362 
13,986,961 

2,638,389 

48.994,866 

2,118,677 

1,840,460 


$128,812,106 


84.846 
28.667 

4.829 

136,888 

808 

898 


199.826 


$14,108,201 
7,046,207 

2,171,416 

61,972,712 

464,187 

897,674 


$76»160,297 


$116,460,899 
16,068,810 

3,889.696 

98.682,628 

8,231,204 

2,099.736 


$236,341,371 


$164,877,625 
32,709.961 

9,091.648 

181,644,090 

4,668.043 

2.869.972 


$886,241,264 


1860 

6,176 

1860 

8.621 

1860 

214 

1860 

12,486 

1860 

1 

1860 

46 

1860 

13 

1860 

21,666 

$88,906,170 
6,478,184 

1.244.000 

28,367.627 

26,000 

688.000 

117,460 


$70,718,431 


26,146 
12,286 

3,160 

123.026 

16 

364 

101 


166.086 


$8,144,278 
4,160.366 

901,741 

80,938,080 

8,184 

184.962 

81,230 


$44,308,830 


$49,634,818 
6,606,416 

1,990,673 

42.728,174 

81,400 

916.271 

278,341 


$102,084,492 


$76,318,476 
14.160,087 

4,163,966 
91,889,298 

149,740 
1,481.760 

880.272 


$187,562,628 


1860 
1860 

1860 
1860 
1860 
1850 


1860 


26.664 
8,616 

166 

11.306 

8 

22 


41.679 


$22,682,796 
3.969,379 

522,610 

12.924,919 

40.800 

192.0d0 


$40,232,503 


25,379 
12.968 

2,142 

105.264 

39 

216 


145,988 


$6,492,130 
3.154,008 

548.840 

21.622.608 

16.208 

49,648 


$31,877,342 


$26,038,743 
4.427,006 

1,066,836 

23.848,374 

111,785 

391,138 


$55,873,881 


$42,982,628 
9.985,474 

2,213,868 

63.967.408 

160.600 

525.370 


$109,784,643 


Bibliography.  Consult  Sadtler,  Handbook  of  LEATHEBBACK,  Leathebt  Tubtue,  or 
Industrial  Orgamo  Chemistry  (Philadelphia,  Luth.  A  large  oceanic  turtle  {Sphargis  corio' 
1895);    Davis,    The    Manufacture    of    Leather    cea)    distinguished  . prominently  hy  having  the 


LEATHEBBACX.                         57  LEATHE& 

body  incaaed  by  a  leathery  integument  instead  American  NaturaUat,  vol.  xxzii.   (Philadelphia, 

of  a  bony  or  homy  'shell.'     This  remarkable  1898). 

turtle  has  been  observed  in  all  the  tropical  seas,  LEATHEB-BEETLE.  A  dermestid  beetle 
but  is  everywhere  rare  and  ii9  probably  approach-  {Dermeatea  vulpinua),  allied  to  the  bacon-beetle 
ing  ejctinction.  It  is  more  often  seen  in  the  (q.y.),  whose  grubs  damage  leather,  even  when 
western  part  of  the  Atlantic  than  elsewhere,  and  made  up  into  shoes,  harness,  etc.;  they  also  dam- 
has  been  known  to  stray  northward  to  Loner  ^gg  silkworm  cocoons,  dried  fish,  and  other 
Island  and  the  coast  of  France.  It  exceeds  all  ^jead  animal  matter.  Its  larvie  feed  voraciously, 
other  turtles  in  size.  The  British  Museum  con-  ^olt  six  times,  and  reach  a  full  growth,  imder 
tains  a  specimen  six  and  one-half  feet  long,  the  favorable  circumstances,  in  from  two  to  three 
shell  being  four  feet  long.  Such  a  specimen,  it  is  weeks.  They  are  likely  to  crawl  away  from  their 
believed,  would  weigh  about  1000  pounds,  and  food  when  ready  to  pupate,  and  make  cells  in 
Agassiz  relates  that  he  saw  some  weighing  more  ^Qod  or  any  near-by  substance.  The  pupa  stage 
than  a  ton.  The  color  is  brown,  more  or  less  jag^g  about  two  weeks.  The  best  remedy  is 
marked  with  yellow  in  youth.  The  head  is  fumigation  with  bisulphide  of  carbon  or  hydro- 
very  turtle-like;  the  tail  has  been  almost  lost,  cyanic-acid  gas 

l^""!^  ^'P|?r*f  \^'''!f'^  *'''^  '"'^''X  '^J''°f  ""f  LEATHER 'cloth:    A  coated  or  enameled 

the  body,  while  the  hinder  ones  are  broad,  stout  .   "TfT'**'*'?^**  •  *    J  j  *       *^*»«**    *  ^T*T^ 

*>.j^ia<>  ^*:«i,.»  <T*<.of  a,v{««iminr,  «w>«r<i*    J^  4«iiaf  tcxtilc  fabnc,  intended  to  possess  some  of  the 

Sl^zTn  Sria^fordTdMrJi  drag\'  fod  qualities' of  leather  without  being  so  cosUv. 

hooked  specimen  up  on  a  beach.    This  power  is  l^^^^  «  a^«?\«''.  Patented  form  of  leather  doth, 

an  adaptation  to  the  almost  continuou^  pelagic  however,  which  is  m  fact  leather  and  no^  cloth, 

life  led  by  the  animal,  which  feeds  prinSi»ny  l^  consists  of  leather  parmgsa^d  shavings  re- 

on  fish,   crustaceans,   mollusks,  jellyflsheB,%md  duced  to  a  pulpy  mass  and  molded  to  any  desired 

similar  marine  prey  caught  in  the  open  sea  or  ^<>™-    See  Enameled  Cloth. 

about  submerged  reefs.     Its  flesh  is  not  of  good  LEATHEH-FISH.    A  filefish  (q.v.). 

taste,  is  rarely  eaten,  and  is  regarded  by  most  lEATHEB-ELOWEB.     A  North  American 

persons  as  unwholesome     Its  breeding  habits  are  ^^^^     ^  Clematis. 

similar  to  those  of  other  chelonians.     Bather    *^ ,         .   , ,  .  ,         ,     ., 

later  in  the  season  than  the  true  turtles,  it  seeks  LEATHEBJACKET.     A  bluish  and  silvery 

a  sandy  shore  or  islet,  nnd  buries  in  the  sand  a  carangoid  flsh  ( Ohgophtea  aaurua) ,  numerous  in 

great  number  of  eggs.     The  young  turtles  seek  ^^e  tropical  seas  on  both  sides  of  America,  but 

the  water  as  soon  as  hatched,  but  few  survive  T^^t  valued  as  food.     A  kindred  species,  OUgo- 

to  reach  an  age  and  size  that  make  them  safe  P^**««  aaliena,  is  called  'sauteur,'  and  both  have 

against  most  enemies.  many  local  names  indicating  swiftness  and  activ- 

Stbuoture  and  Aftinities.    These  turties  dif-  ^^y-    ^ee  Plate  of  Horse-Mackerel. 

fer  widely  from  ordinary  chelonians,  and  com-  LEATHEBSTOCKINQ.     The  most  familiar 

petent  herpetologists  differ  as  to  their  history  of  the  names  given  to  Natty  Bumppo,  the  hero  of 

and  probable  line  of  development.    The  factors  in  Cooper's  pioneer  romances,  hence  called  the  Leaih- 

the  aiscussion,  and  the  vaiying  views,  are  briefly  eratooking  Talea. 

presented  by  Hans  Gadow  in  vol.  viii.  of  The  LEATHEB   TUBTLB    (so   called   from  its 

Cambridge    Natural    Hiatory    (London,    1901).  coriaceous  shell).     (1)   The  leatherback   (q.v.). 

Gadow  himself,  supported  by  Boulenger,  Cope,  ^g)  A  soft-shelled  turtle,  especially  those  of  the 

and   others,   believes   Sphargis   to   be   the    sole  American    genera    Trionyx    and    Amyda.      See 

remnant  of  a  primitive  group  quite  mdependent  soft-SheltSd  Turtle. 

of  the  other  chelonians,  end  constituting  with  its        ,         „  ,  *        x^.    ±      ^ 

scantily  known  fossil  ancestors  an  order.  Athec«,  LEATHEBWOOD  (so  called  from  the  tough« 
opposed  to  all  remaining  turtles  (order  Theco-  ness  of  the  bark),  Moosewood,  or  Wioopy  {Dtroa 
phora ) .  ( See  Turtle.  )  The  opposite  view  is  that  paluatria ) .  A  deciduous  tree-like  shrub  from  three 
the  genus  is  a  specialized  offshoot  from  the  to  six  feet  high,  native  of  North  America,  which 
typical  Chelonia,and  separable  only  as  a  family,  belongs  to  the  natural  order  Thymeleacea.  The 
The  structure  of  this  turtle  is  very  peculiar,  wood  is  white,  soft,  and  very  brittle.  The  bark 
especially  as  to  its  'shell.'  This  is  not  formed  is  exceedingly  tough,  and  has  been  used  for  ropes, 
as  in  other  turtles  by  an  outgrowth  of  the  spine,  baskets,  etc.  The  leaves. are  lanceolate-oblong; 
for  it  is  nowhere  in  contact  with  the  internal  the  flowers,  which  appear  before  the  leaves,  yel- 
skeleton,  except  by  a  nuchal  bone;  but  is  a  real  low.  The  shrub,  which  abounds  in  rich  moist 
integument,  continuous  all  around  the  body,  woods  from  New  Brunswick  to  Minnesota,  and 
and  forming  a  jacket.  This  jacket  consists  of  a  south  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  is  used  to  some  ex- 
dense  leathery  skin,  in  which  are  deeply  im-  tent  in  ornamental  gardening, 
bedded  a  mosaic  of  many  hundreds  of  little  LEATHES,  16thz,  Stanley  (1830-1900).  An 
polygonal  bony  plates  fitted  closely  together,  and  English  theologian  and  Hebraist.  He  was  bom 
at  intervals  rising  into  twelve  longitudinal  ridges  at  Ellesborough,  Buckingham;  studied  at  Jesus 
—seven  dorsal,  and  five  lateral  and  ventral.  In  College,  Cambridge;  and  in  1863  was  appointed 
young  specimens  the  entire  shell  is  soft,  but  ossi-  to  the  chair  of  Hebrew  in  King's  College,  London, 
flcation  proceeds  with  growth,  and  when  mature  From  1870  to  1885  he  was  a  member  of  the  Old 
the  integument  is  almost  rigid,  though  thin.  Testament  Revision  Committee.  His  skill  as  a 
Such  an  integument  more  closely  resembles  that  Hebraist  is  to  be  seen  in  A  Short  Practical  He- 
of  a  crocodile  than  that  of  a  true  turtle;  but  hrew  Grammar  (1869).  Leathes  was  delegate 
Sphargis  has  a  plastron  and  neural  plate.  to  the  Evangelical  Alliance  in  New  York  in  1873. 

BiBLloOBAPHT.    Ck>n8u1t  Gadow  (above  cited)  ;  ThAlast  dozen  years  of  his  life  were  spent  at 

Boulenger,  Catalogue  of  Cheloniana  in  the  Britiah  Much  Hadham,  Hertford.    He  is  best  kno^vn  for 

Muaeum     (London,     1889);     Case,    Journal    of  his  lecturea :  The  Witneaa  of  the  Old  Testament  to 

Morphology,    Vol.    xv.    (London,    1897);    Hay,  Christ    (1868);   The  Witneaa  of  Saint  Paul  to 


58  LEBASrOV. 

Christ  (1869) ;  and  The  Witness  of  Saint  John  Canaan,  N.  Y.,  and  graduated  at  Yale  in  1824. 

to   Christ    (1870)>   being   Boyle   Lectures;    the  He  then  studied  law  in  the  office  of  William 

Hulsean  Lectures,  The  Gospel  Its  Own  Witness  CuUen  Bryant  at  Great  Barrington,  Conn.,  and 

(1874) ;  and  in  the  same  year  the  Bampton  Lee-  in  the  law  school  at  Litchfield,  Conn.;  was  ad- 

tures,  T?ie  Religion  of  the  Christ,    He  also  wrote  mitted  to  the  bar  in  1827 ;  removed  to  Syracuse, 

The  Law  in  the  Prophets  (1891)  and  Testimony  N.  Y.,  in  the  same  year,  and  there  practiced  his 

of  the  Earlier  Prophetic  Writers  to  the  Primal  profession.     He  was  twice  Mayor  of  Syracuse 

Religion  of  Israel  (1898).  (1849  and  1869) ;  was  Secretary  of  State  of  New 

LEAVE  AND  LICENSE.    A  phrase  in  Eng-  York  in  1854-65;  was  president  of  the  Board  of 

lish  law  to  denote  that  leave  or  permission  was  Quarantine  Commissioners  in  1860,  and  of  the 

given  to  do  some  act  complained  of.    It  is  a  com-  comniission  appointed  to  choose  a  location  for  the 

mon  defense  in  actions  of  trespass.    Sec  License.  S**^  asylum  for  the  blind  in  1865;  and  was  a 

LEAVEN,  lev'im  (OF.,  Fr.  levain,  from  Lat.  f/^^J"  ""{  ^\\^^^  Constitutional  Commiwion 

Uvamen,  raider,  from  levare,  from  Uvis,  light;  f.  ^^\^'    ^°  ^®®?  ^^  was  appomted  by  President 

connected  with  Lith.  lengwus  Gk.  Aax^,  elachys,  ^i'^^CrlZ^l'^I^TIr^^^ 

E.'^»':2eL^^n'^  m:^rT^;^e's'~5e^^^^^^^^ 

"wintl^Ve^p^^LT^^^^^^  <f^l^eLea^^th  Famil^in  the  Unite,  Stat^ 

plication  of  the  yeast-plant,  quickly  commimi- 

oates  its  character  to  fresh  dough  with  which  it        LEAVENWOBTH,  Fobt.    See  Fobt  Leavxn- 

is  mingled,  causing  the  process  of  fermentation  worth. 

tJ^^  n?  wr^'^hi^^^  }L'!!')tZ'^J''''^^'        I-BAVES  OF  QBASS.    A  collection  of  poems 

The  use  of  leaven  m  baking  dates  from  a  very  re-  ^    y^^lt  Whitman  ( 1856) . 

mote  antiquity;  the  employment  of  yeast  is  more  ^  \xouu/. 

recent.    See  Yeabt;  Bbead.  LEAVITTy  Ifiv^t,  Joshua   (1794-1873).     An 

LEAVENWOBTHy  l^v^en-wtirth.    A  city  and  American  religious  journalist.    He  was  bom  in 

the  county-seat  of  Leavenworth  County,  Kan.,  26  Heath,  Mass.,  September  8^  1794;  graduated  at 

miles  northwest  of  Kansas  City;  on  the  Missouri  Yale  College  in  1814;  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 

Biver,  and  on  the  Atchison,  Topeka  and  Santa  1819,  and  practiced  for  a  time  in  Heath,  Mass., 

F6,  the  Missouri  Pacific,  the  Union  Pacific,  the  and  Putney,  Vt.    He  graduated  at  the  Yale  Di- 

Ohicago,  Rock  Island  and  Pacific,  the  Burlington  vinity  School  in  1825.    About  1830,  for  the  pio- 

Route,  the  Chicago  Great  Western,  and  several  motion   of   revivals   of   religion,   many   pastors 

other   railroads    (Map:    Kansas,   H   2).     With  adopted  what  were  then  called  'new  measures,' 

these  transportation  facilities,  it  is  an  important  such  as  the  employment  of  'evangelists,'  the  hold- 

commercial    centre,    its    wholesale    trade    being  ^ng  of  'protracted  meetings,'  'inquiry  meetings,' 

prominent.     There   are   also  coal-mining   inter-  etc.    The  New  York  Evangelist  was  established 

ests  and  extensive  manufactures,  including  vitri-  to  promote  revivals  and  defend  the  'new  meas- 

fied  and  building  bricks,  stoves,  furniture,  ma-  ures,'  and  from  1831  to  1837  Dr.  Leavitt  was  its 

chinery,  fiour,  wagons,  etc.    The  city  has  a  public  editor.    During  this  period  the  anti-slavery  agita- 

libraiy,   and  among  noteworthy  structures  the  tion  had  its  beginnings,  and  from  the  first  it 

Cathedral  of  the  Immaculate  Conception,  coimty  enlisted  the  warm  support  of  Dr.  Leavitt,  who 

court-house,  and  Federal  building.     In  the  sub-  made  the  Evangelist  a*powerful  agent  for  its 

urbs  are  the  United  States  and  State  peniten-  promotion.     When   the   American   Anti-Slavery 

tiaries,    a   home   for    disabled   volunteers    with  Society  was  organized  in  1833  he  became  one  of  its 

a  membership  of  3700,  and  Fort  Leavenworth  most  active  and  influential  members.   From  1837 

(q.v.).    The  last,  one  of  the  most  important  mili-  to  1840  he  was  the  editor  of  the  society's  weekly 

tary  posts  of  the  West,  has  a  noted  mfantry  and  organ,  the  Emancipator,  and  a  member  of  the 

cavalry  school,  and  a  national  cemetery  in  which  executive    committee.      When    the    abolitionists 

are  3221  graves,  1446  of  unknown  dead.    There  divided  in  1840^  he  went  with  the  new  organiza- 

are  also  in  the  city  several  hospitals  and  asylums,  tion,  and  thenceforth  his  anti-slavery  efforts  were 

and  two  fine  railroad  and  wagon  bridges  cross  the  mainly  confined  to  the  political  arena.    He  was 

xiver  at  this  point.    An  object  of  particular  in-  an  active  promoter  of  the  'Liberty'  and  the  'Free- 

terest   is   the   immense   bronze   statue   of   Gen.  Soil'  parties.    In  1848  he  became  ofBce  editor  of 

U.  S.  Grant.     The  government  is  administered,  the  Independent,  retaining  a  connection  therewith 

under    a    charter    of     1881,    since    frequently  to  the  day  of  his  death.    About  1834  he  compiled 

amended,  by  a  mayor,  elected  biennially,  a  uni-  and  published  The  Christian  Lyre,  a  work  con- 

cameral   council,   and   subordinate  officials — all,  taining.the  great  body  of  the  hymn^  and  tunes 

excepting  the  city  clerk,  attorney,  and  treasurer,  tised  in  the  revivals  of  that  day.     He  died  in 

who  are  chosen  by  popular  election,  being  ap-  Brooklyn,  January  16,  1873. 

J^i"^f«^Ji^^TK^''''*'!!*'?  ^""^^"^^  ^  ^V'^^'t"*  *"]        I-EB'ANON.     A  city  in  Saint  Clair  County, 

e?^ted  at  la™  '"J^.v^nwor^W^f  f^  ^^* '^  "^^  ^4  miles  east  of  Saint  Louis,  Mo.,  on  the' 

18^ibv,^n«^'of^JXr'^^^^^^  Baltimore    and     Ohio    Southwestern    Railroad 

1004  by  a  party  of  so-called  'Sons  of  the  South,'  /Moti.  tii;*i/>;o    n  k\      t*  i,«-  -  i«.«*  4i»,,.:»^ 

it  was  chartered  as  a  city  of  the  first  class.    Pop-  S?^  i.F~  ffiai^    w^fV  -f    Pr**?!i'  -7" 

ulation,  in  1890,  19.7681  in  1900,  20,735.    CoS-  J?""  u  „u.,7  i    r®  ®;    ^V**"  'ts  elevated  s.tiw- 

«ult  Birke  and  Roik,  BUtory  of  Leavenw^th  IZ'    ?*'*'*i''l  "'""?**•  ?**""'  beauty,  and  the 

(Leavenworth.  1880).  i^eavenworm  possession  of  fine  mineral  spnngs.  the  city  is  ope 

TTii»T.ui.i-!i--i-i-'-     «  °'  '"*  popular  summer  resorts  near  Saint  Louis. 

IiBAVENWOBTH,    EUAS    Wabweb    ( 1803-  Lebanon  was  laid  out  in  1825,  incorporated  as  a 

«7).     An  American  lawyer.     He  was  bom   in  village  in  1857,  and  chartered  as  a  ci^  in  1874. 


LEBAVOH.  59 

There  is  a  municipal  electric-light  plant.    Popu- 
lation, in  1890,  1636;  in  1900,  1812. 

LEBANON.  A  city  and  the  oounty-seat  of 
Boone  County,  Ind.,  26  miles  northwest  of  In- 
dianapolis ;  on  the  Cleyeland,  Cincinnati,  Chicaso 
and  Saint  Louis,  and  the  Chicago  and  South- 
eastern railroads  (Map:  Indiana,  C  2).  It  is 
supplied  with  natural  gas,  and  has  saw-mills, 
,  Hour-mills,  novelty-works,  grain-elevators,  etc. 
Lebanon,  settled  in  1824,  is  governed  under  a 
charter  of  1875  which  provides  for  a  mayor, 
elected  every  four  years,  and  a  unicameral  coun- 
cil. The  city  owns  and  operates  its  water-works. 
Population,  in  1890,  3682;  in  1900,  4466. 

LEBANON.  A  city  and  the  county-seat  of 
Marion  County,  Ky.,  67  mile^  southeast  of  Louis- 
ville; on  the  Louisville  and  Nashville  Railroad 
(Map:  Kentucky,  F  3).  It  has  Saint  Augus- 
tine's Academy  and  Saint  Augustine's  Colored 
SchooL  both  Roman  Catholic.  The  principal  in- 
dustries are  farming,  stock-raising,  and  manu- 
factures of  whisky,  flour,  meal,  wheels,  carriages 
and  wagons,  fumrture,  etc.  The  water-works  are 
owned  by  the  municipality.  Population,  in  1890, 
2816;  in  1000,  3043. 

LEBANON.  A  city  and  the  coimty-seat  of 
Laclede  County,  Mo.,  56  miles  northeast  of 
Springfield;  on  the  Saint  Louis  and  San  Fran- 
cisco Railroad  (Map:  Missouri,  D  4).  It  is  a 
health  resort,  well  known  for  its  mineral 
springs,  and  has  a  fine  court-house.  The  centre 
of  an  agricultural,  fruit-growing,  stock-raising, 
and  dairying  district,  Lebanon  carries  on  con- 
siderable trade,  and  manufactures  Hour,  lum- 
ber, bricks,  machine-shop  products,  etc.  Popula- 
tion, in  1890,  2218;  in  1900,  2125. 

LEBANON.  A  town  and  one  of  the  county- 
seats  of  Grafton  County,  N.  H. ;  65  miles  north- 
west of  Concord;  on  the  Connecticut  River,  and 
on  the  Boston  and  Maine  Railroad  (Map:  New 
Hampshire,  F  7).  Good  water-power,  supplied 
by  the  Mascoma  River,  has  aided  the  develop- 
ment of  the  town  as  a  manufacturing  centre.  It 
is  the  seat  of  an  extensive  woolen  industry,  and 
has  manufactures  of  wood  and  iron  working 
machinery,  men's  clothing,  watchmakers'  tools, 
rakes,  snow-shovels,  scythes,  doors,  sash  and 
blinds,  etc.  There  are  also  saw  and  gprist  mills^ 
a  large  brick-yard,  and  granite-works.  These  in- 
dustries employ  nearly  a  thousand  persons,  repre- 
sent an  invested  capital  of  over  $1,000,000,  and 
have  aii  annual  output  valued  at  more  than  $1,- 
500.000.  The  government  is  administered  by 
town  meetings.  Lebanon,  named  after  Lebanon, 
Conn.,  was  chartered  July  4,  1761,  and  was  set- 
tled in  1762.  Population,  in  1890,  3763;  iji  1900, 
4965.  Consult  Patterson.  Oration  in  Commemora- 
Hon  of  the  One  Hundredth  Anniversary  of 
Lebanon  (Boston,  1862). 

LEBANON.  A  village  and  the  county-seat  of 
Warren  County,  Ohio,  30  miles  northeast  of  Cin- 
cinnati; on  the  Cincinnati,  Lebanon  and  North- 
ern and  the  Dayton,  Lebanon  and  Cincinnati  rail- 
roads (Map:  Ohio,  B  7).  It  is  the  seat  of  the 
National  Normal  University,  and  has  a  Me- 
chanics'  Institute  Library  of  about  4300  volumes, 
and  an  orphans'  home.  In  the  vicinity  is  a  set- 
tlement of  Shakers  (q.v.).  There  are  municipal 
water-works  and  electric-light  plant.  Lebanon 
was  laid  out  in  1802;  and  the  celebration  of  the 
centennial  of  this  event  on  September  25-27, 
Toi*.  XIL-«. 


LEBANON. 


1902,  was  a  noteworthy  oecurrenee  in  the  history 
of  the  village.  Population,  in  1890,  3050;  in 
1900,  2867. 

LEBANON.  A  city  and  the  county-seat  of 
Lebanon  County,  Pa.,  26  miles  east  of  Harris- 
burg;  on  the  Philadelphia  and  Reading  and  the 
Cornwall  and  Lebanon  railroads  (Map:  Penn- 
sylvania, E  3).  It  is  in  the  Lebanon  Valley  be- 
tween the  Blue  and  South  mountains,  a  vicinity 
in  which  there  is  an  abundance  of  brownstone, 
limestone,  and  brick-clay,  and  it  is  within  five  miles 
of  the  noted  Cornwall  iron-mines,  a  deposit  of 
magnetite,  covering  an  area  of  about  104  acres 
and  having  produced  since  its  discovery  16,000,- 
000  tons  of  ore,  yielding  48  per  cent,  of  iron. 
The  principal  industries  are  iron-mining,  quarry- 
ing, brick-making,  and  manufactures  of  silk 
machinery,  bolts  and  nuts,  boilers,  chains,  stoves, 
cigars,  and  organs.  The  iron-works,  rolling-mills, 
and  furnaces  are  extensive;  the  nut  and  bolt 
plant  ranks  among  the  largest  in  the  world;  and 
the  chain-works  produce  some  of  the  most  mas- 
sive chains  in  use.  There  are  four  libraries  in 
the  city.  Lebanon  was  laid  out  in  1753,  having 
been  settled  some  ten  years  earlier,  was  incor- 
porated in  1820j  and  received  a  city  charter  in 
1885.  The  government  is  vested  in  a  bicameral 
council  and  in  a  mayor,  chosen  every  three 
years,  who,  with  the  consent  of  the  select  council, 
appoints  the  highway  commissioner,  the  boards 
of  health  and  water  commissioners.  The  board  of 
school  controllers  is  chosen  by  popular  election. 
Lebanon  owns  and  operates  its  water-works.  Pop- 
ulation, in  1890,  14,664;  in  1900,  17,628. 

LEBANON.  A  town  and  the  county-seat  of 
Wilson  County,  Tenn.,  30  miles  east  of  Nash- 
ville; on  the  Nashville,  Chattanooga  and  Saint 
Louis  Railroad  (Map:  Tennessee,  £  4).  It  is 
the  seat  of  Cumberland  University  (Cumberland 
Presbyterian),  opened  in  1842,  and  of  Lebanon 
College,  for  young  ladies.  The  town  is  sur- 
rounded by  a  productive  farming  country,  in  the 
products  of  which  it  controls  a  considerable  trade, 
and  has  some  manufactures.  Population,  in  1890, 
1883;  in  1900,  1956. 

LEBANON^  Mount  (Lat.  Lihanus,  Ar.  Jehel 
Lihndnt  White  Mountains).  The  western  and 
higher  of  the  two  mountain  chains  of  Syria.  The 
eastern  is  known  as  Anti-Libanus  (q.v.)  or  Anti- 
Lebanon,  Arabic  Jehel  esh^Sharki,  Eastern  Moun- 
tains. Between  the  two  is  the  tableland  of  el- 
Buka'a,  called  by  the  Greeks  Coele-Syria  (hollow 
Syria).  The  Lebanon  chain  begins  at  the 
stream  called  Nahr  el-Kebir  north  of  Tripoli  and 
extends  southward  parallel  to  the  coast,  a 
distance  of  not  quite  100  miles  to  the  point 
where  the  Litany  breaks  through  on  its  way  to 
the  sea,  not  far  from  Tyre.  Thence  the  chain 
is  continued  by  the  hills  of  Palestine — the  moun- 
tains of  Naphtali,  Ephraim,  and  Judea  of  the 
Bible.  The  average  height  is  about  7000  feet, 
the  highest  peaks.  Jebel  Makmal  and  Dahr  el- 
Kodib,  having  an  elevation  of  little  more  than  10,- 
(KM)  feet.  The  eastern  slope  is  abrupt  and  barren ; 
the  western  more  gradual.  vSeveral  spurs  strike 
off  across  the  strip  of  coast  and  end  at  the  sea  in 
bold  promontories.  The  formation  is  limestone, 
sandstone,  and  basalt.  Deep  ravines  and  abrupt 
precipices  are  a  feature  of  the  landscape  and  the 
general  appearance  is  barren  and  desolate.  The 
mountains,  once  well  wooded,  are  now  quite  bare. 
Of  the  famous  cedars  (see  Cedab  for  illustration) 


LEBAKOir.                               60  LEBEBT. 

but  a  few  groves  remain.  Iron  and  coal  are  LEBBJB^S.  See  Thajid^us. 
found,  also  amber  and  asphalt.  In  winter  the  LEBEAU,  Ic-b^,  Jean  Louis  Joseph  (1794- 
snowfall  18  great,  and  the  snow  lasts  on  the  sum-  iges).  a  Belgian  sUtesman.  He  was  born  at 
mits  for  SIX  months;  in  the  ravmes  it  is  found  jiuy;  practiced  law  at  Lifege;  and  through  the 
the  year  round,  and  is  carried  to  Beirut  and  other  Liberal  organ,  Mathieu  Laenabergh  (later  La 
cities  in  the  heat  of  summer.  Two  important  Politique),  which  he  founded  in  1824,  brought 
rivers  rise  in  the  mountains  and  flow  through  the  about  the  union  of  the  Liberals  and  Clericals 
Buka'a  before  turning  westward  to  the  sea,  the  for  separation  from  Holland.  Under  Leopold  he 
Litany  (Leontes)  liowing  southward  and  el-Asi  was  Minister  of  Justice  (1832-34),  Governor  of 
(Orontes)  flowing  to  the  north.  Numerous  Namur,  Ambassador  to  the  German  Confederation 
streams  water  the  western  slopes,  and  here  and  in  in  1839,  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs  ( 1840- 
the  valleys  the  soil  is  fruitful;  orchards,  vine-  41 ),  and  after  returning  to  the  House  of 
yards,  olive  and  mulberry  plantations,  and  fields  Deputies,  a  leader  of  the  Liberals  and  a  strong 
of  wheat  and  barley  abound.  Estimates  of  the  opponent  of  the  Clerical  Party  until  his  resigna- 
population  vary  from  260,000  to  400,000.  Three-  tion  in  1864.  His  Souvenirs  personnels  were 
quarters  of  them  are  Christians,  of  whom  more  edited  by  Freson  (Brussels,  1883). 
than  half  are  Maronites,  Greek  Catholics  (ortho-  --,  •jwa-tt  t  a  /to^/*  \  a 
dox  and  Uniates)  coming  next  in  order  of  num-  ^  ^  »^^'  ^0^^=  ^J^A.^^^^?""^'  eu^ 
bers.  The  non-Christian  inhabitants  are  the  ^^??*?  composer,  born  at  Rastatt,  Baden.  She 
Druses  (q.v.).  The  chief  occupation  is  the  rear-  studied  music  with  Kalliwoda,  Frau  Schumann, 
ing  of  silkworms  and  great  quantities  of  raw  f ^.^Jl^'  Rheinberger,  and  Lachner.  She  was  a 
silk  are  exported  to  Italy  and  France;  some  silk  brilliant  concert  pianist  and  gave  successful  con- 
manufacture  is  also  carried  on  in  the  villages,  certs  throughout  Germany.  Her  compositions, 
and  there  are  several  factories  estoblished  by  for-  fspecially  for  the  piano,  are  popular.  The  best 
eign  firms.  The  carriage-road  over  the  Lebanon  known  of  her  works  are:  gavotte,  for  piano; 
from  Beirut  to  Damascus  is  now  supplanted  fantasia,  for  piano  and  orchestra ;  several  so- 
by  a  narrow-gauge  railway,  opened  in  1895.  natas;  and  the  choral  work  Hadumot/i  (1894). 
About  20  miles  of  it  are  cogged.  The  moun-  LEBEDIN,  ly6'be-dy§n^  The  capital  of  a 
tains  do  not  contain  many  ancient  remains.  There  district  in  the  Russian  Government  of  Kharkov, 
are  some  early  anchorites'  caves  and  rock  about  105  miles  northwest  of  the  town  of  Khar- 
tombs.  The  Lebanon  has  always  been  in  a  kov  ( Map :  Russia,  D  4 ) .  It  manufactures  chiefly 
measure  independent  of  the  Turkish  Government,  tallow  and  sugar,  and  carries  on  some  trade  in 
Since  the  massacres  of  the  Christians  in  1860  grain.  Population,  in  1897,  14,206. 
and  the  consequent  French  intervention  (see  LEBEL,  le-bftK,  Nicolas  ( 1838-91 ).  A  French 
Druses)  It  has  had  a  Christian  Governor  under  ^f^^^,  ^nd  inventor.  He  was  bom  near  Angers, 
the  protection  of  the  Powers.  The  people  graduated  from  the  military  school  of  Saint-Cvr 
are  markedly  superior  to  other  inhabitants  of  j^  jgSS,  and  took  part  as  captain  in  the  campaim 
Syria  Consult,  besides  the  standard  works  on  ^^  jgTO  with  the  Army  of  the  North.  Later  he 
Palestine  and  Syria,  such  as  Robinson.  Buhl,  and  ^^^  appointed  director  of  the  artillery  school  at 
George  Adam  Smith,  Fraas,  Dret  donate  %m  ^ours  and  in  1883  of  that  of  Chalons,  where  he 
Lehanon  (Stuttgart,  1876)  ;  Porter,  Handbook  i^g^n  to  experiment  on  firearms.  As  a  result 
iRT^r'*^^  '**  *^  ^"^^^^^"^  (London,  y^^  ^^s  commissioned  to  secure  a  new  gun  for  the 
^°'^'*  infantry.  He  invented  a  weapon  of  small  calibre, 
LEBANON  SFBINGS.  A  village  of  New  which,  after  being  perfected  by  others,  was 
York.    See  New  Lebanon.  adopted  by  the  French  Army  in  1886. 

LEBANON   VALLEY    COLLEGE.      A   co-  LEBEBT,   la^rt,   Hermann    (1813-78).     A 

educational  college  at  Annville,  Pa.,  founded  in  German  physician.  He  was  born  at  Breslau ;  was 

1867;  and  under  the  control  of  the  United  Breth-  educated  at  Berlin,  Zurich,  and  Paris;   and  in 

ren.    The  institution  comprises  five  departments:  1836  began  to  practice  at  Bex  in  Switzerland, 

a  college,  offering  five  groups  of  studies,  leading  The  winters  of  1842  to  1845  he  spent  in  Paris  in 

to  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts,  and  prepara-  pathological    research,   especially    microscopical^ 

tory,  normal,  music,  and  art  departments.     In  and  published  the  results  in  Physiologic  patholo- 

1903  the  total  attendance  was  460,  including  170  gique  (1846).     He  settled  in  Paris  in  1847  and 

collegiate    students,    with    29    instructors.      The  stayed  there  until  1852,  when  he  went  to  Zurich 

library  contained  10,000  volumes.    The  value  of  as  clinical  professor  of  the  university.     In  1859 

the   buildings  of  the  college  and  grounds  was  he  went  to  Breslau  in  the  same  capacity.     He 

$150,000,  the  endowment  $75,000,  the  gross  in-  was   oub   of  the   first   to   recognize  and   utilize 

come    $23,000,    and   the   total   value   of   college  the  importance  of  histology  for  pathology.     He 

property  $230,000.  made  special  studies  of  tuberculosis,  cancer,  and 

LE  BAS,   le  ba,   Philippe    (1794-1860).     A  scrofula.     His  writings  include:  Traits  pratique 

French  archWologist  and  historian,  born  in  Paris,  ^es^^^^^^^s  scrofuleuseset  tuherculeuses{\SAQ) 

From  1820  untiri827  he  had  charge  of  the  edu-  ^P^   Des   maladies   canc^euses    (1851)  ;    TraUS 

cation  of  Louis  Napoleon,  afterwards  Napoleon  ff "«'^J!?f    pathologtque    ghx^aU    et    spitxaU 

IIL      Subsequently    he   was   professor   of   Greek  Jf  ^'^^^ •^4^^^'"^\'!^.^«^'^^'^^^^^ 

at    the    Lyceum    and    lecturer    at    the    Normal  7!/^;^  ^^^^^  W  ^^17*^.,  "^  ^^T**^^"*"™? 

School.    In  1842  he  was  sent  by  the  Government  (1873-74)  ;  and  Krankhexten  des  Magens  (1878). 

on   an   archeological   expedition   to   Greece   and  LEBEBT,   Sieomund    (1822-84).     A  Germaa 

Asia  Minor.    He  was  elected  to  the  Institute  in  music-teacher,     bom     at     Ludwigsburg.       After 

1838.    His  works  include:  Voyage  arcMologique  studying  music  at  Prague  he  settled  in  Munich. 

en  Ordce  et  en  Asie  Mineure  (1847-68),  completed  where  he  established  himself  as  a  pianist  and 

by    Waddington;    Explication    des    inscriptions  teacher.    In  1856  he  founded,  in  conjunction  with 

grecques  et  Uitines  recueilliea  en  Orice  (1835).  Stark  and  others,  the  Stuttgart  Conservatory. 


LEBEBT.                                 61  LEBBUN. 

In  1873  he  received  the  honorary  degree  of  doctor  Vionville  and  Gravelotte,  and  with  the  fall  of 

of  philosophy  from,  the  University  of  Tubingen.  Metz  became  a  prisoner  of  the  Germans.     After 

Ue  published,  with  Stark,  Orosae  Klavierachule,  the  peace  he  lived  in  complete  obscurity.    He  died 

which    was    translated    into    Italian,    English,  June  7,  1888. 

French,  and  Russian;   an  edition  of  Clementi's  j^j,    gQj^     j^    ^^       Gustave    (1841-).      A 

Oradu^adParnaMumyandanmstnictive  edition  p^ench  physician,  archaologist,  and  ethnologist, 

of  pianoforte  classics.    He  died  at  Stuttgart.  ^o^n  at  Nogent  le  Rotrou.    He  was  educated  as  a 

LEBID  IBN  BABIA.    See  Labid  ibn  Rabia.  physician,  but  practiced  little.     In  1884  he  had 

LE    BLANT,    le    blftN,    Edmond    Fb£d£bio  charge  of  a  Government  expedition  to  study  the 

(1818-97).  A  French  archaeologist,  bom  in  Paris,  architecture  of  the  Buddhist  monuments  in  India. 

He   became   interested   in   archeology   during  a  He  wrote:  L*homme  et  lea  aoci^t^a   (1877);  Lea 

visit  to  Rome  in  1847,  and  afterwards  made  a  premUrea  civiliaationa    (1889);   Lea  monumenta 

special  study  of  Christian  epigraphy  and  early  de  VInde  (1894) ;  Loia  paychologiquea  de  V^volu- 

Christian  institutions  in  France.     He  became  a  Hon  dea  peuplea  (1896)  ;  La  foule,  translated  as 

member  of  the  Institute  in  1867,  and  from  1883  The  Crowd:  A  Study  of  the  Popular  Mind  (2d 

to   1889  was  director  of  the  French  School  at  ed.  1897). 

Po--'*.     His   worU-s   include:     Tnacriptiona  chr^-  LE  BOUXENG^,  le  b5<5'laN'zhA',  Paul  Emile 

tienneade  laOaule  antirieureaauVIII^e  aUcle  (1832—).     A  Belgian  artillery  officer,  bom  at 

(1856-66);     Nouveau    recueil    dea    inacriptiona  Mesnil-Eglise.     He  made  many  valuable  discov- 

chrmennea  de  la  Oaule    (1862);   Manuel  d*6pi'  eries   in   ballistics,   especially   the   Le    Boulengfi 

graphic  chritienne    (1869);   Etude  aur  lea  aar-  chronograph,   which  he  described   in    1869,  and 

cophagea  chritiena  antiquea  de  la  ville  d'Arlea  wrote:  Etude  de  haliatique  expdrimentale  (1868) 

(1878);   Lea  aarcophagea  chrHiena  de  la  Oaule  and  Deacription,  maniement  et   uaage  dea   t^U- 

(1886) ;  Lea  actea  dea  martyra,  a  supplement  to  m^trea  de  Le  Bouleng4  (1877).    See  Ballistics. 

the  Acta  iStncera  of  Dom  Ruinart  (1882)  ;  L*^pt-  T^-o-a'am     i    u-a/     n                 /loco     x         * 

graphie  chrMienne  en  Oaule  et  dana  VAfHoue  ^  ^™^T'    le-brA'     Gkobqes     (1863-).      A 

romaine  (1888)  ;  Lea  pera4cuteura  et  lea  martyra  \^^^p\  statesman.     He   was  born  at   Etampes, 

auof  premiera  aiiclea  de  notre  ^e   (1893)  ;  and,  studied  law  at  Pans,  and  received  the  degree  of 

with  Jacquemart,  Hiatoire  artiatique  de  la  por-  J??\or  of  laws.    In  18  <  9  he  was  appointed  by  the 

celaine   (1861-62).  Minister  of  Public  Instruction  on  a  mission  to 

T-o   "DT  Aurm     T.,,,-«    /TocT      V        A    T3»       1.  Euglaud  Bud  Scotland  to  report  on  leases,  and 

M!  SLANT,   JuuEN    (1851- )      A   French  agrWtural  legislation  and  usages.    Afterwards 

historical  painter,  son  of  the  preceding,  bom  in  ^»          ^^^^  professor  of  law  at  the  University 

Parw     He  was  a  pupil  of  Girard  and  pjve  spe-  „j  ^         and  attained  a   full   professorship  in 

cial  attention  to  the   history  of  the  Chouans.  ^^^     ^^  ^^y  t^^  ^^^  „,  municipal  coun^lor 

J^lTrate   the'ir''«pToT    His^ofto    fncff  «»'^  »'  »»y°'  '"  *"«  *°^  °*  Caen.'^and  in  1893 

cejeorate   tneir   exploits,     uis   worKs    mciuae .  elected  Deputy   (Repub  ican)   for  that  mu- 

(18r4r'^La'  ^lrl^^V^l.l\4^^^^^  P^f^^,  '^  ^  .'^i^^P^.^V\^.  ^J'Tl  1 

"Henr   de  la  Rochejacquelin"  (1879)  ;  "Diner  de  Minister  of  Justice  m  Dupuy's  Cabinet     Lebret 

r^uipage"    (1884)  ;   and  'Wour  de  regiment"  V^^?'"^  recognized  as  an  authority  on  technical 

(1892).*"   He   received   a   second-class   medal   in  jurisprudence      His   publications   include  £hi.^e 

1880,  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1885,  and  a  gold  *"^  ^^  propnH4  foncx^re  en  AngUterre   (1882). 

medal  at  the  Universal  Exposition  of  1889.    He  LEBBIJA,    lA-brg^H&     (Lat.    yehriaaa-Vene- 

also  made   notable  illustrations   for  the  works  ria),     A  town  of  Spain,  in  the  Province  of  Se- 

of  De  Vigny,  Dumas  p^re,  and  Balzac.  ville,  34  miles  south  of  Seville,  and  on  the  rail- 

LEBCEUF,    Ic-bM',    EbMOND     (1809-88).      A  way  between  Seville  and  Cadiz  (Map:   Spain,  B 

marshal  of  France,  born  in  Paris.     He  was  edu-  *)  •    ^V.®  P^^^*/*".*:!^  situated  on  the  fertile  slopes 

cated  at  the  Ecole  Polytechnique  and  the  school  o^  the  Sierra  de  Gibaldin  and  on  the  border  of  the 

of  artillery  at  Metz.     He  'entered  the  army  in  extensive    marshes    around    the    mouth    of    the 

1832,  and  his  services  in  Algeria  (1837-41)  made  Guadalauivir,  known  as  Las  Mansmas.     It  has 

him  colonel  (1854).    In  that  year  he  directed  the  a/"Jned  castle,  believed  to  date  from  the  time 

French  siege  operations  around  Sebastopol,  and  ^^  the  caliphate    and  a  large  church    originally 

was  made  brigadier-general.     He  was  attache  of  a  mosque,  exhibiting  a  strange  combination  of 

the  Russian  embassy  in  1856;  became  general  of  ^^^  Arabic  Roman,  and  Gothic  styles.    It  carries 

division  in   1857  and  commander-in-chief  of  the  «"  »  considerable  trade  in  grain,  wine,  oil,  and 

artillery   a   year   later,   and   did  effective   work  ^^^^le      ?°P".l*<^l^"'  J.«    1887,    11,933;    in    1900 

with   this  arm  at  the  battle  of  Solferino.     In  l^'Vf  *  o^H"J^  "  believed  to  have  been  founded 

August,  1869,  he  became  Minister  of  War,  and  ^y  ^^^  ^J^^^  m  ante-Roman  times,  and  was  a 

in  the  spring  of  1870  was  made  marshal.    Before  large  and  flourishing  city  during  the  time  of  the 

the  outbreak  of  the  Franco-German  War,  Lebceuf  Moorish  Empire. 

expressed  his  confidence  in  the  preparedness  of  LEBBUN,  le-br?N',  Charles  (1619-90).  A 
the  French  forces;  summoned  in  April,  1870,  be-  French  historical  and  portrait  painter,  architect, 
fore  a  committee  of  the  French  Legislative  As-  and  decorator.  He  was  born  in  Paris,  February 
sembly  to  report  on  the  condition  of  the  French  24,  1619.  His  predisposition  toward  art,  which 
Army,  he  said :  "We  are  ready ;  so  ready  that  the  developed  early,  was  discovered  by  the  Chancel- 
war  may  last  two  years  without  our  having  need  lor  SC»guier,  who  placed  him  in  the  atelier  of  the 
to  buy  so  much  as  a  gaiter-button."  Consequent-  painter  Vouet,  and  in  1642  sent  him  to  Rome. 
Iy,when  the  first  disasters  of  the  war  revealed  the  In  Rome  he  came  under  the  influence  of  Nicolas 
true  condition  of  affairs,  the  country  was  ex-  Poussin.  In  1642  he  was  again  in  Paris,  and 
asperated  against  him.  He  rcBigned  from  the  was  called  upon  to  decorate  the  Hotel  Lambert, 
Ministry  in  August,  and  assumed  command  of  and  to  repair  the  Petite  Galerie  du  Louvre,  which 
the  Third  Army  Corps.     He  fought  bravely  at  had  been  injured  by  fire.    The  restora'tion  of  the 


LEBBT7N.  62  LEBBXTHr. 

Petite   Galerie   led   to   the   construction  of  the  self   by   an    orderly    and    vigorous    administra- 

Galerie  d'Apollon   above   it,   which  Lebrun  was  tion.     Twice  arrested  during  the  Terror,  he  was 

employed  to   decorate.     This  work  he   left  un-  freed  in  1795,  and  elected  Deputy  to  the  Council 

finished,  but  the  numerous   drawings   from   his  of    Five    Hundred,    becoming    president    in    the 

designs  which  are  in  existence  made  it  possible  following  year.     In   1799  he  was   reelected,  ac- 

for  Eugene  Delacroix  in  the  nineteenth  century  quired  a  commanding  influence  in  that  body,  and 

to  complete  the  work  according  to  the  original  controlled    its    financial    legislation.     After    the 

intention.  18th    Brumaire   Napoleon   made   Lebrun    Third 

The  extraordinary  power  which  Lebrun  exer-  Consul  for  his  services  during  the  coup  d'etat, 

cised  during  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV.  came  main-  In  1805  he  negotiated  the  union  of  the  Ligurian 

ly  from  the  part  he  played  in  the  establishment  Republic  with  the  French  Empire,  and  was  made 

of  the  Academy  of  Painting  and  Sculpture.    He  Duke  of  Piacenza.     In  1807  he  reorganized  the 

was  also  instrumental  in  the  establishment  of  the  Cour  des  Comptes   (the  exchequer),  but  on  the 

French  Academy  at  Rome,  and  until  his  death  w^as  abolition  of  the  tribunat  by  the  Emperor  retired 

practically  Minister  of  Fine  Arts  to  the  King,  to  private  life.  He  was  called  back  in  1810  at  the 

having  the  supervision  of  all  his  immense  artis-  age  of  seventy-one  to  govern  Holland  after  the 

tic  undertakings.  abdication  of  Louis  Bonaparte.     He  returned  to 

After   the  completion  of  the  Hotel  Lambert,  Paris  in  1813,  and  soon  after,  for  his  services  to 

Lebrun  was  employed  by  the  Chancellor  Fouquet  the  Bourbons,  was  raised  to  the  peerage.     He 

to  decorate  the  new  Chateau  of  Vaux-le-Vicomte,  went   over,    however,    to    Xapoleon    during    the 

designed  by  Louis  Levau.     In  1662  he  was  ap-  Hundred  Days,  and  on  the  return  of  the  Bour- 

pointed  first  painter  to  the  King,  and  placed  m  bons  his  name  was  struck  from  the  list  of  peers, 

charge  of  the  decoration  of  the  palace  and  park  but  restored  in  1819.    Lebrun  published  transla- 

of  Versailles.     He   designed   the   fountains   and  tions  of  Tasso's  Oerusalemme  Liherataj  the  Iliad, 

statues  of  the  park,  decorated  the  vestibule  of  and    the    Odyasey,      His    Memoirs    appeared    in 

the  palace,  and  in  1679  began  the  decoration  of  1829. 

the  great  gallery  with  paintings  of  the  deeds  of  LEBBUN,  Mabie  Louise  Elisabeth  ViotE 
Louis  XIV.  He  was  made  director  of  the  new  (1755-1842).  A  French  portrait  painter.  She 
manufacture  of  tapestries  and  furniture  at  Les  was  born  in  Paris,  April  16,  1755.  When  fifteen 
Gobelins.  He  decorated  the  Chftteau  des  Sceaux  years  of  age  she  had  established  herself  as  a  por- 
for  Colbert  and  designed  some  of  its  pavilions,  trait  painter.  In  1775  she  was  elected  member 
Next  to  Versailles,  Lebrun's  most  important  of  the  Academy  of  Saint  Luke,  at  Rome,  and 
work  was  the  construction  and  decoration  of  the  in  1783  a  member  of  the  French  Academy.  In 
Chateau  of  Marly,  which  has  been  destroyed,  but  1776  she  contracted  an  unfortunate  marriage 
many  of  his  designs  for  the  architecture  have  with  Lebrun,  a  spendthrift  and  a  man  much 
been  preserved.  After  the  death  of  Colbert  his  older  than  herself.  She  was  appointed  painter 
fortunes  declined,  and  in  consequence  of  the  in  ordinary  to  Marie  Antoinette,  and  in  1779  corn- 
troubles  brought  upon  him  by  the  enmity  of  menced  the  series  of  thirty  portraits  of  the 
Louvois,  Lebrun  sickened  and  died,  on  February  Queen.  She  became  a  great  favorite  of  society. 
12,  1690.  At  the  time  of  the  Revolution  she  fled  to  Italy, 

He  was  an  able  and  prolific  painter,  and  his  visiting  Bologna,  Florence,  Rome,  Naples,  and 
works  show  good  composition  and  great  inventive  then  went  to  Saint  Petersburpr,  where  she  re- 
power.  Although  of  good  decorative  effect,  they  mained  five  years.  She  was  everj'where  received 
are  mannered;  his  drawing  is  superficial,  and  with  high  honor,  admitted  to  membership  of  the 
his  coloring  untrue  to  nature.  The  Louvre  con-  principal  academies,  and  abundantly  employed, 
tains  a  large  number  of  his  works,  the  best  After  an  absence  of  twelve  years  she  returned 
known  of  which  is  the  series  of  five  pictures  to  Paris,  and  in  1802  she  visited  England,  re- 
illustrating  the  "History  of  Alexander  the  maining  three  years.  She  also  visited  Holland, 
Great."  He  is  well  represented  in  most  of  the  Belgium,  and  Switzerland,  making  her  home 
principal  European  museums,  especially  in  those  alternately  in  Paris  and  I^uveciennes.  She  died 
of  France.  in  Paris,  at  the  age  of  eighty-seven,  March  30, 

Consult:     Henri  Jouin,  Charles  Lebrun  et  les  1842, 
arts  sous  Louis  XIV.    (Paris,    1890)  ;    Merson,         Madame  Lebrun's  figures  are  well  posed,  and 

**Charles  Lebrun,"  in  the  Gazette  des  Beaux-Arts  although  the  composition  is  sometimes  conven- 

(1894)  ;  Genevay,  Le  style  Louis  XIV,,  Charles  tional,  there  is  always  elegance  and  refinement 

Lebrun,  d/corateur  (Paris,  1885).  in  her  paintings.     Her  technique  is  most  careful 

LEBBXm,   or  LE  BBTJN,   Charles   Fran-  in  finish,  her  drawing  is  good,  and  her  color  is 

VOis.  Duke  de  Piacenza   (1739-1824).     A  French  Pjeasmg,  reminding  of  Greuze.     Among  the  best 

statesman,   born    at    Saint-Sauveur-Landelin,    in  ^^ ^^f   ^^""^^  ^^r  ^^""^  ''^-  }^''^^I^^       •  ^'^ 

the   Department   of   Manche.      He   began   public  ??d,  her  daughter;   Jean  Paesiello;   the  painter 

life  as  secretarv  to  the  future  Chancellor  Mau-  Hubert  Robert;   Joseph  Veriiet    (J^uvre);   Ma- 

peou,  was  made  inspector  of  the  Crown  lands,  d«.me  Mole-Raymond;   Prince  of  \\ales   (George 

and  indirectly  exercised  great  influence  on  the  J)-)  J    ^off   ^^?.°'    ^-n"^  Antoinette  and  her 

policy  of  the  Ministrv  of  Louis  XV.     After  the  three   children      Versailles    Museum).      Consult 

dismissal    of    the    MAupeou    Ministry,    in    1774,  ^^^^^™®  Lebrun's  Souvenirs  de  ma  vie    (Pans, 

Lebrun  was  in  retirement  till  1789.     At  the  out-  1809). 

break  of   the  Revolution   he  wrote   a   pamphlet         LEBBTTN,  Pikrre  Antoine   (1785-1873).     A 

entitled  La   voix  du   Citoyen,  and   was   elected  French  poet  and  dramatist,  bom  in  Paris.    Dur- 

to  the   States-General,   and  in  the   Constituent  ing  the  campaigns  of  the  Empire  his  patriotic 

Assembly  he  spoke  often  on  matters  of  finance,  odes  A  la  grande  arm^e  (1805),  Sur  la  campagne 

He  was  made  Governor   of  the   Department  of  de   1807    (1808),   and   on   kindred   subjects   at- 

Seine-*^Oise    in    1791,    and    distinguished   him-  tracted  considerable  attention,  and  his  plays  won 


LEBBUN.                                63  LEGHFOKD. 

him  a  place  in  the  Academy    (1828).     Among  are  a  city  hospital,  an  orphan  asylum  for  girls^ 

these  plays  may  be  mentioned   Ulysse    (1815),  a  technical  school,  an  industrial  school,  a  city 

Pallaa     (1822),    and    especially    Marie    Stuart  library,  a  theatre,  and  a  chamber  of  commerce 

(1820).     His  poem  Voyage  en  Orece  was' pub-  and  arts.     Industrially  Lecco  is  important  for  its 

lished  in  1828,  and  his  works  wenr  collected  in  silk,  cotton,  and  iron  manufactures,  and  cattle 

1844-63.  market.    Population  (commune),  in  1881,  8042; 

LEB&XTN,  Ponce  Denis  Eoouchabd   (called  in   1901,   10,275.     In  the  Middle  Ages  the  city 

Lebbun-Pindabe)    (1720-1807).     A  French  poet,  was  a  fortified  place  and  the  seat  of  a  count  until 

bom  in  Paris.     He  was  educated  at  the  College  the  twelfth  century,  when  it  came  into  the  pos- 

Mazarin,  and  early  began  to  write  verses.    After-  session   of  Milan.     April   26,   1799,  the   French 

wards  he  became  secretary  to  the  Prince  de  Conti.  under  Serrurier  were  defeated  here  by  the  Aus- 

He  lived  in  the  gay  literary  society  of  the  time,  trians  and  Russians. 

wrote  letter  and  exchanged  epigrams    and  won  lECCO,  Lake  of   (It.  Lago  di  Lecco),     The 

the  title  of  Pindar  for  the  perfection  and  imagina-  goutheastern  arm  of  Lake  Como   (q.v.),  Italy, 

tion  displayed  in  his  odes.  He  lacked  the  warmth  •«-,„    ,        ,t         r-               a      .  t^         ., 

and  real  feeling  to  make  him  a  great  poet,  but  ,^r^'  ^?   ^^^^'  ^*^"*^     ^  "^^^  tributary 

his  epigrams  are  models.     His  works  were  pub-  "^  ^"^  Danube.     It  rises  in  the  Lake  of  Forma- 

lished  with  a  notice  by  Ginguen^  in   1811,  and  "^   1^  ^}^^J^I^^^^\J^^^\°h.  ^^    *^    altitude    of 

his  (Tt/rrc*  c/ioi5ic«,  with  a  biography  by  Desprez  ^^^^   6000   feet    (Map:    Germany,   D   4).     Its 

and  Campenon,  in  1821  and  1828.  ^^^^s«  *°  ^^®  mountain  ranges  of  Tyrol  is  tor- 

LE  CABON,  le  kA'r6N',  Joseph   (M632).    A  ^^^^^   ?u ^  i'''^   ^".'i  """^   entering   Bavaria    it 

French    R6collet   missionary   to  the   Indians   in  ?f™«  the  finest  rapids   m  Germany.     Even  in 

America.     He   went   with   three   other  R^coUets  »\f  ^°"js«  through  Bavaria,  the  river  retains  the 

to  Canada  in  1615;  with  other  Franciscans  built  character  of  a  mountam  stream.     It  joins  the 

a  monastery  near  Quebec;  and  penetrated  in  the  ^^°^^  ^^  ^^^  f^J^^^  ^^J"^^^  of  Uchsend  after  a 

same   vear  to   Lake   Huron,   which   he  was  the  ^^"™  ''L^°y\^^^T*"''\^?  f'J^.u*/''^''^  ^^^J?^ 

first  white  man  to  reach.     His  mission  was  un-  of  over  4600  feet      Its  chief  tributaries  are  the 

successful,   as   was   a   second   attempt    in    1623.  ^ijs  and  the  Wertach.     Here,  in  1632,  Gustayus 

He  was  sent  to  England  after   the  capture  of  Adolphus  defeated  the  Imperialists  under  Tilly, 

Quebec  in  1629,  and  never  succeeded  in  getting  w*^^  was  mortally  wounded.    See  Lechfeld. 

back  to  Canada.     His  studies  of  the  Huron  Ian-  IiECHEVAX<IEB,    le-she-v&iy&^   Jean   Bap- 

guage  were  of  value  to  his  successors.  tiste  (1752-1836).    A  P^ench  archieologist.    He 

LECCE,   16'chA.     Capital  of  the  Province  of  was  born  at  Trelly,  Normandy,  France,  and  was 

Lecce,  Italy,  24  miles  by  rail  south  of  Brindisi,  educated  for  the  ministry.     In   1784  he  accom- 

and  seven  miles  from  the  Adriatic   (Map:  Italy,  V^^^^  ^}l^  Count  of  Choiseul-Gouffier  as  secre- 

N    7).      Electric    cars    carry    excursionists    to  tary  to  the  Levant,  and  with  him  made  diligent 

Castello    di    San    Cataldo    on    the    coast.      In-  researches  in  the  plain  of  Troy   (1784-86).     He 

teresting    buildings    are    the    sixteenth-century  was  director  of  the  library  of  Sainte  Genevieve 

Church   of   Santa    Croce;    the   sixteenth-century  in    Pans    from    1808    until    his    death.     Of   his 

Prefettura,   formerly   a   Celestine   convent,   con-  works,  the  best  knoNvn  are  his  Voyage  dans  la 

taining  a  valuable  collection  of  ancient  vases,  Troade  (1800;  translated  into  English  by  Dalzel, 

coins,  and  inscriptions;   the  seventeenth-century  under  the  title  of  a  Description  of  the  Plain  of 

baroque  Church  of  San  Domenico;  the  sixteenth-  ^»'oy)  J  and  Ulysse-Hoindre   (1829),  in  which  he 

century       hospital;       the       seventeenth-century  asserts  that  Ulysses  was  the  author  of  the  Iliad 

cathedral;  and  in  the  Campo  Santo   (cemeterv)  and  the  Odyssey.     Consult  No<?l,  Jean-Baptiste 

the  Church  of  Santi  Nicola  e  Cataldo,  built  by  Lechevalier  (Paris,  1840). 

the  Norman  Count  Tancred  in  1180.    The  streets  LECHPELB,  l^K^fglt.     A  plain  in  Bavaria, 

are   narrow   and   crooked.     Lecce   has   a   public  south  of  Augsburg,  on  the  banks  of  the  river 

garden,    a    chamber    of    commerce,    a    technical  Lech,  where  Otho  the  Great  in  955  inflicted  a 

school,  a  gymnasium,  a  female  normal   school,  crushing  defeat  upon  the  Hungarians  or  Mag> 

a    technical    institute,    a    school    of    agriculture,  yars.     This  defeat  checked  their  incursions,  and 

and  a  provincial  library.     It  is  famous  for  the  caused  them  to  give  up  their  plundering  expedi- 

high  quality  of  its  oil  and  for  the  great  tobacco  tions,  which  had  long  been  a  scourge  to  Europe, 

factory  in  what  was  once  a  Dominican  convent,  and  especially  to  Germany. 

It  has  cotton,  wool,  soap,  and  leather  manufac-  LECH'EOBJ),  Thomas  (?-c.l645).    The  first 

tures,   and   the   country    produces   grain,    fruit,  lawyer  in  Boston.     Before  leaving  England  h© 

honey,  cotton,  hemp,  tobacco,  cattle,  and  sheep,  ^as*  a   member   of   Clement's   Inn,   and   it  was 

The  ancient  city  here  was  called  Lupia,  and  in  probably    the    assistance    which    he    gave    to    a 

near-by  RudiaB(  now  the  village  of  Rugge)  Ennius  barrister  named  Prynne,  who  was  found  guilty 

(q.v.)    was  bom  in  B.C.  230.     Population   (com-  of  libel  bv  the  Stor  Chamber,  that  got  him  into 

mune),  in   1881,  25,934;   in   1901,  32.687.     Con-  trouble   with   the   home   authorities   and   led  to 

suit   Simone,   Lecce  e  i  suoi  dintomi  descritti  hi^   seeking   an   asylum    in   America,   where   he 

ed  i«iififra<t  (Lecce,  1874).  arrived    in    1638.  'The    Massachusetts    Govern- 

LEGCOy  l^^A.  A  city  in  the  Province  of  mont  also  looked  upon  him  with  small  favnr,  not 
Como,  Italy,  on  the  southeastern  arm  (called  because  of  his  politics,  but  because  of  his  profes- 
Lake  of  Ijccco)  of  Lake  Como  (q.v.),  32  miles  sion  and  his  religious  views.  Unable  to  secure 
by  rail  north  of  Milan  (Map:  Italy,  D  2).  It  any  cases  in  the  courts,  he  was,  to  quote  his  own 
has  statues  of  Garibaldi  and  of  Manzoni,  in  words,  "forced  to  get  his  living  by  writing  petty 
whose/  Promesai  Spoei  the  locality  is  beautifully  things,  which  scarce  found  him  bread."  After 
described.  Over  the  Adda,  which  issues  from  three  years  of  this  unhappy  existence,  he  re- 
Lake  Como  here,  there  is  a  ten-arch  stone  bridge,  turned"  to  England  in  1641,  and  there  published 
with  towers  at  each  end,  built  in  1336.     There  a  book  entitled  Plain  Dealing;  or,  News  from 


LECHFORD.                               64  LE  GLEBQ. 

New  England  (1642),  which  contains  much  (about  $50  each),  the  sums  varying  according 
valuable  information  relating  to  colonial  life  in  to  the  yearly  wage.  In  1838  he  had  established 
early  Massachusetts.  It  was  reissued  in  1644  a  mutual  aid  society,  which  was  reorganized  in 
under  the  title  A'eu?  England's  Advice  to  Old  1853,  from  which  date  it  was  maintained  out  of 
England,  and  again  in  1867  with  notes  and  an  the  profits  of  the  establishment  instead  of  from 
introduction  by  J.  Hammond  Trumbull.  He  also  contributions  of  members.  In  1864  retiring  pen- 
wrote  a  journal  of  his  life  in  Boston.  Of  his  sions  were  substituted  for  the  right  to  a  division 
adventures  after  his  return  nothing  is  known  of  the  funds  of  the  mutual  aid  association.  He 
except  what  is  contained  in  the  single  phrase  became  the  Maire  of  Herblay  in  1865,  and  died 
of  John  Cotton's  that  he  "put  out  his  Book  (such  there  August  10,  1872.  The  month  before  his 
as  it  is)  and  Soon  after  dyed."  death  the  Maison  LeClaire  divided  $10,000  among 

LECmEB,  iSKlSr.  Gotthakd  Victor  (1811-  ,T.tT)^~r„^^T?!;^L^i*"l'^^*nIKSf 
oov       A/>»             T»/xi.Aui-        u          i.Mi  Still  prosperous,  and  continues  to  loilow  the 

88>-    ^  ^.'^"J^^"**?^^*  *'r^i'«i't%^?*  ■*  plan  of  dUtrWiok  instituted  by  LeClaire.    See 

Kloster  Reichenbach.    He   studied  at  Tiibmgen  Taortw-P  SixADTiva 

( 1829-34) ;  in  1853  was  made  dean  of  the  Diocese  ^!:  ^.^77^1          ,       ^ 

of  Knittlingen;  and  in  1858  became  pastor  at  ^^  CLEAB,  \e  kl6r,  Thomas  (1818-82).    An 

Saint   Thomas    and    professor   at   Leipzig.    He  AmCTican    portrait    painter,    born    m    Owego, 

took  some  part  in  politics  as  a  member  of  the  N.  Y.    He  was  self-taught,  and  first  painted  por- 

First   Chamber   of   the   Saxon   Parliament.    In  traits,    while    living    m    London,    Can.,    about 

1880  he  became  ecclesiastic  privy  councilor,  and  i?32.    Afterwards  he  lived  principally  in  New 

three  years  afterwards  retired  from  his  duties  York   City,   and   was   made   an   N.A.    in    1863. 

as     pastor.    His     works     include:     Oeaohichte  -^™??«„^^   «^^F^   pictures   are   "Marble   Play- 

dea  englischen  Deiamus  (1841) ;  Das  apoatolische  ers,"     "The    Itmerant"     (1862),    and    "Young 

und     das     nachapoatolische     Zeitalter     ( 1851 ;  America."    His  portraits,  which  are  faithful  and 

translated  into  English  from  the  third  German  expressive  likenesses,  include  those  of  "Millard 

edition  by  Lorimer,  1880)  ;  Oeaohichte  der  Pres^  Fillmore,"  "Bayard  Taylor,"  "Daniel  Dickinson" 

hyterialr  und  Synodalverfassung  aeit  der  Refor-  (1870),     "Parke     Godwin"     (1877),     "William 

mation  (1854)  ;  Der  Kirchcnataat  und  die  Oppo-  Pag©/'  in  the  Corcoran  Gallery  at  Washington; 

aition  gegen  den  pdpailichen   Ahaolutismus  im  "William   Cullen  Bryant"    (1880),   "S.   R.   Gif- 

Anfange  dea  vierzehnten  Jahrhunderta    (1870);  ^ord"    (1881),   and   "George   Bancroft,"   in   the 

Johann  von  Wiclif  und  die  Vorgeaohichte  der  Re-  Century  Club,  New  York  City. 

formation  (1873;  translated  by  Lorimer,  3d  ed.  LECI«EBC,  Ic-klftr',  Chableb  Victor  Emman- 

1884);  and  Johannes  Huaa  (1890).  uel    (1772-1802).     A  French  general,  bom  at 

LECK'Y,  WiixiAM  EDWABD  HAirxPOLE  (1838-  ^f  J^-;j  ^^  cataS^^^"^^^^ 

1003).    An  English  historian  and  publicist.    A  f?Li  S  T^nin^Jft^^^^ 

native     of    Ireland      Leckv    was    educsated    at  ®*®^  ®^  Toulon  attracted  the  attention  of  Bona- 

TriiTf^  ri.no^    ?h,KHn    -L  T.ti^Hot^^i-  n^J  V^^^>  ^^o  took  him  to  lUly  as  his  adjutont  in 

InXK^f^J^^PuM^^  1796    and    made    him    brigadier-general.      Soon 

work.  The  Leadera  of  Public  Optmon  *n  Ireland,  afterwards  he  married  PaulinP  BnnanartP      Hp 

anonymously,  in  1861.    In  1865  the  issue  of  his  ^!!lT«o«f«/ vI^^IIT  f^^^^^ 

Tiia*L-M,  ^f  ii^  »-••!>  ^-^  t^a».^^^  ^4  *i,^  a^^*  accompanied  Napoleon  to  Egypt,  returned  with 

5  pTL^i^  ^rp™^^r^.  C.»rt  J*^™  h™'  ""d  helped  him  on  the  18th  Brumaire.    In 

of  Ratumaltsm  %n  Europe  made  a  marked  im-  ,g(^  j^    ^      r       p,                  Hohenlinden.    In 

pression  on  tne  literary  world,  mainly  on  account  ibai  i.»  ™..  -i;.r.«*-.v.«j  ™;ti.  o^.  J™U  !i*  on  nnn 

of  the  evidence  which  it  afforded  of  extraordinary  J^"^  ''*'  T»"  d«Patel>ed  with  an  army  of  20.000 

<>n./ii«i»..  on,i  ^^^4^„-.^A  ^^^>».vi.4^i».     TUi-  :_  w^n   Bgainst  Toussamt  rOuverture,   the  negro 

J^^T^^t  .rt^!^  contemplation.    This  im-  G„^emor  of  Haiti.    After  losing  half  his  army  he 

pression  was  sustained  by  his  subsequent  work,    «„.„j  T„..™i-*  *-.  -«_it,.t_i_     ti 4.  _. 

hstory  of  European  U^als  from  l^ugustus  to  "^^/^  ^C     Sbs^uZt  "J^zed    Sn^ s^nT*to 

account  oi  the  nature  and  scope  of  its  subject.  -At       n       *               j  j*  j  •     t\        v       ia/\c% 

x^««^i«  4««   ««„.»   , 1  ^   u     T     1       •  with  yellow  fever,  and  died  m  December,  1802. 

Nearly  ten  years  were  employed  by   Lecky  in  -«^*«,«#,    i     1 1    i      ▼                  * 

studies   and   investigations   preparatory  to  the  ^^   CLBBC,   \e   kl6rk,   Jean,   or  Johannes 

publication  of   his  Hiatory  of  England  in   the  Clericus     (1657-1736).      A    Swiss    Protestant 

Eighteenth  Century   (1878-90).     The  first  three  scholar.      He   was    born    at   Geneva,    where   his 

of  these  books  were  translated  into  German  by  father  was  professor  of  Greek.     From  an  early 

Dr.  H.  Jolowicz,  and  the  History  of  Morala  is  period  he  showed  a  particular  aptitude  for  the 

used  as  a  text-book  in  German  universities.     He  ^^^^7  of  ancient  languages.    He  also  paid  great 

was  elected  to  Parliament  for  Dublin  University  attention  to  theology.    Before  he  was  twenty.  Le 

in  1895.     New  editions  of  his  histories  of  Eng-  ^^erc  had  imbibed  Socinian  opinions  in  religion, 

land   (7  vols.)   and  Ireland   (5  vols.)   were  pub-  He   also   denied   the   special   inspiration   of   the 

lished  in  New  York  in  1893;  and  his  later  works  Bible,    In  1678  he  went  as  tutor  to  Grenoble;  in 

include  Poema    (1891)  ;   The  Political  Value  of  l^^O  he  returned  to  Geneva,  and  was  ordained  a 

History  (ISQS)  ;  Democracy  and  Liberty  (1896).  minister.     All   the   while  his   objections   to  the 

After  1886  he  spoke  and  worked  for  the  Liberal  accepted    theology    of   his    associates   had   been 

Unionists.  growing;   and  under  the  name  of  Liberius  de 

Sancto  Amore  he  wrote  eleven  letters  against  th( 

LECLAIRE,  Ic-klar',  Edn6  Jean   (1801-72).  errors  of  the  scholastic  theologians  as  the  par- 

The  founder  of  profit-sharing,  born  in  France,  tisan  of  the  Dutch  Remonstrants.     In  the  latter 

He  started  in  business  as  a  painter  in  Paris  in  part  of  1681  Le  Clerc  returned  to  Grenoble,  and 

1827  and  was  very  successful.    The  idea  of  profit-  thence  went  to  London,  where  he  preached  six 

sharing  was  first  suggested  to  him  in  1835,  and  months  to  the  Savoy  Congregation.    He  was  ap- 

in  1842  he  announced  his  purpose  to  share  the  pointed  professor  of  philosophy,  classical  litera- 

profits  of  his  establishirent  with  his  employees,  ture,  and  Hebrew  at  the  Remonstrant  Seminary 

and   soon    divided    11,866    francs    among   them  of  Amsterdam  in  1684;  later  (1712)  of  Church 


LE  GLEBG.                               65  LECOMFTON. 

iiistoiy.    He  had  to  retire  in  1728  in  consequence  written  in  the  style  of  his  predecessor  Carmontel, 

of  a  paralytic  stroke^  and  for  eight  years  before  and    marked    by    piquant    dialogue    and    vivid 

his  death  was  much  weakened  in  mind.    He  died  character-portrayal.     These  include  L^hutnoriste, 

January  8,  1736.     Le  Clerc's  writings  are  very  L'intrigant^  malencontreuw,  and  Le  retour  du  ha- 

numerous;    seventy-three    separate    publications  ron.    A  collected  edition  was  published  in  1823* 

have  been  enumerated^  including  a  commentary  26,  and  Nouveaux  proverbpa  dramatiquea  in  1833. 

on  the  entire  Bible;  but  his  greatest  service  to  LECLEBCQ,    Paul   Jean    Emile    (1827—). 

posterHy  was  the  publication  of  a  quarterly,  the  ^     Belgian     author,     born     at     Monceausur- 

B%bhoth4qu€  umveraelle  et  hiatorique   ( 168693,  Sambre.     He  studied  painting  under  Navez,  but 

^J^l^i\  ^^"®^^<*  }*P  ^y.,^h®  Bihliothique  choiate  ^j^  turned  to  art  criticism  and  literature.    His 

(1703-13)     and    the    Bthhoth4que    anctenne    et  realistic  novels  include:     Le  cam^Uon   (1858); 

modeme   (1714-27).     His  editions  of  several  of  ^.c*  amours  aincirea    (1860);  Lea  petita-fila  de 

^}f^^^^^^^^^}^^i^^^^^^oftheApo  ^^    Quichotte    (1867);     Une    fille    du    peuple 

(1698;  2d  ed   1724)  prove  both  his   earning  and  (1874);     A     quelque    chose    malheur    eat    hon 

acumen;  while  his  Ar«  Cr%ttca  (3  vols.,  1712-30)  ^1879) ;  and  Gaillard  fr^e  et  aceur  (1888).    His 

had  conaiderable  influence  m  his  time,  and  is  critical    and    historical    works   are:    Le   aecond 

Btill   not   without  value.     His  collected  worlra  jfi^^^.y^  frangais    (1872);    Caract^re   de   V^cole 

appeared   at   Amsterdam    m   four  volumes.     A  frangaiae  modeme  de  peinture  (1881);  and  Le« 

number  of  his  wn tings  were  published  m  English  ^^^j,  ^^  ^e*  dieux,  d'apr^  lea  ricita  homMquea 

during  his  lifetime.     Conault  Van  der  Hoeven,  (1898). 

De  Johanne  Clenco  (Amsterdam,  1845).  ^^^^^^^     ^          ,,«,^««.        .      ^     ,.  , 

LBCLBBC,  JOSEPH  ViCTOB    (1789-1866).     A  aeSlf^st^^'as^'Z.  KSoo/o"  a'^fct- 

French  classkal  scholar,  born  in  Parta.    In  1824  ^^'i.^^  Tft^^ap^ri^J^Tn   iLni^  L 

he  was  called  to  the  chair  of  Latin  eloquence  at  ^            ^       j     .     jggj       ^.^  .    Brougham's 

the  Faculte  des  Lettres  of  Pans    and  in  1834  ^j^^      '^^^  ^.     •  ^he  following  years  brought 

he  was  admitted  to  the  Academy  of  Inscriptions,  her  popularity  in  many  parts,  sich  as  Eliza  in 

His  chief  pubhaitions  were  his  VoureHe  rMto-  ^^  J  f,^   ('iggg,     J  /^^  in  The  Shaughraun 

rtque  franfatse  (1S22,  nth  ed.  1S50)  ;  Dei  four-  A„g.     and   more    recentlv   Ladv    Bawtrev    in 

naux  chez  les  Romains  (1838) :  and  a  translation  i,.     n'            ^.  >   /mm  >  '   •      '     i.      a^  i 

,^.      *     ™                v.ouo/ ,  Buv»  •  i,.ou=«.w<j  y^  Danotng  Otrl    (1891).     Among  her  Shake- 

of    Cicero,    (Euvres   computes    de    Ctc^ron    (30  „„^,^„    ,ai— ,    ™^JL    ty1,4>^«-.     vr-.     vr.,A 

vols    1821-25  •  2d  ed    ^R  vnU    1823-271     H»  also  spe^'ean    rftles    were    Desdemona,    Mrs.    Ford, 

^ited  volumes  XX    xxi    xxil    and  xiiii   of  th^  ""^  '»*«'  ^"'^  ^»««   ^  '"**   ^«^   ^•*«'»   "f 

^•.75     iTJ^  ^Z  "J"'  ""••  ^?o . J*.«V  " V  Windsor,  and  Olivia  in  Twelfth  Night.    She  died 

Histotre  Mteratre  de  la  France  (1842-56).    Con-  ._  t—j™    -u...!.  ok    lonn 

«ult    Renan,    "Joseph    Victor    Leclerc,"    in    the  '"^  ^°^^"'  ^^'^^^  25,  1899. 

Revue  dea  Deuw  Mondes  {IS6S) ,  I<E    CLEBQ,    ChbI:tiex    (c.l630-c.l695).     A 

LEGLEBG,  S6bastien  (1637-1714).  A  ^^^ch  missionary,  bom  at  Artois.  He  was  an 
French  engraver,  born  in  Metz.  He  received  his  ^J^^^^  member  of  the  R^collet  Order  of  Fran- 
only  instruction  from  his  father,  a  jeweler,  and  ciscans,  and  in  1655  went  as  a  missionary  to 
began  to  execute  plates  at  an  early  age,  although  Canada.  Aft«r  six  years  of  labor  among  the 
he  later  devoted  himself  principally  to  engineer-  Indians,  on  the  island  of  Gasj^,  he  returned  to 
ing  and  mathematics.  In  1660  he  was  appointed  i'''^"5;«' ^^  permission  to  build  a  house  for  the 
civil  engineer  to  the  Mar^chal  de  la  Fert^,  but  ?i??"«,^»,^"  Montreal,  and  returned  to  Gasp^  in 
Ubrun  induced  him  to  return  to  his  original  ?^"2;  but  from  that  time  on  accomplished  little 
profession  of  engraving.  In  1670  he  received  '»  his  missionary  labors.  Afterwards  he  re- 
lodging  at  the  Gobelins,  in  the  same  year  turned  to  France,  and  became  guardian  of  the 
became  cabinet  engraver,  and  in  1672  entered  Convent  of  Lens.  He  wrote  Nouvelle  relation  de 
the  Royal  Academy,  where  he  was  professor  of  ^»  Gasp^ate  (1691),  and  Estabhshment  of  the 
geometry  and  perspective.  Leclerc  left  a  large  ^"^^'^  *^„^^ ^"^  France  (English  translation  by 
number  of  plates.  His  smaller  pieces  are  the  J^^n  G.  Shea,  1881).  His  history  is  of  no  great 
best,  and  reveal  his  facility  for  design,  and  the  value,  as  it  deals  only  with  the  work  of  Fron- 
precision  and  brilliancy  of  his  stvle.  The  most  if^ac,  who  opposed  the  Jesuits  and  favored  the 
noted  of  his  plates  are  39  for  Benserade's  R^ollets,  and  from  the  ecclesiastical  side  is 
Ovid    (1676);    "The    Passion,"    36    plates,    five  tinged  with  partisanship. 

large    plates    after    Lebrun    (1680-82);     "Les  LEGOCQ,  le-kdk^  Alexandre  Charles  (1832 

grandes   conquOtes   du    roi"    (1687)  ;    and    "Les  — ).    A  French  musical  composer,  born  in  Paris, 

petites   conquCtes    du    roi    (1702).      He    wrote:  He  was  a  pupil  of  the  Conservatory,  and  won 

La  pratique  de  la  giom6irie    (1669)  ;   Diacoura  the  prize  for  harmony  in  1850.     He  began  almost 

louchant    le   point   de   vue    (1079);    Traits   de  immediately   to   write   the   light   operetta   with 

perspective^  never  published;    Traits  d'architec-  which  his  name  has  become  so  wedded.    Fleur  de 

ture    (1714);    and  Nouveau  ayatdme  du  monde  th6   (1868)   was  his  first  real  success,  soon  fol- 

conforme  d  VEcriture  aainte    (1706).     Jombert  lowed  by   his   most   popular   work.   La   fille  de 

published  a  catalogue  of  his  plates  in  1774. — His  Mme.  Angot    (1873)  ;  OirofU-Oirofia  (1874),  La 

son  SgBASTiEN(  1676-1763)  was  a  painter,  and  his  jolie  Peraane  (1880),  L'oiseau  bleu  (1884),  and 

grandson,  Jacques  S£bastien,  was  professor  at  many   others    came    in    rapid    succession.      His 

the  Royal  Academy.     Consult:     Meaume,  84baa-  music    is    always    melodious,    gay,    and    lively. 

tien  Leclerc  et  son  a^uvre  (Paris,  1877).  Other   and   smaller   compositions   include   songs 

LECLEBCQ,     le-kl§rk',     Michel     Theodore  and  salon  music. 

(1777-1851).  A  French  dramatist,  bom  in  Paris.  LECOMPTON.     A  city  in  Douglas  County, 

From  1810  to  1819  he  held  a  small  office  in  the  Kan.,  11  miles  west  by  north  of  Lawrence;  on 

revenue  service.    He  wrote  short  stories  and  the  the  Kansas  River,  and  on  the  Atchison,  Topeka 

novel  Le  ohAteau  de  Duncan^  but  is  best  known  and  Santa  F6  Railroad    (Map:   Kansas,  G  3). 

for  his  Proverbes  dramatiques,  salon  comedies,  It  is  the  seat  of  Lane  University,   founded  in 


LBCOKFTOK.                            66  121 CONTE. 

1865.  Lecompton  (named  in  honor  of  Jad^  Remaiiw"  (1869,  Boulogne  Museum);  "The 
S.  D.  Lecomte,  prominent  in  the  early  histo^  8oroerer"  ( 1870,  Rheima  Museum ) ;  ''Bearers  of 
of  Kansas)  was  settled  in  1854  by  pro-slavefy  Evil  News  Before  Pharaoh"  ( 1872,  Luxembourg) . 
men,  and  during  the  contest  for  the  control  of  In  fresco,  he  painted  "Two  Episodes  in  the  JAie 
Kansas  between  the  pro-slavery  and  'free-State'  of  Saint  Vincent  de  Paul"  (1876-79),  in  the 
settlers,  wa^  the  headquarters  of  the  former.  It  Church  of  the  Trinity,  Paris.  Although  some- 
was  here  that  in  October-November,  1857,  the  what  conventional  in  style  and  dull  in  coloring, 
convention  met  which  drew  up  the  Lecompton  all  has  works  are  to  be  commended  for  correct 
Constitution  (q.v.).  (See  Kansas.)  Popula-  drawing,  subtle  eharacterization  of  the  figures, 
tion,  in  1890,  450;  in  1900,  408.  and  sound  archiDological  knowledge.    He  painted 

LECOMPTON  CONSTITT7TI0K.   In  Ameri-  ?*^^*''*"'S.^o.^  o"•**^YQL*'!'S^o^'*  T'^J^oV* 

can  history,  a  form  of  government  for  the  SUte  ^f"^.  ^^®^^\'  f*"«   <!f^5'  ^^^♦'/"'^.l^^l^ ' 

(then  the  Territory)    of  Kansas,  adopted  by  a  *»d.  V>«?"*    ^^^P^^J'J'^   decorated   with    the 

convention,  of  disputed  legality,  held  at  I^comp-  ^^«^<^  <>'  **^»»<«'  ^^  *»'«• 

ton,  Kan.,  October-November,  1857.  The  Le-  ^^  CONTE,  16  k5nt',  John  (1818-91).  An 
compton  Constitution  declared  the  right  of  American  physicist,  the  son  of  Lewis  Le  Conte. 
slaveholders  in  Kansas  to  their  slaves  to  be  He  was  bom  in  Liberty  County,  Ga. ;  graduated 
inviolable,  prohibited  the  Legislature  from  pass-  at  Franklin  College  (now  the  University  of 
ing  any  act  of  emancipation,  and  forbade  any  Georgia)  in  1838,  and  at  tlie  College  of  Physi- 
amendment  of  the  instrument  before  1864,  cians  and  Surgeons,  New  York,  in  1841;  became 
The  Constitution  itself  was  not  submitted  even  professor  of  natural  philosophy  and  chemistry 
in  form  to  the  people;  they  were  only  to  m  Franklin  College  in  1846,  and  resigned  in 
be  allowed  to  vote  upon  the  question  whether  1855  to  become  lecturer  on  chemistry  in  the 
they  would  have  the  'Constitution  with  slav-  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  New  York, 
ery*  or  the  'Constitution  with  no  slavery,'  In  1866  he  became  professor  of  natural  and 
the  instrument  being  so  worded  that  in  either  mechanical  philosophy  in  South  Carolina  College,, 
case  it  would  fasten  slavery  upon  the  State,  there  at  Columbia ;  in  1869  he  was  appointed  professor 
being  a  clause  to  the  effect  that  the  right  to  slaves  of  physics  and  industrial  mechanics  in  the  Uni- 
already  held  in  Kansas  was  inalienable.  The  versity  of  California,  at  Oakland;  in  1876-81 
Constitution  was  thus  formally  submitted  to  was  president  of  that  institution,  and  in  1881 
the  electors  December  21,  1857.  For  its  adop-  resumed  the  chair  of  physics  there.  He  was  a 
tion  'with  slavery'  the  vote  returned  was  6266,  member  of  the  principal  scientific  associations^ 
more  than  half  of  which  was  from  the  counties  and  published,  besides  numerous  papers  and  mag- 
along  the  Missouri  border,  whose  whole  nura-  azine  articles.  Philosophy  of  Medicine  (1849) 
ber  of  voters,  according  to  the  census,  did  not  and  Study  of  the  Physioal  Sciences  (1858). 
exceed  1000.  For  the  Constitution  *with  no  jje  CONTB,  John  Raton  (1784-1860).  An 
slavery'  669  votes  were  returned,  but  the  great  Amerksan  nattiralist,  brother  of  Lewis  Le  Ckmte, 
body  of  the  free-State  men  declined  to  vote  at  He  was  born  in  Shrewsbury,  N.  J.;  entered  the 
all,  regarding  the  election  as  a  fraud  and  a  farce.  United  States  Army  in  1813  as  "a  topographical 
The  legally  constituted  Territorial  legislature,  engineer,  and  made  many  surveys  and  plans  for 
controlled  by  the  free-State  men,  submitted  the  fortifications  until  1831*,  when*  he  was  retired 
same  instrument  to  the  consideration  of  the  with  the  rank  of  major.  He  devoted  much  of  his 
people  of  Kansas,  January  4,  1858,  and  the  result  time  to  extensive  studies  in  natural  history,  and 
was  a  vote  of  10,226  against  it,  and  of  less  than  published:  Monographs  of  North  American 
200  in  its  favor.  The  question  was  carried  to  Species  of  Utricularia,  Gratiola,  and  Ruellia; 
Congress,  wh«e  the  Senate  voted  to  admit  'Observations  of  the  North  American  Species  of 
Kansas  with  this  Constitution.  The  House,  how-  Viola,"  and  "Descriptions  of  the  Species  of 
ever,  rejected  this  bill,  and  after  a  conference  North  American  Tortoises,"  in  the  Annals  of 
of  committees  both  Houses  agreed  on  the  so-called  the  Neio  York  Lyceum  of  Natural  History;  "A 
English  Bill.  This,  among  other  things,  pro-  Monograph  of  North  American  Histeroides,"  in 
vided  for  a  second  submission  of  the  lecompton  the  Boston  Journal  of  Natural  History;  and 
Constitution,  the  acceptance  of  which  by  the  "Descriptions  of  Three  New  Species  of  Arvicola^ 
people  was  made  a  sine  qua  non  as  regards  the  with  Remarks  Upon  Other  North  American 
immediate  admission  of  Kansas  into  the  Union.  Rodents,"  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Academy  of 
On  August  2,  1858,  the  Constitution  was  again  Natural  Science  of  Philadelphia, 
"^^^^^y!"  '"^^'■i^y  "^  ^^^^'  This  virtually  j^jj  oONTE,  John  Lawbenck  (1825-83).  An 
ended  the  struggle  for  the  esUbhshment  of  slav-  American  entomologist,  son  of  Major  John  E. 
ery  ^  Kansas  An  anti-slavery  Constitution  was  j^  Conte.  He  was  born  in  New  York  City,  and 
framed  and  adopted  in  1869,  and  the  Stote  was  graduated  at  Mount  Saint  Mary's  College,  Em- 
admitted  to  the  Union,  January  29,  1861.  See  ^^jtsburg,  Md.,  in  1842,  and  at  the  New  York 
KANSAS.  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  New  York, 

LECOMTE  DtT  KO0Y,  Ic-kfiNt'  d\i  noo'^,  in  1846.  He  made  scientific  excursions  in 
Jules  Jean  Antoine  (1842—).  A  French  his-  Western  States  when  a  student,  and  afterwards 
torical  and  genre  painter,  bom  in  Paris.  He  traveled  extensively  in  North  and  Central 
was  a  pupil  of  Gleyre,  G<*r6me,  and  Signol  at  America,  transmitting  the  results  of  his  observa- 
the  Ecole  des  Beaux-Arts,  where  he  won  the  tions  to  scientific  societies.  He  entered  the  army 
second  Prix  de  Rome  in  1865  with  his  "Death  as  surgeon  of  volunteers  in  1862.  and  was  pro- 
of Jocasta"  (Arras  Museum).  This  was  fol-  moted  to  medical  inspector  in  the  Regular  Army 
lowed  by  "Invocation  of  Neptune"  (1866,  Lille  with  the  rank  of  lieutenant -colonel,  which  posi- 
Museum),  and  among  his  subsequent  productions  tion  he  retained  until  the  end  of  the  war.  In 
exhibited  annually  in  the  Salon  are  to  be  espe-  1873  he  was  elected  president  of  the  American 
cially  noted  "Love  Which  Passes  and  Love  Which  Association    for    the    Advancement    of    Science. 


LE  CONTS.                              €T  I21C0TXTBSTTR. 

He   devoted   his   attention   particularly  to  'tbe  zmnk  in  tlie  Legion  of  Honor,  election  to  the 

study  of  entomology,  and  became  widely  recbg-  Academy   (1887).     He  became  the  centre  of  a 

nized  as  an  authority  in  that  subject.    In  the  school   of  young   poets   who   recognised   in   the 

Collections  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  are  genial  friend  the  master's  authority.     His  first 

published   his    Classification   of   the   Coleoptera  noteworthy  volume,  which  waited  several  years 

of  North  America  (part  i.  1862;  part  ii.  1873)  ;  for  a  publisher,  was  Po^mes  antiques    (1852), 

List   of  Coleoptera  of  North  America    (1866);  followed  in  1854  by  Poimes  et  poSsies^  and  in 

and  New  Species  of  North  American  Coleoptera  1862     by     Poiimes     harbares,     i^^ich     won     an 

(part  i.  1866;  part  ii.  1873).  academic  prize  of  10,000  francs,  and  by  Po^mes 

LE  COKTE,  JOSEPH  (1823-1901)  An.emi.  TZmT^f '^. W,  po^^t^^^^^^^ 
nent  American  geologist,  the  son  of  Lewis  Le  ^^^^  interesting  criUcal  essays  on  Leconte  de 
Ck>nte.  He  was  born  m  Liberty  County,  Ga.,  Aisle's  lyric  foFerunners.  He  was  also  the  mov- 
and  graduated  at  Franklm  College  in  184L  i^g  spirit  of  a  series  of  volumes,  Le  parrMWse  con- 
After  receiving  a  medical  degree  at  the  Coll^  temporain  (1866,  1869,  1876),  in  which  the  poets 
of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  New  York  City,  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^  practiced  the  refinements  of  their 
he  practiced  as  physician  for  a  time  at  Macon,  ^^.^  g^^^  ^^  ^^  j^.^  ^^^  ^^^  remarkable 
Ga.  In  1850  he  entered  Harvard  University  for  ^  g^^  appeared.  Leconte  de  Lisle  con- 
the  purpose  of  studying  under  Agassiz  and  ac-  f^ibuted  also  to  literature  the  first  fairly  ac- 
companied the  latter  on  a  scientific  and  explor-  ^^^^  translations  in  French  of  the  Iliad  (1867), 
ing  expedition  to  Florida  After  finishing  his  ^j^^  ^^^  ^  ^^  (1869),  Hesiod  (1869),  the 
course  of  study,  he  served  successively  as  pro-  q^^^^^  {mO),  Horace  (1873),  Sophocles 
fessor  of  natural  sciences  m  Oglethorpe  Univer-  (1377),  and  Euripides  (1885).  He  wrote  also 
sity,  professor  of  natural  history  in  Franklin  ^^^  dramas  in  imitation  of  the  Greek,  Les 
College,  and  from  1856  to  1869  as  professor  ^  Erinnyes  (1872)  and  L*Apollonide,  based  on  the 
chemistry  and  geology  m  the  Lniversity  of  j^^  ^^  Euripides.  The  earlier  of  these  transla- 
South  Carolina.  In  1869  he  was  appointed  to  ^^^,,3  ^^^^  Leconte  de  Lisle  a  small  pension  from 
the  chair  of  geology  in  the  University  of  ^^e  Empire,  and  from  these  classical  studies  he 
California,  which  office  he  retained  until  his  ^^ew  the  marrow  of  his  exquisite  culture,  the 
death.  Professor  Le  Conte  did  much  to  popu-  p^g^n  element  in  which  appears  least  attractively 
lanze  the  study  of  geology  m  America,  and  ^^  ^n  Histoire  du  christianisme  and  a  Catcchisme 
also  contributed  valuable  descriptive  and  r^uhlicain,  both  published  anonvmously.  The 
theoretical  papers  to  geological  literature.  He  p^^jg  ^v^  objective  in  tone  and  scholarlv  in 
was  elected  >nce-pre8ident  of  the  National  Con-  purpose,  seeking,  as  he  said,  to  unite,  if  not  to 
gress  of  Geologists  in  1891.  and  in  the  following  single,  art  and  science.  His  aim  through  all  his 
year  president  of  the  American  Association  for  original  verse  is  to  show  the  gradual  unfolding  of 
the  Advancement  of  Science.  The  more  impor-  ^1,^  ^^^^1  life  and  the  reachings  of  religious 
tant  of  his  publications  are:  Reltgton  and  thought  into  the  legendary  past  and  the  hidden 
Science  {ISl 3);  Elements  of  Geology  {ISn)  ;  future  of  the  race.  He  is  the  most  statelv, 
Compend  of  Geology  (ISS^)  ;  EvoUition:  Its  brilliant,  self-possessed  of  French  poets,  with 
Mature,  Its  Evidences  and  Its  Relation  to  perfect  control  of  all  the  processes  of  his  art; 
Religious  Thought  (1887J.  Besides  shorter  pa-  ^ut  ethically  a  poet  of  protest  and  disillusion- 
pers  contributed  to  geoTogi«il  journals,  he  wrote  ^^^^  pessimistic,  skeptical.  He  died  at  Lou- 
many  essays  on  biology,  philosophy,  optics,  and  yeciennes,  July  17,  1894. 
other  subjects.  p^^   criticism   of   Leconte   de   Lisle,   consult: 

LE  OONTEy  Lewis  (1782-1838).    An  Ameri-  Bruneti^re,   Nout>€aux  essais  sur  Ha  litt^rature 

can  naturalist,  father  of  Joseph  Le  Conte.     He  contemporaine     (Paris,    1895)  ;    Bourget,    Nou- 

was  bom  near  Shrewsbury,  N.  J.,  of  Huguenot  veaux  essais  de  psychologic  contemporaine   (ib., 

descent;  graduated  at  Columbia  in  1799;  studied  1887)    Lemattre,    Contemporains    (vol.   ii.,    12th 

medicine  with  the  celebrated  Dr.  David  Hosack,  ed.,   ib.,   1890)  ;   and   Pellissier,   Mouvcmcnt   lit- 

and  settled  in  Georgia,  taking  care  of  his  father's  t&raire    (trans.,   New  York,   1898).     Biographi- 

estate  and  establishing  a  botanical  garden,  where  cal  reminiscences  are  in  Revue  des  Deux  Mondes, 

he  cultivated  rare  bulbous  plants  obtained  from  May,  1895,  and  Revue  Bleue,  June,  1895. 

the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.    He  devoted  considerable  i^cOXrVBEITB,       le-koo'vrer',       Adriennb 

time  to   mathematics   and   zoblo^,   as   well   as  (I692.173O).    A  pl^nch  actress,  celebrated  alike 

botany     His  manuscripts  were  lost  at  the  bum-  ^^^  y^^  ^^[^^^  dramatic  gift;  and  the  tragic 

Ing  of  Columbia,  S,  C,  m  I860.  ^^^.^^  ^^  ^^^  ^.^^  ^^  pleasure.     She  was  born 

LEOOKTB     DE     LISLE,     le-kOxrt^    de    Ul,  near  Epemay,  April  5,  1692.    Her  father,  a  hat- 

Ghabtjes  Makib  (1818>94).    Tbe  greatest  French  ter,  went  to  Paris  to  better  his  trade.    Near  the 

poet  of  the  modem  Parnassian  School,  bom  at  theatre  of  the  Com^^die  Francaise,  Adrienne,  then 

Saint  Paul,  on  the  lie  de  Bourbon,  now  Reunion,  a  grown  girl,  and  a  laundress,  organized,  among 

October    23,    1818.     His    youth    in    the    tropics  the  neighbors,  a  little  private  theatre,  which  was 

fostered  his  inborn  love  for  the  beauty  of  nature,  so  successful  as  to  draw  from  the  comedians  of 

but  his  restless  imagination  urged  him  to  travel,  the  Royal  Theatre  a  complaint  against  it  as  an 

Declining  to  follow  his  father's  occupation  as  a  unauthorized  rival.     The  amateur  performances 

planter,    he    went    to    France,    studied    law    at  thus  closed,  Adrienne  was  taken  by  a  kind  prior 

Rennes.  traveled  widely,  and  at  thirty  settled  in  to  the  actor  Legrand,  who  was  struck  with  her 

Paris.  He  presently  sacrificed  his  paternal  allows  talent  and  beauty,  and  gave  her  lessons  in  elocu- 

ance  by  supporting  a  servile  insurrection  in  R^  tion.      She    played    at    Lille,    Strassburg,    and 

union.     The  only  milestones  in  his  uneventful  elsewhere,   and   after   some  years   of   provincial 

life  were  the  honors  that  slowly  came  to  him,  a  successes   was   called    in    1717   to   the   ComAdie 

poet  in  the  Luxembouiig  Library  (1873),  officer's  Francaise.      She   at   once   won    the    first   place 


LECOXrVBEXTR.                            68  LECTISTESNimf.  * 

among  French  actresses.    Her  force  of  character,  by  the  Piaan  sculptors   Niccola  and  Giovanni, 

high  spirit,  and  noble  beauty  gave  all  her  im-  In  these  ejcamples  an  eagle  with  outspread  wings 

personations    the    stamp    of    her    individuality,  supported  the  booklike  slab,  and  it  rested  upon 

Her  favorite  rOles  were  those  of  exalted  pas-  a   composite   group    of   the   three   other    living 

sion,   like   Pauline,   Monime,    B4r6nioe,   Athalie,  creatures,  symbols  of  the  Evangelists,  the  Angel, 

and  PhMre.     She  delighted  Paris,  and  for  thir-  the  Lion,  and  the  Ox.    Usually  only  the  eagle  was 

teen  years  her  real  life,  like  her  acting,  was  a  carved  under  the  book,  and  this  became  the  nor- 

stormy  elysium,   filled  with  the  loves  and  gal-  mal  type  of  lectern  preserved  to  the  present  time, 

lantries  of  the  most  eminent  men  of  her  time.  So  usual  was  it  to  make  the  eagle  the  central 

She  died  in  Paris,  March  20,  1730,  poisoned,  it  ornament  that  the  medieval  name  for  this  choir 

is  said,  by  means  of  a  bouquet  of  flowers  sent  lectern  was  ordinarily  aquila;  but  sometimes  the 

by  the  Duchess  de  Bouillon,  a  rival  mistress  of  pelican  was  substituted    (wooden  lectern  of  fif- 

Maurice  of  Saxony.    Her  story  is  the  subject  of  teenth  century  at  Zammel).    This  was  often  the 

a    well-known    drama   by    Scribe   and    Legouv^,  case  in  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries  with 

which  was  first  acted  at  the  Th^fttre  Francais  the   weakening  of  the  old   religious   traditions, 

by  Rachel  in  1849.  when  other  figures  were  substituted,  such  as  grif- 

LECOY  DE   LA  MABGHE,   le-kwft'  de  \k  S"*'  V^^^' ''''  men,  contrary  to  true  iconography 

marsh    Albert    HSSO-O?^       A  French   antiaua-  Sometimes,  as  m  the  case  of  the  iron  l6ctem  at 

yrnd'htwV^'ne'wI^bortL^^^^^^^  JPT^'''''^^^]:  '"^r.'?  ">«  ^^l^  ^^^' 

educated  at  the   Ecole   des   Chartes    (1858-61).  ^^?-,    ^,"""?     *^«     Gothic     and     Renaissance 

From  1861  to  1864  he  was  keeper  of  the  depart-  Pf"^^«  *^^  chivches  of  Central   and   Northern 

mental  archives  of  Haute-Savoi^  and  in  the^lat-  f  "."-^P^  ^^''^  decorated  with  beautifully  carved 

ter  year  became  connected  with  the  archives  at  lecterns,    and   even    in    Italy    there   were   many 

Paris.    There  he  was  professor  of  history  at  the  *°ll*^,,  ^'^^  ''""^^T^Vu    1*7^'./°  connection 

Catholic  Institute  (1877-80),  and  in  1884  found-  X'    •*  -^  choir-stalls,  like  that  of  Verona  (Santa 

€d  classes  for  the  higher  education  of  women,  ^^*"*  inOrgano). 

which  were  held  at  the  Salle  Albert  le  Grand  and  LECTION ABY   (ML.  lectionarium,  lectiona- 
later  at  the  rooms  of  the  Geographical  Society.  riu8,  book  of   lessons,  from  Lat.   lectio,  lesson. 
His  writings,  which  have  a  certain  value,  as  they  reading,  from  legere,  to  read,  Gk.   X^«r,   legein, 
are   all    founded    on   manuscripts    usually    con-  to  say) .    One  of  the  service  books  of  the  mediae- 
temporary    with    the    period    treated,    include:  val  Church  containing  the  portions  of  Scripture 
De    Vautoritd    de    Or4gaire    de    Tours    ( 1861 ) ;  to  be  read  in  public  worship.     There   are  two 
'Notice    historique    sur    Ripaille    en    Chdhlais  lectionaries   which  deserve  special  notice.     The 
(1863) ;  La  chaire  frangaiae  au  tnoyen  Age  (last  first  is  the  so-called  'Roman  lectionary,*  which 
edition  1886) ;  La  soci4t4  au  XIII*  aiSole  (1880)  ;  contained  the  epistles  and  gospels  of  the  Roman 
La  guerre  aux  erreura  historiques   (1888) ;  and  missal,  and  sometimes  all  the  lessons  of  all  the 
Relations  politiquea  de  la  France  avec  le  royaume  various  services  in  use  in  the  Roman  Church,  in 
de  Ma  jerque  (1892).  which  case  it  was  named  the  plenarium.     The 
LE  CBETTSOT,  le  krS'zA'.    A  town  of  France,  most  ancient  form  of  the  Roman  lectionaiy  was 
See  Creusot  Le,  called  cornea  or  Itoer  comttta.     Its  compilation 
T-DnrnvD-KT    /I       1  **          1  **          t          rk-ci  was  attributed  to  Saint  Jerome,  and  it  appears 
LBCTKBIT    (also  fettern.   lettron.  from  OF.  ^^.^  ^^^^  j^  ^^         .    g^bgtance,  although  not 
lettpn,    Uttrm.   Uutnn    Fr.    lutnn,   from   ML.  .     ^              ^    ^  ^^jjf  ^  ^j              '^^    collection 

^*^'"S„?"'l^,':^hf^^f  1,^L*SZ^^      A^«-  ^„  ,^i3^  „„^  remc^eled  in  the  eighth  century. 

Toov,  lektftm,  couch).     A  readinir-desk  or  stand,  «,               j     *  av           •     i.   i    a*  «     :       :     xi.  * 

movable   or   stationary-,   from   w^ich   the   Scrip-  Jhe  second  of  the   ancient  lectionaries   is  that 

ture    lessons     {lectio^es),    which    form    a    part  ^"2^1.  !,\%?^i' '*'%''  ^^^^^^I^'T/  which  was 

of  the  various  Church  services,  are  chanted  or  Published  by  Mabillon  from  a  MS   of  the  monas- 

read.     The  term  is  properly  applied  only  to  the  ^^l  f^  L^^euil    and  which  is  believed  to  repre- 

class  mentioned   as   independent  of   the   pulpit,  fj"^  ^^^   "*«  ?^  ^^%  »°«»«»j^  Gallican   Church. 

Such    lecterns    were    either    fixed    or    movable;  ^  ^^^ ^^^^^r,  xmv^rie<,t,  imii  no  ot\i^T  co^j  Yi^^ 

when  fixed  they  were  sealed  to  the  pavement  in  ^*°^^  ^^^  discovered. 

the  centre  of  the  choir  and  were  made  of  LEC'TISTEB^NITTIC  (Lat.,  a  couch -spread- 
wood  or  metal — ordinarily  brass  or  latten.  The  ing,  from  lectua,  couch  -f-  aternercj  to  spread) .  A 
light,  movable  lecterns,  usually  of  iron  or  wood,  pacriftcial  ceremony  among  the  ancient  Romans; 
are  less  decorative.  The  lectern  is  of  very  an-  it  had  its  analogue  among  the  Greeks  («rMi^i> 
cient  use,  from  the  early  Christian  period  to  arpQaai),  on  occasions  of  extraordinary  solem- 
the  present  in  the  different  Christian  denomina-  nity,  v.  hen  figures  of  the  greater  deities  were 
tions,  especially  the  Catholic  and  Episcopal.  It  placed  reclining  or  seated  on  the  sacred  pulviner 
is  made  of  very  various  materials — gold,  silver,  in  the  street  shrines,  and  a  feast  was  spread 
bronze,  brass,  marble  (plain  or  inlaid),  or  wood,  on  tables  before  them.  Such  a  ceremony  was 
It  either  had  an  independent  base  or  stand,  or  first  ordained  by  the  Sibylline  Books  on  the 
else  was  part  of  the  pulpit  (q.v.),  or  ambone.  occasion  of  a  pestilence  in  B.C.  399.  Generally, 
None  of  the  lecterns  in  precious  metal  have  the  gods  were  placed  on  the  couches  in  pairs, 
been  preserved,  but  descriptions  of  such  stands,  as  Apollo  and  his  mother  Latona,  Diana  and 
in  the  Liher  Pontificalia,  shows  them  to  have  Hercules,  Mercury  and  Neptune.  The  ceremony 
been  in  early  use,  and  to  have  been  flanked  was  earlier  resorted  to  in  times  of  trouble,  with 
with  candelabra.  The  earliest  preserved  are  the  the  idea  of  appeasing  the  angry  deities,  but  later 
stationary  marble  lecterns  on  pulpits  in  Italy,  as  also  (and  particularly)  on  occasions  of  general 
<m  those  of  San  Lorenzo  and  the  AracoeJi  in  exultation,  as  a  part  of  the  aupplioatio,  or 
Rome.  Richer  are  the  lecterns  on  pulpits  of  the  thanksgiving.  Sometimes  it  was  customary  to 
Pisan  Tuscan  school  of  the  twelfth,  thirteenth,  represent  the  female  deities  seated,  when  the 
and  fourteenth  centuries,  especially  those  carved  ceremony   was   technically   called   aelliatemium. 


LECTISTEBNITJK.  69  LEDBIT-BOLLIN. 

The  images  were  generally  of  wood,  with  beads  mir,   in  Galicia,  of  an  ancient  Polish   family, 

of  clay,  wax,  or  marble.  educated  by  the  Lazarists  at  Warsaw  and  the 

LEa)A   (Lat..  from  Gk.    Ai^da).      In  Grecian  ^^^^  in  Rome*  and  ordained  priest  in  1846. 

legend,  the  wife  of  the  Spartan  King  Tyndareus,  g?    ^J^    attracted    the    favorable    potice    of 

whom  Zeus  visited  in  the  disguise  of  a  swan.  ^^^«   ^^a   ^J^^   made   him   a  domestic   prelate 

She  became  the  mother  by  ZeSs  of  Pollux  and  J?**  prothonotary  apostolic     After  filling  various 

Helen,  and  bv  Tyndareus  of  Castor  and  Clytem-  diplomatic  posts  at  Madrid    Lisbon.  Rio  de  Ja- 

nestra.     In  Homer  only  Helen   is  the  child  of  ?«"~»  Santiago,  and  Brussels,  he  was  raised  to 

Zeus.     Others    made    Helen    the    daughter    of  the  episcopate  in  1861  as  titular  Archbw^^^ 

Nemesis,  and  merely  a  foster-child  of  LeSa.  Leda  Thebes.      On    the    nomination    of   the    Prussian 

with  the  swan  was  a  favorite  theme  in  ancient  Goyemment,  he  was  appomted  m   1866  to  the 

art.  and  has  been  treated  by  many  modem  ar-  ?^*''?PjJ*i*° -l^^,^'  K^!^^   and    Gnesen;    but, 

^jg^g  "^  "^  dissatisfied  with  the  attitude  of  the  Government 

in  1870,  when  his  request  for  German  interven- 

LEDEBOITB,  Ift'de-bOTr,  Kabl  Friedrich  von  tion    in    favor    of    the    Pope    was    disregarded, 

(1785-1861).    A  German  botanist,  bom  at  Stral-  he  took  the  lead   in  the  ultramontane  opposi- 

sund.     At  the  age  of  twenty  he  became  director  tion,  and  did  much  to  encourage  the  Polish  na- 

of  the  botanical  garden  and  professor  of  botany  tional  movement.     In  1873  the  determined  stand 

at  Greifswald,  which  positions  he  held  until  1811,  which  he  took  against  the  *May  Laws'  in  the 

when   he  went  to  Dorpat.     He  remained  there  Kulturkampf    (q.v.)    caused  him   to  be  impris- 

until  1836,  and  from  then  until  his  death  resided  oned  for  two  years  at  Ostrowo.    At  the  beginning 

mainly  in  Germany.     His  most  important  writ-  of  his  captivity  the  Govemment  deprived  him  of 

V^^  UI®'  ^f**^  ^"^^^  *"  Altaigebirge   (2  vols,  his  see;  the  Pope,  however,  made  him  a  cardinal 

1829-30);    loonea  Plantarum   Novarum   Floram  in    1876,   and   after   his    release    he   resided   in 

/fo«*ic<Mn    (6  vols.,   182934);  Flora  Rosatca   (3  Rome,   formallv   resigning  his   archbishopric   in 

vols.,  1842-61).  1886.     From   1892  until  the  time  of  his  death 

LEDEBXTB,  Wde-hJS^Sr,  Leopold,  Baron  ( 1799-  he  occupied  the  important  position  of  Prefect  of 

1877).     A  German  historian,  bom  in  Berlin.  In  the  Propaganda.    See  Missions,  Christian. 
the  new  Berlin  Museum  he  was  appointed  director        LEDBAIN,  le-drilN',  EuofeNE    (1844- ).     A 

of  the  art  department  of  the  Museum  for  German  ^^^^^^^    archaeologist,    born    at  Sainte    Su^winne 

Antiquities  and  of  the  ethnographical  collection  (Mayenne).    He  was  at  first  a  priest,  but  after- 

r  f  ^l    there  until  1876.     His  more  impor-  ^^^/^  ^^^^^^  ^.^^^^^  especially  to  the  study 

tant   books    include:    Z)a«   Land   und    \olk   der  ^^  ^^^.^^^j  archaK)log>'.     He  beckme  one  of  the 

f^^^^^r  l^^P;^'*''^^?'^''^-^  n'^''^'""*'*  curators    of    the    Department    of    Oriental    An- 

letzten    Jahrzehnts    zur    Kenntma    Germantens  tiquities   in   the   Louvre,   and   professor   at   the 

zwischen    Rhetn    und    Weser    (1837)  ;    and    m  ^^^^   attached    to   that   museim.     His   works 

genealogy  and  heraldrv  the  Arcnw  fur  deutsche  i^„i„j^.     rr*.     ^^^^    ^^»^^,»    4a^a«i    ^«--    ?« 

^  ^  '*  iiennes  orrUea  de  portraits  peinta  aur  panneaux 

LEDEBEB,  IftMe-rSr,  John.     A  German  ex-  (1877);    Hiatoire  d'laracl    (1879-82);    and  Lea 

plorer  in  America.     He  .wrote  in  Latin  a  book  monumenta  dgyptiena  de  la  Biblioth^que  Rationale 

of  his  adventures  which  was  translated  by  Sir  (1880-81). 

\yimain  Talbot  under  the  title  Tfce  DUcoveriea       LEDBTT-BOLLIN,     le-drv'rt'lilN',     Alexax- 
ofJohn  Lederer  xn  J  hree  Several  Uarche,  from  Auq08te   (1807-74).    A  noted  French  radi- 

I'rgtnta    1o    the    J\e»t   of   Carolina   and   OtUr  ^^j      ^^  ^^,  ^„^  February  2,  1807.  at  Fonte- 

aZpl>dL^ell^^   iTHP  "ron^Zr-J^tik  ""y-  °«"  P""'  «  »  house  which  had  once  been 

and  Ended  xn  Septemb^,  1670.    Together  u^th  a  gcirron's.    He  studied  for  the  bar.  and  was  ad- 

aeneral  Map  of  the  Whole  Terrxtory  xchtch  he  ^^^^^  ,„  jgao.    He  was  counsel  for  the  defense 

Traverted  (1672)      In  his  preface,  the  translator  .„  ^^^     j  ^y^^  prosecutions  of  opposition  jour- 

savs  that  he  met  I^ederer  m  Marvland.  whither  „„,„    j„.:„«   fv.«^^;««    «#   t,.«;-    ok;i ;,>««-« j 

iiTtLl'IrSan^^'^  ""  "^  ''  '''  '''"''"'  obt i^ a"^ ^^at Tutalio^a"  a'-dteer-'ol 
'^  ^  republicans.  In  1841  he  was  elected  Deputv  by 
LEDESMA  BXnTRA.aO,  l&des'mi  bw^trft'-  the  Department  of  Sarthe,  and  became  prominent 
g6,  Alonzo  de  (1562-1632).  A  Spanish  poet,  in  the  Chamber  as  a  member  of  the  extreme  Left, 
born  at  Segovia.  He  first  became  known  as  the  He  was  the  editor  of  several  of  the  most  ad- 
author  of  the  Conceptoa  eapiritualea  (1600)  and  vanced  newspapers  of  the  dav.  and  the  author  of 
Juegoa  de  nochebuena  (1611).  These  volumes  pamphlets  and  protests  against  the  repression 
esUblished  the  cult  of  the  conceptiataa.  It  ©f  public  and  individual  liberties.  In  1846  he 
was  a  school  of  impossible  conceits  and  para-  published  an  Appel  auw  travailleura,  in  which 
doxes.  and  in  order  to  make  the  whole  scheme  he  declared  his  attitude  toward  the  working 
mystical,  a  curious  vocabulary  became  part  of  classes.  He  was  also  an  ardent  promoter  of  the 
the  system.  Other  works  are  Monatruo  imagi-  reform  meetings  that  preceded  the  Revolution  of 
nado  (1616)  and  Epigramaa  y  jeroglificoa  A  la  1848,  being  associated  with  Lamartine  and  Louis 
%\da  de  Chriato  .  .  .  (1636).  Quevedo  was  the  Blanc  as  an  orator  of  the  workingmen,  at  whose 
most  celebrated  disciple  of  this  school,  and  its  in-  political  banquets  he  advocated  the  droit  pour 
fiuence  extended  to  Lope  de  Vega.  Rivadenei-  travailler  ('right  to  labor')  and  universal  suf- 
ra's  Biblioteca  de  autorea  eapatiolea  (Madrid,  f^age.  On  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution  he 
1872)  conUins  a  selection  of  the  works  of  became  one  of  the  leaders  and  advocated  the 
Ledesma.  formation  of  a  provisional  govemment.  and  when 
IiEDOCHOWSKI,  le'dA-Kdv^sk^,  Mieczts-  this  was  carried  out  was  intmsted  with  the 
LAW,  Count  (1822-1902).  A  Roman  Catholic  portfolio  of  the  Interior.  He  was  afterwards 
ecclesiastic.    He  was  bom  at  Gorki,  near  Sando-  one  of  the  five  in  whose  hands  the  Constituent 


LBBBXr-BOLLZN.                          70  LEE. 

Assembly  placed  the  interim  government  (May  extreme  north  of  Europe.  Starting  from  Stock- 
10,  1848).  In  this  position  he  showed  a  certain  holm  on  foot  (December,  1786),  he  traversed  the 
vrant  of  perception,  firmness,  and  energy.  In  coast-line  of  the  Gulf  of  Bothnia,  and  arrived 
June,  1848,  he  ceased  to  hold  office,  and  thence-  at»  Saint  Petersburg  early  in  1787.  At  Irkutsk 
forth  sought  to  recover  his  influence  with  the  he  was  arrested  by  order  of  the  Russian  Qovern- 
extreme  democrats,  which  he  had  partly  lost  by  ment,  and  was  subsequently  expelled  from  the 
accepting  office.  He  succeeded  partially  and  country  with  orders  not  to  return.  He  reached 
ventured  on  a  candidature  for  the  Presidency,  London  with  the  greatest  difficulty;  but  almost 
obtaining,  however,  only  370,000  votes  (Decem-  immediately — on  behalf  of  the  African  Associa- 
ber,  1848).  In  May,  1849,  he  was  chosen  to  the  tion — started  on  an  expedition  to  the  interior  of 
Legislative  Assembly,  but  the  unsuccessful  pro-  Africa.  At  Cairo,  however,  he  became  ill,  and 
test  of  June  13th  against  Louis  Napoleon's  Gov-  died  (probably  in  November,  1788),  from  the 
emment  put  an  end  to  his  political  career.  He  effects  of  an  overdose  of  'vitriol.*  A  journal 
fled  to  England  and  became  later  on  associated  which  he  kept  during  Captain  Cook's  voyage 
in  London  with  Maszini,  Kossuth,  and  other  had  been  confiscated  by  the  British  Government,. 
European  revolutionists  in  the  issuing  of  republi-  but  in  1782  he  published  an  account  from  mem- 
can  manifestoes.  While  there  he  i^Tote  and  pub-  Q^y  which  became  very  popular.  Some  of  his. 
lished  a  work  against  the  land  which  had  given  papers  were  also  published  after  his  death  by  the 
him  an  asylum,  La  decadence  cte  VAngleterre  African  Association.  Consult  his  "Life"  (Bos- 
(1850).  For  the  next  twenty  years  he  lived  al-  t;^^,  1828),  by  Jared  Sparks,  in  Sparks's  AmeH- 
temately  in  London  and  Brussels.    His  name  was  ^^^  Biography   vol.  xxiv. 

excepted  from  the  amnesties  of  1860  and  1869;  nPTWA-DTi'      \VTx,r*\,       /^^'7A^\Q^\          a» 

but  in  1870  he  was  allowed  to  return  to  France.  .  ^?^^^?^U  ^^,   rl^in    riL      K^ 

In  Februarv    1871    he  was  returned  to  the  Na-  -^me"can   soldier,   bom   at   Groton,    Conn.      He 

tYoiIf  Ts^Ji?  U  aHnc:'"^^^  --  o°%«;  \h«  Comniitte^  ?'  ''711'^''^''^, 
later  (1874)  he  sat  as  a  member  of  the  extreme  £^^«f"  *^  ^£?^^,?  «^  V'^  <^lf  ^?g  f.^*^^  P«^  ^^ 
Left  in  the  Versailles  Assembly,  where  he  made  ^»^f"  ^^  Parliament  and  m  1776  was  ap- 
his last  great  oration  in  favor  of  universal  suf-  P^''^^  ^7  the  Connecticut  Assembly,  of  which 
frage,  June  3,  1874,  He  died  December  31,  1874.  ^'^  ^as  a  member,  to  be  captain  of  an  artillery 
msDiscours  politiques  et  Merits  divers  were  pub-  company,  which  it  was  proposed  to  raise  for  the 
lished  by  his  widow  (2  vols.,  Paris,  1879).  purpose  of  garrisoning  the  forts  at  New  London. 
•^  In  March,  1778,  he  was  promoted  to  be  major, 

LEDinC     (Neo-Lat.,    from    Gk.  X^r,  Udon^  and  was  appointed  to  command  the  posts  at  New 

from  Ar.  Uldan,  ladanum).     A  genus  of  plants  London,   Stonington,   and  Groton.     On  Septem- 

of  the  natural  order  Ericaceae,  which  consists  of  ber  0,  1781,  a  large  British  force  under  Benedict 

small  evergreen  shrubs,  with  comparatively  large  Arnold  landed  at  the  mouth  of  the  Thames  and 

flowers,   of  which  the   corolla   is   cut   into   five  advanced   against   New   London.     Ledyard   was 

deep   petal-like  segments.     The  species  are  na-  summoned    to    surrender,    but    though    he    had 

tives  of  Europe   and   North   America,   some  of  only   some    150   ill-armed   militia   with   him   in 

them  common  in  both.     The  leaves  of  Ledum  Fort   Griswold,   refused,   hoping   to  be   able   to 

laiifolium  are  said  to  be  used  'in  Labrador  as  withstand  the  British  until  the  countryside  could 

a  substitute  for  tea,  whence  it  is  sometimes  called  arm.    After  an  obstinate  resistance  the  fort  was 

'Labrador  tea.'    Sir  John  Franklin  and  his  party,  taken  by  storm,   and   Colonel   Ledyard   surren- 

in  the  Arctic  expedition  of  1819-22,  used  Ledum  jered.     'Major  Bromfield,  to  whom  he  gave  up 

palustre  in  the  same  way  to  produce  a  beverage  bis  sword,  plunged  it  into  his  breast,  and  then 

with  a  smell  resembling  rhubarb     They  found  it  the  soldiers,  imitating  their  commander's  exam- 

refreshing.    The  leaves  of  both  these  shrubs  pos-  pj^^  murdered   the  greater  number  of  their  de- 

sess  narcotic  properties,  and  have  been  used  as  fenseless  captives.     Arnold  in  his  report  makes 

a  substitute  for  hops  m  beer.    Thcv  are  regarded  ^^  mention  of  this  massacre, 

as  useful  m  agues,  dysentery,  and  diarrhflpa,  since  t^*,      .  ^          •     i   j«      xu      -n           *  o     -lu 

they  contain  tannin.    They  are  also  used  in  the  ^  ^^^'    ^  ^^^7'  mcluding  the  villages  of  South 

preparation  of  certain  kinds  of  leather,  as  Rus-  ^^  and  East  Lee,  in  Berkshire  County,  Mass., 

sia  leather  ^^  miles  south  of  Pittsneld,  on  the  Housatonic 

River,  and  on  the  New  York,  New  Haven  and 

LEIVYABD,  John  (1751-88).    An  American  Hartford  Railroad   (Map:  Massachusetts.  A3), 

traveler,    born    at    Groton,    Conn.      His    father  it  is  in  a  region  noted   for  its  grand   scenery 

dying  early.   Ledyard   was  brought  up   by  his  and  popular  as  a  place  of  summer  resort.     The 

paternal  grandfather  at  Hartford.     At  first  he  town  has  a  public  library.     There  are  extensive 

studied  law,  but  in  1772  entered  Dartmouth  to  fit  quarries  of  fine  white  marble,  which  has  been 

himself  for  a  missionary  career.    Soon  absenting  yged  in  the  construction  of  many  prominent  build- 

himself,  he  spent  several  months  with  the  Iro-  ings.    Marble-quarrving  and  the  manufacture  of 

quois,  and  in  1773  went  as  a  common  sailor  to  paper  are  the  principal  industries.    The  govem- 

Gibraltar.  where  he  enlisted  in  a  British  regi-  ment  is  administered  by  town  meetings.    Settled 

ment,  from  which,  however,  he  was  almost  imme-  in  1760,  T^ee  was  incorporated  in  1777,  and  was 

diately  discharged.    He  returned  to  America,  but  named  in  honor  of  Gen.  Charles  Lee(q.v.) .   Popu- 

in  1776  went  to  England,  and,  as  a  corporal  of  lation,  in  1890,  3785;  in   1900,  3596.     Consult: 

marines,  accompanied  Captain  Cook  on  his  last  Hyde  and  Hyde,  Centennial  History  of  Lee  (Lee, 

voyage  (1776-79).     In  1782,  while  on  a  man-of-  1878),  and  Records  of  the  Town  of  Lee   (Lee, 

war  off  Long  Island.,  he  deserted;  but  in  June,  1900). 

1784,  returned  to  England,  where  and  in  Paris  LEE    (AS.   hUo,   shelter,   Icel.   hU,  Dan.   l«, 

he  made  fruitless  efforts  to  organize  an  exploring  lee).     The   quarter   or  direction   toward  which 

expedition  to  the  northwest  coast  of  North  Amer-  the  wind  blows,  and  the  opposite  direction  from 

ica.    He  then,  with  the  assistance  of  Sir  Joseph  tc^afher,   which   is   the   point   or  quarter   from 

Banks,  undertook  a  tour  of  exploration  in  the  which   it  blows.     To  get  under  the  lee  of  an 


\               LEE.                                     71  LEE. 

object  meane  to  have  that  object  between  you  and  of  law  until  1770,  and  suceeasfuUy  practiced  his 

the  wind,  so  as  to  get  less  wind  or  a  smoother  profession  there  until  1776,  taking  an  effective 

sea.     To  leeward  is  toward  the  lee,  away  from  share  in  the  political  pamphleteering  of  the  time, 

the  direction  from  which  the  wind  comes.     The  Upon    Franklin's    return    to    America    early   in 

lee-anchor   (in  the  case  of  a  ship  moored  with  1775,  Lee  succeeded  him  as  the  agent  of  Massa- 

two  anchors)    is  the  one  by  which  she   is  not  chusetts,  and  late  in  the  same  year  he  was  ap- 

riding.     A  lee-board  is  a  small  board  placed  on  pointed  by  the  Committee  of  Secret  Correspond- 

the  lee  side  of  a  small  boat  to  keep  her  from  ence  of  the  Continental  Congress  as  its  secret 

drifting  to   leeward ;    it   was   the   prototype   of  agent  ifi  London.    In  this  capacity,  also,  he  spent 

the  centre-board  so  much  used  in  shallow-built  much  of  the  following  year  at  Paris,  and  in  Oc- 

vessels.  tober,   1776,  was  appointed  by  the  Continental 

LEE,  Alfred  (1807-87).    An  American  bishop  Congress   one   of   its   commissioners   to   France, 

of  the   Protestant  Episcopal   Church.     He   was  Early  in  1777  he  was  sent  as  a  commissioner  of 

bom   at   Cambridge,   Mass.,   graduated   at  Har-  the  United  States  to  Spain,  but  was  not  received 

vard  in  1827,  and,  after  legal  studies  and  three  officially,  and  accomplished  little,  beyond  secur- 

years'  practice  of  the  law  in  Ntpw  London,  Conn.,  ing  a  small  loan.     Upon  his  return  from  Spain 

graduated  at  the  General  Theological  Seminary  he  went  informally,  in  the  summer  of  1777,  to 

in    1837.      He    was    rector    of    Calvary    Church,  the  courts  of  Austria  and  Prussia,  for  the  pur- 

Rockdale,  Pa.,  from  1838  to  1841,  when  he  was  pose  of  securing  aid  or,  at  least,  of  CEtablish- 

chosen  first  Bishop  of  Delaware,  becoming  rector  ing  cordial  relations.     Meanwhile,  until  the  ap- 

of  Saint  Andrew's,  Wilmington  (1842).    He  was  pointment  of  Jay,  he  continued  to  act  as  Com- 

a  member  of  the  American  Committee  for  the  missioner  to   Spain,  though   he  did  not  revisit 

Revision  of  the  New  Testament  ( 1881 ) ,  and  pre-  that  country.     He  was   also   one   of  the  nego- 

siding  bishop   (1884).     Lee  wrote:  Life  of  Saint  tiators   of   the   treaties   concluded   with    France 

Peter    (1852);    Life  of  Saint  John    (1854);   A  in  February,  1778.  The  importance  of  his  services 

Treatise  on  Baptism   (1854)  ;   Memoir  of  Susan  and  the  extent  of  his  influence  were  greatly  di- 

Allibone    (1856);   Harbinger  of  Christ    (1857);  minished  by  his  bitter  opposition  to  Franklin, 

and  Cooperative  Revision  of  the  New  Testament  Under  rather  inauspicious  circumstances  he  re- 

(1881).  turned    to    America    in    the    summer    of    1780, 

LEE,   Ann    (1736-84).     The   founder  of  the  ^^^,  retired  temporarily  to  private  life.     In  the 

Shakers    in   America.     She   was   born   in   Man-  »?"»?   ?l    IJ^^ .  Prince    William    County    sent 

Chester,     England,     February     29,     1736.       In  him  to  the  Virginia  Legislature,  by  which  body, 

1758    she    became   connected    with    Quakers,    or  ^  Y^^    .Tr.      ™^  ^**J'       u  ^*®  ^^^  }^    .-t 

Shakers,  a  sect  established  by  seceders  from  the  •  ?^°**°^?^*\  ,^?°?™^^'  ^^^'*  he  remained  until 

Friends  who,  in  their  meetings,  exhibited  fits  of  ^'^^'  ^  ^"   ^784  he  was  one  of  the  commission- 

trembling,  whence  their  name.    In  1762  she  mar-  «"?    V°  ^^^^lu^u  ^^r  T^^^  ^^^.J^^^  ^u^^' 

ried  Abraham  Stanley  (or  Standerlin).    She  was  ^'»J    ^VvJ^    T*^  ,^^%?''*^'*°?,  ^'   ^^^^^oA^"^??^ 

at  the  time  a  cook,  he  a  blacksmith,  and  both  f^^  northwestern  frontiers     From  1784  to  1789 

were  unable  to  write.     In   1770  she  claimed  to  ^^^"^  *1»<^  *  member  of  the  Treasury  Board/ 

have  a  revelation  that  strict  continence  was  en-  ??f,  *\®  w*«.  ^^^^J"^  ,^^^  commission  created   m 

joined.     For  preaching  this  doctrine  and  other  ^^®^,.H  revise   the   laws  of  Virginia.     On  the 

peculiarities  of  the  Shaking  Quakers'  faith,  such  establishment  of  the  new  National  Government  he 

as  the  nearness  of  the  Second  Advent,  and  for  r^'l^t  ^°*"?.  ^  Pu"''^^o  '.'t*«o*°^  ^'^t  ^^i^^^'xr* 

her    alleged    visions,    prophecies,    and    power    of  ^"ef  illness,  December  12,  1792    Consult:  R.  H 

working  miracles,  she  was  much  persecuted  and  ^'  ^'f^^  ^''^^''',  ^^^\V*\^'i.^^J*^'^?LV!^ 

several    times    imprisoned;     but,    on    the    other  Literary  Correspondence  {2  vols.,  Boston,  IS29)  ; 

hand,  so  endeared  to  her  co-religionists  that  they  *"^    Wharton    (ed)     Revoluti^ry   Dtplomattp 

vielded  to  her  leadership  and  called  her  Mother  Correspondence    of    the    United    States,    vol.    i. 

Anil.     To  escape  persecution,  she  came  with  her  ( ^^  ash mgton,    1889).     The   Arthur   Ife   Manu- 

husband  and  some  followers  to  America  in  1774.  J^^P^*  ?f«  ^  ^  ^^"^  ^»  ^^  ^^^'^^^  ^^  Harvard 

In  1776,  having  separated  herself  entirely  from  University. 

her  husband,  she  established  at  Niskay una  (now  LEE,  Charles  (1731-82).  A  British- Ameri- 
Watervliet ) ,  near  Troy,  N.  Y..  the  first  Shaker  can  soldier,  born  at  Demhall,  Cheshire,  England, 
community.  During  the  Revolutionary  War  she  He  received  a  commission  as  lieutenant  in  the 
was  imprisoned,  with  some  of  her  followers,  be-  British  Army  in  1761 ;  accompanied  Braddock's 
cause  thej'  refused  to  bear  arms.  Released  in  expedition  in  1755;  and  in  1758  was  wounded  at 
1781,  she  traveled  on  a  missionary  tour.  She  Ticonderoga,  and  was  promoted  to  a  captaincv. 
died  at  Watervliet,  September  8,  1784.  See  In  1762  he  served  with  conspicuous  gallantry  in 
SiiAKEBS.  Portugal,  and  received  a  commission  from  that 
LEE,  AanruR  (1740-92).  One  of  the  Ameri-  country  as  a  lieutenant-colonel  under  Burgoyne, 
can  representatives  in  Europe  during  the  Revo-  who  had  been  sent  by  England  to  assist  Portugal 
lutionary  War,  youngest  son  of  Thomas  Lee,  and  against  Spain.  In  1764-66  and  again  in  1769- 
brother  of  Richard  Henry  Lee,  Francis  Light-  70  he  served  in  the  Polish  Army,  first  as  a 
foot  Lee.  He  was  bom  in  Stratford.  Westmore-  staff  officer  under  King  Stanislas  Augustus  and 
land  County,  Va.,  December  20,  1740,  and  was  later  as  a  major-general  in  the  Turkish  cam- 
educated  at  home  in  Virginia,  at  Eton,  and  paign.  After  much  intriguing  he  became  a  lieu- 
at  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  where  he  re-  tenant-colonel  on  half  pay  in  the  British  ser- 
ceived  the  degree  of  M.D.  After  travel  on  vice  in  May,  1772,  and  in  the  fall  of  1773 
the  Continent,  he  returned  to  Virginia,  and  emigrated  to  America,  where  he  used  every  effort 
began  the  practice  of  medicine  at  Williamsburg,  to  ingratiate  himself  with  the  Patriot'  party, 
Soon,  however,  abandoning  this,  he  proceeded  whose  side  he  took  with  great  ostentation.  Sev- 
in  1766  to  London,  where  he  continued  the  study  eral  political  pamphlets  which  he  wrote  at  this 


L££.                                     72  LES. 

time  became  very  popular.  In  1775  he  bought  a  He  was  appointed  collector  of  internal  revenue 
farm  in  Berkeley  County,  Va.  In  the  same  year  for  the  western  district  of  Virginia  in  1896,  and 
he  was  appointed  by  Congress  to  the  second  in  1896  was  sent  to  Cuba  by  President  Cleveland 
major-generalship  in  the  Continental  Army,  and  as  consul-general  at  Havana.  In  April,  1898, 
became  senior  major-general,  next  in  rank  to  when  war  with  Spain  appeared  inevitable,  he  was 
Washington,  on  the  resignation  of  Gen.  Arte-  recalled,  along  with  all  the  other  American  con- 
mas  Ward.  In  1776  he  was  placed  in  command  suls,  and  in  May  was  appointed  major-general  of 
of  the  Southern  Department,  and  received  most  of  volunteers  and  placed  in  command  of  the  Seventh 
the  credit  for  the  defense  of  Charleston,  (hough  Army  Corps.  In  January,  1890,  he  became  Mili- 
he  had  opposed  and  ridiculed  Moultrie's  plans,  taty  Governor  of  Havana,  and  subsequently  was 
In  October  he  took  command  of  the  right  wing  of  placed  in  command  of  the  Department  of  Mis- 
the  American  army  near  New  York.  Disregard-  souri.  He  published  Hobert  E.  Lee  (1894)  in  the 
ing  Washington's  orders,  he  delayed  his  retreat  "Great  Commanders  Series." 
'"^  N«^  J«"«y  /»'  \^°  ^,?«ks,  and  then  pro-  j^^^  Francis  Liqhtbwt  (1734-97).  An 
ceeded  with  great  deli^ration.  On  December  American  patriot,  and  one  of  the  signers  of  the 
13th,  while  at  Baskmg  Ridge,  a  few  m.les  from  Deelaratlon  of  Impendence.  He  was  bom  at 
his  anny  at  Mornstown,  he  was  ^ptured  by  Bnt-  stratford,  Westmbrelan  I  County,  Va.,  and  was 
«h  dragoons,  and  was  taken  to  New  \ork  Here  ^^^  ^^^^h  son  of  Thomas- Lee,  and  the  brother  of 
he  betrayed  the  American  pkns  to  the  British,  ^.^^^^^  j^  ^  ^^,1  ^^^^„^  Lee.  He  was 
but  in  May  1778,  his  treason  not  being  suspected  educated  bv  private  tutors,  and  upon  the  death 
by  Washington  he  was  exchanged.  For  his  con-  „|  ^j^  father  lie  inherited  a  considerable  fortune, 
duct  at  the  battle  of  Monmouth  (c^v  )  he  g„j  establishing  himself  on  his  large  estates  on 
was  convicted  by  court-martial  of  disobedience,  the  banks  of  the  Rappahannock,  he  lived  there 
misbehavior  before  the  enemy,  and  disrespect  to  ^^^^  j^^  jj^^  J^  Virginia  gentleman.  He 
the  Commander-in-Chief,  and  was  suspended  from  ^^^\  sincere  patriot  and  was  willing  to  risk  all 
his  command  for  a  year.  Soon  afterwards  he  j^  ^^e  cause  of  the  Colonies.  He  sefired  for  ten 
was  wounded  ma  duel  with  ColonelJohnLau-  (1765-75)  in  the  Virginia  House  of 
rens,  ohe  of  Washington's  aides,  and.  on  address-  fe^fgegges,  and  in  1775  was  elected  a  member  of 
ing  an  impudent  letter  to  Congress,  was  dismissed  the  Continental  Congress,  in  which  he  served 
from  the  service.  He  retired  to  his  farm  and  in  u^tj,  j-jg  gj  j  ^^^  Declaration  of  Independ- 
1782,  while  on  a  ^sit  to  Philadelphia,  he  died,  ^nce  in  1776  and  taking  part  in  the  work  of 
Consut:  Moore,  TA«  T^'Z'T  of  ^harUi  Lee  framing  the  Articles  of  dnlfederation.  After  his 
(1858)^;  and  a  chapter  in  Fiske,  B»«iy«  HuUon-  retirement  from  Congress  his  only  participation 
cat  and  Literary  (New  York,  1902).  j^  ^^y^^^  ^ggj^  ^^g  ^^  term  in  the  Senate  of  his 
LEE,    Eliza    (Buckminsteb)     (1792-1864).  native  State. 

^!^r,i^''^'^''i^*t°'''i^l.^v^^^ZjL^Tlt  LEE,  Fbedewck  Richard    (1799-1879).     An 

Buckminster     She  was  born  at  Portsmouth  N  H.,  g    ,.  ^'      ^^^^      jj           ^          Devonshire  and 

was  wen  educated  by  her  father  and  brother,  be^  uf^  as  a  soldier,  but.  owing  to  weak  health, 

Joseph  Stevens  Buckminster;  married  a  Thomas  »    compelled  to  leave  the  army.     In  1818  hi 

Lee  of  Rmton;  became  a  writer,  and  was  un-  ^^^  ^g     ^    j^    ,  y^    ^      ^  Academy,  where 

usually  felicitous   in   her   descr  ptions   of  New  ^    exhibited  for  the  flrsl  time  in  1824.    He  ex- 

Eng  and  life      She  wote:    Sketches  of  a  Xew  ^i^ited  regularly  until  1870,  became  an  academi- 

England  Village  {ISSSUNaomi.  or  Boston  Two  j      j^  jgas,  and  was  placed  upon  the  honorary 

Hundred  Years  Ago  (1848)  ;  and  memoirs  of  her  ^x.^j  i.  4.  ;'   1070    T^r«,«o  <.oo^n4^t«iw  -  ^o^^f/* 

*  au          j  1.    i-i.       /iojA\      on.    X        1  i.  J  *  retired  list  in  lo7^.  l-*ee  was  essentially  a  painter 

father  and  brother  (;849)      She  translated  from  ^^  ^.^  j^  j.     ^^^^  landscape,  his  favorite  subject 

*^!,9«™*^';fJ°*«.«^    '^^^^,^2^^^^^  being  Wonlhire.     He   (Occasionally    introduced 

published  an  historical  novel,  Parthenta,  t\e  Last  ^^^^\^^  landscapes  animals,  which  were  painted 

/™^   ^^'''***^  ^       ^  •  by   some    fellow   artist,    usuallv    by    his    friend 

LEE,  FiTZHUOH    (1835-1905).     An  American  fhomife   Sidney  Cooper.     The  'National  Gallery 

soldier,  nephew  of  Robert  E.  Lee,  and  prominent  contains  his  "Cover  Side"   (1839),  with  animals 

as  a  Confederate  officer  during  the  Civil  War.    He  by     Landseer;     "Showery     Weather"      (1874); 

was  bom  in  Clermont,  Va.;  graduated  at  West  "Evening    in    the    Meadows"     (1854);     "River 

Point  in  1856;  served  against  the  Indians;  and  Scene,"  with  animals  by  Cooper.     He  spent  the 

from  May,  1860,  until  <he  outbreak  of  the  Civil  last  years  of  his  life  in  travel,  and  died  in  Cape 

War  was  instructor  of  cavalry  at  West  Point.  Colony,  June  6,  1879. 

He   resigned  from  the  Federal  service  early  in  -r-a-^   r^         '  «                / 1001      ^       a      a 

1861,  entered  the  Confederate  Army,  and  until  ^^^;  Gerald  Stanley  (1861- ).    An  Amen- 

September  of  that  year  was  adjutant-general  in  ??"  lecturer,  critic,  and  author,  born  at  Brockton, 

General  EwelFs  brigade.  He  then  served  aa  ^//^\,  J^^  ^^^^^^.oot  ^l^^^^^V  r5^"T 
colonel  of  a  cavalry  regiment  in  nearlv  all  the  i^J^^^'^^^^J' J^'^^^"  1^^^'  ^^  ^^«  ^*^^  Divinity 
important  operations  of  the  Army  of  Northern  ^""^^P}  ^°  1888,  and  became  known  as  a  lecturer 
Virginia;  was  appointed  brigadier-general  in  on  literature  and  the  arts  m  modern  times  and  a 
July,  1862,  and  major-general  in  September,  contributor  to  the  Cnftc  and  other  periodicals. 
1863;  was  severely  wounded  at  Winchester,  Va.,  His  publications  include:  A^out  <in  Old  yew 
on  September  19,^1864;  and  from  March,  1865,  ^J^^lV}^  ^^^''f^  ill^^U /^^  fi^^adow?  Christ 
until  his  surrender  to  General  Meade  at  Fann-  i^^^^}^  *  i**«^^^?^  ^^fnS®^^'®^  P^*®'  ^^^  ^^ 
villc,  was  in  command  of  all  the  cavalrv  of  the  ^^^*  ^^^  ®'  Reading  (1902). 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  In  1874  he  delivered  LEE,  Harbiet  (1757-1851).  An  English 
a  patriotic  address  at  Bunker  Hill,  which  at-  author,  bom  in  London.  With  her  sister  Sophia 
tracted  considerable  attention;  in  1882-83  he  she  secured  a  competence  by  the  successful  man- 
made  a  lecturing  tour  through  the  South  on  be-  agement  of  a  private  school,  and  resided  in  the 
half  of  the  Southern  Historical  Society;  and  vicinity  of  Tintern  Abbey,  and  afterwards  at  CI  if- 
from  1886  to  1890  he  was  Governor  of  Virginia,  ton.     Here  she  wrote,  among  other  works,  the 


LEE.  78 

novel  The  Errors  of  Innocence  (5  vols.,  1786),  edition  of  which  (1869)  is  prefixed  a  biography 

and  a  drama,  The  New  Peerage  (1787).     She  is  by  his  son,  Robert  £.  Lee  (q.v.). 

best  known,  however,  for  her  Canterbury  Tales  tw     tt»»»«.    Ti7.«,xx^«m/x«r    /iqik7^\        a. 

(6  vols.,  1797-1806),  which  were  republiihed  in  .  ^^?'   Henry   Washogton    (181574)       An 

New  York  in  1857      In  this  work  she  was  as-  American  Protestant  Episcopal  bishop.     He  was 

^tr^}?Jh.l\itfaJ'^^hi.^^^                             -11  born  at  Hampden,  Conn.,  and  was  educated  at 

l^n!^^jJ^Jlr^J?^^                            Of  fKpii  Cheshire  Academy  and  at  Trinity  College,  Hart- 

except  two  were  written  by  Harriet.     Of  these  -  ^^    ,„u«-«  u^  jL«j,.«4-^^  ;«   iqqk      xtJt  U^^a:^^ 

the  best  known  is  Kruitzn^,  which  (1821)  was  J^^'i'i^r^T..^^  ^tr^Jrlf.^^^^^ 

dramatized  by  Byron,  and  published,  with  due  *^?^i^^  '^^^^f  teaching  «^t  Taunton,  Mass     r^^^ 

«^i,«^,»i^<,»f*.4.    ,,»^I*  4.K^  ♦;♦!«  ^#  Tx;.>^^«    .V-  ceived  deacon's  orders  in   1838,  and  was  rector 

acknowledgment,  under  the  title  of.  Werner,  or  .^  gpringfield,  Mass.,  in  1840-43.    In  1854,  while 

tne  innerttance.  .^   ^^^^^   ^^   ^^^^^  j^^,^^,^   church,   Rochester, 

LEE,  Henry  (1756-1818).  An  American  sol-  N.  Y.,  he  was  appointed  Bishop  of  Iowa,  and  as 
dier  and  statesman,  a  member  of  the  famous  Lee  such  was  instrumental  in  founding  Griswold  Col- 
family  of  Virginia,  bom  at  Leesylvania,  one  of  lege  at  Davenport.  He  wrote  some  devotional 
the  family  estates  on  the  Potomac.    H^  graduated  works  and  juveniles. 

at  Princeton  in  1774,  and  soon  after  the  out-  LEE,  Jesse  (1758-1816).    An  American  Metho- 

break  of  the  Ile\;^lutionary  War  obtained  a  cap-  ^jg^  missionarj-.    He  was  born  in  Prince  George'a 

taincy  m  Col.  Theodonc  Bland's  cavalry  legion.  County,    Va.,   joined   the   Methodist   Church   in 

In     1777    he    joined    Washington    just    before  1773^  ^^^  j^  1783  was  admitted  to  the  confer- 

the     battle     of     Brandywme,     and     from     that  pjjce   as  a    preacher.     In    1789   he   visited   New 

time  on  for  three  years  was  employed  in  scouting  England  and  preached  Methodism  from  the  Con- 

and  outpost  duty,  in  which  his  restless  activity  ^ecticut    River    to    the    farthest    settlement    in 

earned    him    the    nickname    of     Light    Horse  ^i^^^^     He  formed  the  first  Methodist  class  in 

^*"^I  o?®  assisted  General  Wayne  at  the  cap-  ^^^^  England,  at  Stratfield,  Conn.,  September  26, 

ture  of  Stony  Point,  and  soon  afterwards  com-  j^gy    ^^^  ^^e  first  in  Boston,  July  13,  1792;  and 

manded   an   expedition   of   his   own   which   sur-  f^^,  j^jg  pioneer  work  in  New  England  was  often 

prised  and  captured  the  British  post  at  Paulus  ^^^i^^  *fi,e  Apostle  of  Methodism.'     He  was  a 

Hook   (see  Jebsey  City)    an  exploit  which  won  f^j^^^   ^^d   assistant   of   Francis   Asburv.     Lee 

for  him  the  thanks  of  Congress  and  the  com-  ^^g  ^^^^  ^in^eg  ^^^^^  chaplain  of  the  National 

mendation  of  Washington.     In   1780  his  legion  jj^^g^  ^f  Representatives,  and  once  of  the  Senate, 

was  sent  to  the  Southern  States  to  aid  m  re-  jj^  ^^^^  ^  History  of  Methodism  in  America 

trieving  the  disaster  at  Camden,  and  during  Gen-  (ig^yj    ,vhich  has  value   for  the  early  period, 

eral  Greene's  skilful  retreat  through  the  Caro-  Consult  L.  M.  Lee,  Life  and  Times  of  Jesse  Lee 

linas,   formed  the   rear-guard  of   the  American  (Richmond,  Va.,  1848). 

forces.     After  the  tide  had  turned  and  Greene  __,        -^          ' 

was  once  more  advancing  southward,  the  legion  I^^,  John  I>oylb  (1812-77).  A  Mormon 
took  an  important  part  in  the  recovery  of  places  official,  bom  at  Kaskaskia,  111.  In  1837  he  came 
held  by  the  British  and  did  brilliant  service  at  under  Mormon  influence  and  moved  to  Daviess 
Eutaw  Springs  (q.v.).  Early  in  1782  Lee  re-  County,  Mo.,  where  he  joined  the  Church.  After- 
signed  his  commission  because  of  ill  health  and  wards  he  returned  to  Illinois  on  mission  work  and 
retired  to  Virginia,  where,  after  the  conclusion  when  Nauvoo  became  the  centre  of  the  activitv 
of  peace,  he  interested  himself  in  politics.  In  ^^  ^^^  sect,  he  acted  as  personal  guard  to  Joseph 
1786  he  was  elected  a  delegate  to  Congress  and  Smith  and  afterwards  to  Brigham  Young.  He 
two  years  later  representative  of  Westmoreland  was  among  the  first  to  go  to  Salt  Lake,  and  built 
0)unty  in  the  Virginia  convention  which  ratified  *^e  town  of  Parowan,  besides  locating  numerous 
the  Federal  Constitution.  From  1789  until  1791  o^^er  settlements.  At  various  times  he  was  cap- 
he  was  a  member  of  the  SUte  Legislature  and  tain  of  the  militia,  president  of  Harmony  probate 
from  1792  till  1795  was  Governor  of  Virginia.  J^dge  of  Iron  County,  and  member  of  the  Tern- 
While  he  was  still  an  incumbent  of  this  latter  ^orial  Legislature.  He  was  accused  of  having 
office  (1794),  Washington  appointed  him  to  com-  mcited  the  massacre  of  the  Arkansas  emigrants 
mand  the  15,000  troops  whose  mere  presence  a^  Mountain  Meadows  (q.v.)  in  1857.  On  his 
quelled  the  Whisky  Insurrection.  Five  years  later  first  trial  before  the  United  States  Court  in  1875 
he  entered  Congress,  and  there,  after  Washing-  t*»e  jury  disagreed,  but  on  the  second  trial  in 
ton's  death,  delivered  the  funeral  oration  which  1876  he  was  found  guilty.  He  was  shot  on  the 
contains  the  familiar  phrase,  "First  in  war,  first  sc^n©  o^  <^^«  outrage,  March  23,  1877.  After  his 
in  peace,  first  in  the  hearts  of  his  countrymen."  second  trial  he  declared  that  he  had  acted  under 
In  1801  he  retired  to  private  life,  to  appear  again  instructions  from  Brigham  Young  and  other  high 
on  the  stage  of  public  affairs  only  for  a  brief  mo-  Mormon  officials,  who  had  made  him  the  scape- 
ment  in  1812,  when,  after  the  first  disasters  to  the  goat.  His  counsel,  W.  W.  Bishop,  published  his 
American  arms  in  Canada,  he  accepted  an  ap-  confessions  under  the  title,  Mormontsm  Unvetled, 
pointment  as  major-general.  But  before  he  could  Including  the  Remarkable  Life  and  Confessions 
enter  upon  his  new  military  duties  he  was  of  the  Late  Mormon  Bishop,  John  D,  Lee,  wnt- 
wounded  while  aiding  a  friend,  Alexander  Contee  '^^  ^V  himself  ( 1891 ) . 

Hanson   (q.v.),  editor  of  the  Baltimore  Federal  LEE,     Luther      (1800-89).       An     American 

Republican,  whose  property  was  attached  by  a  Methodist   preacher,   born   at   Schoharie,   N.   Y. 

mob  of  political  opponents.    Lee  never  recovered  He  became  a  preacher  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 

from  this  injury,  and  died  while  on  his  return  Church  in  1827;  espoused  the  anti-slaveiy  cause 

from  a  voyage  to  the  West  Indies,  taken  in  the  (1838),  incurring  thereby  the  active  opposition 

hope  that  a  change  of  climate  might  prove  bene-  of   the  leaders   of  the   denomination;   withdrew 

flcial.     He  wrote  Memoirs  of  the  War  in  the  from  the  Methodist  Church  in  1843  on  account  of 

Southern    Department    of    the    United    States  its  attitude  upon  the  slavery  question,  and  or- 

(1812),  a  fair  and  impartial  description  of  Gen-  ganized  a  new  sect  called  the  'Wesleyan  Connec- 

eral  Greene's  campaigns  in  the  South,  to  the  new  tion.'     He  was  president  of  the  first  Wesleyan 


LEE.  T4 

Methodist  General  Ckmference  in  1844;  edited  the  the   National   Congress.     To   the  new   Federal 

True  Wesley  an,  the  organ  of  the  new  denomina-  Constitution    he    was    opposed,    and    after    its 

tion;  became  president  of  Michigan  Union  Col-  adoption  he  was  elected,  by  the  Anti-Federalists, 

lege  at  Leoni,  Mich.,  in  1856 ;  and  in  1864  was  to  the  Senate,  where  he  served  until  the  condition 

made  professor  in  Adrian  College,  Michigan.    In  of  his  health  caused  his  resignation  in  1792.    At 

1867    he   returned   to   the   Methodist   Episcopal  that  time,  however,  he  had  become  a  supporter 

Church.    Among  his  writings  are :     Univeraalism  of  Washington  and  of  the  new  Constitution,  but 

Examined  and  Refuted   ( 1836 )  ;  Slavery  in  the  his  resignation  from  the  Senate  was  followed  by 

Light  of  the  Bible  (1855) ;  and  Elements  of  The-  his  retirement  from  public  life,  and  he  died  two 

ology  (1856).  years  thereafter,   June   19,    1794,   at   his  home, 

LEE,    Nathaniel    (c.1663-92).     An   EngUsh  tJhantilly,  in  his  native  county  of  Westmoreland, 

dramatic  poet.    He  graduated  at  Trinity  College,  ^«  possessed  great  powers  as  an  orator.     His 

Cambridge,  in  1668,  and  was  then  for  a  time  an  grandson,  R.  H.  Lee,  published  Ltfe  and  Corre- 

actor,  but  soon  retired  and  devoted  himself  to  ^ondence  of  Richard  Henry  Lee  (2  vols.,  Phila- 

the  writing  of  tragedies.     He  first  attracted  at-  delphia,  1825). 

tention  in  1677,  by  his  Rival  Queens,  in  which        LEE,  Robebt  (1804-68).    A  Scotch  clergj-man. 

occurred   the   well-known   lines,    "When   Greeks  He  was  bom  at  Tweedmouth,  England,  November 

joined  Greeks  then  was  the  tug  of  war."     The  H,   1804;   educated  at  the  University  of  Saint 

work  won  high  praise  from  Dryden,  who  was  later  Andrews ;    ordained  a  minister  of  the  Scottish 

associated  with  Lee  in  writing  The  Duke  of  Guise  Church  in  1832 ;  settled  at  Arbroath  in  1833,  and 

(1682).     In  1684,  however,  Lee  became  insane,  at  Campsie  in  1836.     When  the  Church  of  Scot- 

and  he  was  confined  in  a  lunatic  asylum  for  four  land  was  divided  by  the  secession,  he  remained 

years.    Upon  his  release  he  again  devoted  himself  with  the  Established  Church,  was  called  to  the 

to  literary  work.     Among  the  most  popular  of  pastorate   of   the   Old   Grey   Friars'   Church    in 

Lee*s  works,  most  of  which  treated  subjects  from  Edinburgh,  and  took  a   prominent  part  in  the 

classical   history,    are    Theodosius,    Mithridates,  controversies  that  ensued.     In  1846  he  was  ap- 

and  Lucius  Junius  Brutus.  P^*'^^^..  regies    professor    of    biblical    criticism 

LEE,  RiCHABD  Henrt 
of  the  American  Revolution. 

Stratford,  Westmoreland  County,  Va.,  January  w...*  »c.cn.»  «v,in,^,  «iary»^*  ^,c7^ic;t«f  ana  r^ar^^ 

20,    1732,    the    son    of    Thomas    Lee,    who    wm  ous  Reading,  remsaaf^  improved     In  lS59h^ 

president  of  the  Virginia  Council  and  a  mem-  ^Tf*  ^^"«^/  ^^^^  mtroducmg  m  public  worship 

ber    of    the    Ohio    Company.      After    receiving  ^^If *^  ^5^??  *f^*r**"!rw°^'°fi!*'^  ^^  u^5 

some  preliminary  education  at  home,  the  son  was  ^,^5  a    ?^*'V*''^'  ^}%  **^  ^l^'S  that  he  had 

placed  in  school   at  Wakefield,  England,  where  published  a  volume  of  Prayers  for  Public  Wor^ 

he  remained  until  1752,  when  he  retSmed  to  Vir-  ^^^    <  1^^>  /?^  ,"f  t.  *^^,^"?*   ^°    t"*    ^^" 

ginia  and  made  his  home  with  his  elder  brother.  ^^^^     ^«  "^^/w  ^-  *''°'^"  "^'^^  '''^}  /T? 

Taking  an  active  interest  in  public  affairs,  Rich-  ?°^o^i?*u^''''^T.iH*^^^mr*^S?'f "  were  defeated, 

ard  Henry  Lee  early  became  a  justice  of  the  peace  ^?  l^^,  he  published  Jfce  Reform  of  the  Church 

for  his  native  county,   and  4a8  elected  t<5  the  ,<  ScotUnd  tn  Worship,  Government,  and  Doc> 

House  of  Burgesses  of  Virginia  at  a  time  when  \r!^'    ^^  ^'^  l\  Torquay,  England,  Maijch  14, 

his  brother  Thomas  was  a  member  of  the  Legisla-  ^l^^'     Consult  his  Li^e  by  Story    (Edmburgh, 

tive  Council.    In  1766,  when  the  Legislature  was  ^^*"/- 

taking  action  with  reference  to  the  'Declaratory        LEE,  Robbbt  Edwabd    (1807-70).     A  distin- 

Act*   of  Parliament,  he  drafted  the  address  to  guished  American  soldier,  commander-in-chief  of 

the  King  and  also  the  memorial  to  the  House  of  the  armies  of  the  Confederate  States  of  America. 

Lords.     In  1773  he  was  appointed  by  the  Legis-  He   was   bom    in    Westmoreland    County,    Va., 

lature  a  member  of  the  Virginia  Committee  of  January  19,  1807.    His  father  was  'Light  Horse 

Correspondence,  and  in  the  following  year  was  Harry*  Lee,   a   distinguished   cavalry   leader   in 

sent  to  the  first  Continental  Congress.  As  a  mem-  the  Revolutionary  War ;  his  mother,  Anne  Hall 

ber  of  that  body  he  drafted  a  number  of  important  Carter.     In    1811   his   father   removed  to  Alex* 

public    papers,    including    the    petition    to    the  andria,   in   Fairfax   County.     He  entered   West 

king,  and  as  a  member  of  the  second  Continental  Point  in   1825,  on  an  appointment  secured   for 

Congress  he  prepared  the  address  to  the  inhabi-  him  by  GJen.  Andrew  Jackson,  and  by  his  dili- 

tants  of  Great  Britain.     He  contributed  largely  gence  and  abilitjr  graduated  in  1829  second  in  his 

to  the  more  difficult  work  of  that  body,  being  rec-  class.    From  this  time  until  1834  he  was  in  the 

ognized  throughout  as  one  of  the  really  influential  Engineer  Corps,  with  the  rank  of  second  lieuten- 

leaders    of    the    revolutionary    movement,    and  ant.   In  1831  he  married  Mary  Randolph  Custis, 

finally  becoming  famous  by  his  motion  of  June  the  granddaughter  of  Martha  Washington.     In 

7,   1776    (adopted  July  2d),  that  "these  united  1834  he  became  assistant  to  the  chief  engineer  of 

Colonies  are,  and  of  right  ought  to  be,  free  and  the  army  in  Washington;  three  years  later  he 

independent  States;   and  that  all  political  eon-  superintended  improvements  at  Saint  Louis,  and 

nection   between   them   and  the   State  of   Great  in  1842  he  took  charge  of  the  defenses  in  New 

Britain  is,  and  ought  to  be,  totally  dissolved."  York  Harbor,  where  he  remained  until  the  out- 

With    the   decline    of    the   prestige    and    power  break  of  the  Mexican  War,  in  1846.    In  1838  he 

of    Cmigress,    Lee,    as    did    other    of    the    lead-  had  been  made  a  captain. 

ing  political  workers,  devoted  more  of  his  time        In  the  Mexican  War  he  was  first  with  General 

to  the  affairs  of  his  own  State,  serving  in  its  Wool,    for    whom    he    did    excellent    scouting. 

Legislature  from  1780  until  1784.     He  returned  Transferred  at  the  personal  request  of  Geheral 

to  Congress  in  the  fall  of  1784,  and  was  then  Scott  to  the  army  before  Vera  Cruz,  he  arranged 

elected  president  of  that  body.     In  1786  he,  was  the  batteries  so  that  the  town  was  reduced  in  a 

a   member   of  the  Virginia  Legislature   and   in  week.    After  each  of  the  battles  of  Cerro  Gordo, 

1787  he  was  a  member  both  of  that  body  and  of  Churubusoo,  and  Chapultepee,  he  received  pro 


ROBERT   E.  LEE 


LEE.  75  LEE. 

motion,  and  for  his  Berrices  in  the  last  was  bre-  and  were  on  the  whole  unsuccessful.  The  dis- 
vetted  colonel.  He  was  engaged  in  oigineering  advantages  he  had  to  contend  with  were  great, 
work  in  the  City  of  Mexico,  and  after  the  war  his  subordinates  were  at  loggerheads,  and  the 
was  put  in  charge  of  the  defenses  then  being  con-  enemy  under  General  McClellan  was  strong  and 
structed  at  Baltimore.  In  1862  Lee  became  su-  alert.  ^  Assigned  to  the  Department  of  South 
perintendent  at  West  Point,  and  in  his  three  Carolina,  Georgia,  and  Florida,  he  devoted  him- 
years  of  service  there  improved  the  discipline  self  to  the  task  of  creating  coast  defenses  and  in- 
greatly  and  lengthened  the  course  of  study  to  terior  works  to  protect  the  country  on  which  the 
live  years.  On  the  formation  of  a  new  cavalry  Confederacy  was  absolutely  dependent  for  sup- 
regiment  in  1865,  he  was  appointed  lieutenant-  plies.  His  grasp  of  the  situation  was  masterly, 
colonel  and  saw  service  in  western  Texas  agiunst  and  his  personal  presence  did  much  to  stimulate 
the  Indians.  In  July  the  command  of  the  regi-  the  rapidity  with  which  the  defense  was  made 
ment  devolved  on  him,  but  three  months  later  he  efficient.  In  March,  1862,  he  was  recalled  to  Rich- 
was  called  home  by  the  death  of  his  father-in-  mond  to  direct  the  military  operations  of  the 
law,  Mr.  Custis.  Returning  to  his  command,  he  Confederacy,  under  the  supervision  of  President 
continued  with  it  until  the  fall  of  1859,  when  he  Davis,  and  it  speaks  well  for  the  serenity  of  Lee's 
obtained  leave  to  visit  his  family.  During  this  character  that  this  somewhat  trying  situation 
visit  he  commanded  the  troops  which  suppressed  produced  so  little  friction.  Men  and  supplies  had 
the  John  Brown  raid.  He  was  then  called  to  to  be  prepared  to  meet  McClellan's  advance  up 
Richmond  to  advise  the  Legislature  with  regard  the  Peninsula,  where  some  victory  was  expected 
to  defense,  should  an  invasion  again  occur,  from  the  victors  of  the  first  Bull  Run  to  compen- 
Returning  to  Texas,  he  was  in  charge  of  his  sate  for  the  disasters  of  Forts  Henry  and  Donel- 
former  department,  until,  on  the  secession  of  son,  and  of  Roanoke  Island.  Lee  kept  in  full  corn- 
that  State  in  1861,  he  was  recalled  to  Washing-  munication  with  Jackson's  movements  in  the 
ton.  Valley  of  Virginia,  giving  him  free  hand.   When 

Lee  was  earnestly  opposed  t^)  disunion,  but  his  Gen.  Joseph  E.  Johnston,  who  had  command  in 

future  actions  were  clearly  foreshadowed  in  a  let-  the  Peninsula  against  McClellan,  wished  to  draw 

ter  to  his  son:     "Still,  a  union  that  can  only  be  strongly  on  the  defensive  forces  of  the  interior 

maintained  by  swords  and  bayonets,  and  in  which  and  to  risk  all  on  one  battle,  Lee,  believing  that 

strife   and  civil  war  are  to  take  the   place  of  a  smaller  army  could  be  successful,  opposed  him, 

brotherly  love  and  kindness,  has  no  charm  for  and  was  supported  in  this  opinion  by  President 

me.     I  shall  mourn  for  my  country  and  for  the  Davis.  Johnston  steadily  retreated  before  McClel- 

welfare  of  mankind.     If  the  Union  is  dissolved  Ian  until  Jackson's  famous  dasn  prevented  Mc- 

and  the  Government  disrupted,  I  shall  return  to  Dowell,  with  his  force  of  about  40,000,  from  join- 

my  native  State  and  share  the  miseries  of  my  ing  the  main  Federal  army ;  then  he  turned  and 

people,  and,  save  in  defence,  will  draw  my  sword  fought  the  indecisive  battle  of  Seven  Pines  (May 

on  none."   '  While  deploring  the  actions  of  his  31-June  1 ) .     Lee  took  no  part  in  this  fighting, 

people,  he  believed  that  they  had  been  wronged,  but  on  June  3  he  took  command^  for  Johnston 

and  his  sympathy  drew  him  to  them.     In  the  had  been  wounded  and  the  next  in  rank.  Gen. 

last  analysis,  too]^  he  was  a  States- rights  man;  G.  W.  Smith,  was  in  bad  health.    Setting  about 

for  he  "would  defend  any  State  if  her  rights  vigorously  to  secure  reinforcements  and  sendin.s^ 

were  invaded."    He  reached  home  on  March  1,  Stuart  on  his  brilliant  circuit  of  the   Federal 

1861,  and  on  April  18th  Frank  P.  Blair,  on  be-  army,    the    new    commander    resisted    the    gen- 

half  of  President  Lincoln,  visited  him  and  offered  eral  desire  for  him  to  fall  back  on  Richmond,  and 

him  the  command  of  the  Army  of  the  United  took  the  offensive.    Some  tremendous  fighting  at 

States.    Lee  wrote  later,  "I  declined  the  offer  he  the  battle  of  Gaines's  Mill  forced  McClellan  to 

made  me  to  take  command  of  the  army  that  was  retreat  toward  his  gunboats  on  the  James.     The 

to  be  brought  into  the  field,  stating,  as  candidly  fierce  fight  of  Malvern  Hill,  where  the  Confeder- 

and  courageously  as  I  could,  that,  though  opposed  ates  were  unable  to  dislodge  the  Federals,  allowed 

to  secession  and  deprecating  war,  I  could  take  no  McClellan   to   reach   his   place   of   safety.     The 

part  in  an  invasion  of  the  Southern  States."    On  Federals  had  been  driven  back  but  not  routed  in 

April  19th  President  Lincoln  declared  a  blockade  these  terrible  seven  days*  battles  around   Rich- 

of  the  Southern  ports;  troops  began  to  pour  into  mond,  June  25- July  1,  and  Lee  was  not  satisfied 

Washington ;   the  invasion  of  his  State  had,  in  with  what  he  had  done.    It  is  possible  that  if  he 

Lee's  opinion,  begun,  and  on  April  20th  he  re-  had  had  the  right  support  from  his  subordinates 

signed,  three  days  later  taking  command  in  Rich-  he  would  have  carried  out  his  original  plan  of  de- 

mond  of  the  military   forces  of  Virginia.  •  On  stroying  the  opposing  army.    General  Pope  soon 

May  25th  he  ceased  to  be  a  major-general  in  the  after  this  took  command  of  the  Federal  armies  in 

army  of  his  State,  and  became  a  brigadier  in  the  Virginia  west  of  Washington,  while  General  Mc- 

service  of  the  South,  no  higher  rank  having  then  Clollan   retained   position   on   the  James   River, 

been  created  by  the  Confederate  Government.  T>ee,  assuming  that  Richmond  was  no  longer  in 

Lee  found  Virginia  totally  unprepared  for  the  serious  danger  from  McClellan's  forces,  planned 
conflict,  but  acting  as  the  commander-inrchief  of  to  throw  his  whole  available  strength  against 
the  State  troops  and  working  steadily  with  Gen-  Pope.  A  series  of  rapid  and  unexpected  blows 
eral  Gorgas,  the  chief  of  ordnance,  he  had  by  the  fell  upon  the  outer  armies  under  Pope's  com- 
end  of  May  30,000  men  equipped  and  in  the  field  mand,  his  store  of  provisions  was  captured, 
and  many  regiments  well  advanced  in  organiza-  and  on  August  29  and  30,  1862,  Pope's 
tion.  On  June  8th  President  Davis  took  charge  main  army  was  signally  defeated  by  Jackson 
of  all  military  movements  and  General  Lee,  and  Lee  on  the  same  field  that  had  witnessed 
though  anxious'  to  take  the  field,  remained  at  his  the  first  battle  of  Bull  Run.  I^ee  then  pro- 
side  as  an  adviser.  jected   the   invasion   of   Maryland,   as   well   for 

His  first  Operations  in  the  field  were  in  West  political  as  for  military  reasons.     On  Septera- 

Virginia  during  the  summer  and  autumn  of  1861,  ber  7th  his  entire  army  was  near  Frederick  City. 
Vol.  XII.— 6. 


LEE.  76  LEE. 

The  invasion  was  a  tentative  one,  and  was  at-  its  retirement  to  the  strong  position  of  Cemetery 

tended  with  many  disheartening  circumstances.  Ridge,   south   of  Gettysburg.     On   July   2d,   at 

Thousands  of  stragglers  left  the  ranks  between  4  P.M.,  after  a  tremendous  cannonade,  the  Con- 

Manassas   and   the    Potomac,   the   greater   part  federates  delivered  an  impetuous  attack  on  the 

weakened  by  want  of  rest,  food,  and  shoes,  and  right  side  of  Meade's  position.    It  met  with  only 

worn  out  by  continued  marches  and  daily  battles,  partial   success.     On   the   afternoon   of   the   3d 

while  many  yielded  to  other  motives.     General  Lee  ordered  a  cannonade  which  lasted  for  two 

McClellan  had  meanwhile  been  sent  against  Lee.  hours,  and  under  cover  of  which  his  attacking 

On  September  15,  1862,  Harper's  Ferry  was  cap-  columns  of  15,000  men  formed.    The  attack  was 

tured  by  the  Confederates  under  Jackson  prepar-  all  that  human  bravery  could  make  it ;  but  the 

atory  to  the  invasion  of  Pennsylvania.     McClel-  columns  melted  before  the  fire  that  waited  for 

Ian  followed  Lee's  movements,  keeping  the  body  them;  and  though  their  van  reached  and  covered 

of  his  army  between  Lee  and  Washington.     By  the  key  of  the  struggle,  their  main  force  was 

good  fortune,  coming  into  possession  of  Lee's  order  annihilated,   and   the   position   quickly   retaken, 

of  march,  he  forced  the  latter  to  turn.    The  battle  General    Lee's    equanimity   was   conspicuous    in 

of  Antietam  (q. v.),  September  16th- 17th,  was  the  this  defeat  in   the  manner  of  his  meeting  the 

result,  the  advantage  beinff  with   the  Federals,  disorganized  remnant  of  that  returning  column. 

With   a  greatly  superior  force,  McClellan   sue-  infusing  them  with  his  own  serene  confidence  and 

oeeded  in  compelling  Lee  to  abandon  his  plan  of  taking  upon  himself  the  responsibility  for  the 

invading  Pennsylvania,  but  the  latter's  superior  fatal  charge.     Meade's  army  was  seemingly  too 

generalship  displayed  throughout  the  whole  en-  much  shattered  for  him  to  venture  the  offensive 

gagement   and    the   subsequent   movements   pre-  the  next  day,  although  Lee  stood  ready  for  him. 

vented  the  former  from  obtaining  any  further  ad-  The  Confederate  general,  now  short  of  aramuni- 

vantages  as  Lee  retreated  southward.  Lee  and  his  tion  and  fearing  for 'his  communications,  began 

army  had  fought  with  splendid  skill  and  bravery,  to    retreat.     ( See    Gettysburg,     Battle    of.  ) 

but  the  campaign  as  a  political  move  was  a  fail-  Meade  followed  to  the  Potomac,  but  did  not  at- 

ure.     The   Federal  Government  now  decided  to  tack,  and  Lee  got  his  army  across  with  masterly 

renew  the  attempt  on  Richmond,  this  time  via  skill.    The  Federal  commander  crossed  into  Vir- 

Fredericksburg.    On  November  7th  Burnside  re-  ginia  shortly  afterwards,  but  no  events  of  ira- 

ceived  the  command  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  portance  took  place  in  that  State  during  the  re- 

Both  armies  were  rapidly  drawn  southward,  and  mainder  of  the  year.     Lee,  feeling  that  a  crisis 

on  November  20th  Lee  was  gathering  his  entire  was  at  hand,  suggested  that  he  be  relieved  by  a 

army  behind  the  works  of  Fredericksburg,  while  younger    man,    but    President    Davis    promptly 

Bumside's  covered  the  hills  on  the  north  facing  answered  that  such  a  step  was  impossible.     The 

them.     On  December  13th  a  determined  assault  autumn  of  1863  saw  only  manoeuvring  on  the  part 

was  directed  by  Burnside  squarely  against  the  of  Lee  and  Meade,  but  the  latter  was  forced  to 

fortified  hills  of  Fredericksburg.    It  was  repelled  withdraw  just  when  he  was  intending  to  attack, 

with  terrible  loss  to  the  Federal  army.      (See  and  Lee  went  into  winter  quarters  behind  the 

Fredericksburg.)     After  this  battle  the' army  of  Rapidan. 

General  Lee  was  not  again  molested  until  the  After  this  winter  of  1863-64,  in  which  the  pri- 
campaign  of  1863  opened.  Gen.  Joseph  Hooker  vations  that  the  Confederates  suffered  were  well 
had  been  appointed  to  supersede  General  Bum-  compared  with  those  of  the  camp  at  Valley  Forge^ 
side,  and  with  a  powerful  army,  about  double  the  final  campaign  opened  with  General  Grant 
tiiat  of  Ijee,  now  declared  his  intention  of  forcing  in  command  of  the  Federal  forces.  He  recog- 
the  Confederate  army  from  Fredericksburg.  At  nized  that  the  wav  to  defeat  Lee  was  to  *ham- 
the  end  of  April  he  led  the  bulk  of  his  army  mer'  him  out.  Lee  had  only  about  60,000  against 
across  the  Rappahannock,  and  took  up  a  position  Grant's  120,000,  but  he  was  fighting  on  the  de- 
near  Chancellorsville,  The  genius  of  Lee  was  fensive  in  a  verv  difficult  countrv.  From  Mav  5th 
never  more  conspicuous  than  in  the  battle  which  to  June  12th  there  was  terrible"^  and  almost  con- 
followed  (May  2d-4th),  resulting  in  the  complete  tinuous  fighting  in  the  'Wilderness'  (q.v.),  and 
defeat  of  Hooker.  (See  Chancellorsville,  Bat-  along  the  line  of  Grant's  movement  to  the  James 
tleof.)  But  while  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville  River,  Lee  using  his  veterans  with  consummate 
had  been  brilliantly  won,  I^ee  had  lost  his  great-  skill,  and  Grant  his  constantly  filled  ranks  with 
est  support,  'Stonewall'  Jackson.  After  some  a  persistence  that  was  peculiarly  his  own. 
indecisive  fighting  the  Federal  army  on  May  6th  In  this  short  time  the  Federals  lost  60,000  men 
withdrew  across  the  Rappahannock.  and  the  Confederates  14.000,  and  in  the  siege  of 
Lee  now  organized  his  army  for  the  invasion  Petersburg  from  June,  1864,  to  the  beginning  of 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  on  June  3d  commenced  April,  1865,  the  fighting  was  almost  as  terrible, 
the  advance  with  80,000  men.  The  entire  Con-  save  for  the  fact  that  now  the  Federals  wer.e 
federate  army  was  transferred  to  North  Vir-  defended  by  their  works  and  the  CJonfederatea 
ginia,  and  on  June  27th  it  was  concen-  were  almost  without  food.  On  April  2,  1865, 
trated  near  Chambersburg,  Pa.  Gen.  George  G.  I^ee's  position  became  untenable,  and  he  resolved 
Meade  succeeded  Hooker  in  the  command  of  the  to  try  to  lead  the  30.000  men  left  to  him  south- 
Federal  army,  which  was  now  concentrated  to-  ward.  He  abandoned  Richmond  and  Petersburg, 
ward  Gettysburg.  General  Stuart,  on  whom  which  were  occupied  by  the  Federals  on  April  3d  ^ 
Lee  depended  for  his  information  as  to  Federal  and  Lee,  pressing  on  to  Amelia  C>>urt  House,  found 
movements,  had  unskillfully  got  on  the  other  that  by  some  mistake  his  provisions  had  been 
side  of  ^feade  and  could  render  no  service.  On  sent  on  to  the  capital,  and  that  he  could  neither 
July  1st  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  began  by  an  un-  fight  nor  retreat  with  any  prospect  of  success, 
expected  collision  between  the  Federal  cavalry  On  April  9,  1865,  he  surrendered  to  General 
and  the  head  of  General  Hill's  column  moving  Grant  at  Appomattox  Court  House.  The  devo- 
from  Chambersburg  toward  Gettysburg.  It  re-  tion  of  Lee's  soldiers  to  their  leader  was  never 
suited  in  the  repulse  of  the  Federal  advance  and  more  strikingly  shown  than  at  the  surrender. 


77  JJSS. 

Lee  remained  in  Richmond  "until  June,  1866,  aua  of  Eoftant  Copies  (1902).    He  has  also  edited 

when  he  retired  to  a  quiet  country  place.     In  Lord  Bemer's  translation  of  Huon  of  Bordeauo 

October  of  the  same  year  he  was  installed  as  (1883-86)   and  the  Autobiography  of  Lord  Her- 

president  of  Washington  Colle^  at  Lexington,  bert  of  Cherbury  (1886).    In  1903  he  visited  the 

Va.,  now  Washington  and  Lee  University.  The  five  United  States,  lecturing  in  Boston  and  at  the 

years  of  his  service  were  marked  by  steady  re-  chief  universities, 
cuperation  from  the  utter  desolation  of  the  war. 


VKa      fAVThAV      Si/^firn      iwAa     T"I>«a«1      'wiTh      rknlir     TATn*%tf\-  X^.  .'.. 


era  commandew.  his  humane  conduct  throMh-  geminary  in  Bath,  which  waa  speedily  successful 

^    *^'*5'*'"i^  ^  '°'*n'il?"'lS.'I!i^  "*  ^^**,  through  her  abilities  as  a  teachw  and  the  charm 

continued 

The 

among 

t  o  1.    t  r>    r       /».T       VI     looov     wi  — '  ——  Specimens  of  historical  fiction  in  Eng- 

o,r,of  Roh^  B.  Lee  (New  York,  1886)  ;  Fit«-  ^^^  ^^^  ^^-^  j,er  tragedy  Almeyda,  Queen  If 

Hugh  Lee,  «o6er«  frz^  (New  York    18M),  in  o^elwdo,   was   played   with   Mrs    Siddons   and 

the    Great  Omimanders  Seriw;"  White.  ROtert  tharles  Kemble^n  the  cast,  but  proved  a  failure. 

E.  Lee  (New  York.  1897),  in  the  "Heroes  of  the  jj^,  best-known  work  was  done  in  collaboration 

Nations  Series ;"  and  a  sketch  by  Trent,  R^  ^.jt^  j^^^  ^j^j^^  Harriet  Lee  ( q.v. ) ,  to  whose  Can- 

E.  Lee  (Boston,  1899),  one  of  the  "Beacon  Biog-  ,g^j„^  y„j^  ^^^  contributed  two  stories  entitled 

™P"'**-                                              '  The  Young  Lady's   Tale  and   The  Clergyman't 

LBB,     Sahuel     (1783-1862).       An     English  Tale.     Her  other  works  include:    The  Uermift 

Orientalist.    He  was  born  at  Longnor,  in  Shrop-  Tale  (1787)  ;  The  Life  of  a  Lover  (1804)  ;  The 

shire,  and  graduated  at  Queen's  College,  Cam-  Assignation  (1807). 

bridge,  in  1817.     Two  years  afterwards  he  was  j^j.  ^f^J,Q^     xhe  nom-de-plume  of  the  Eng- 

t:r'^Z^';^^^ir^^r^7roTV^X  "»•»  -iter  Violet  Paget. 

1848;  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  was  rector  of  LEE,  Wiixiam  (  ?-c.l610).  An  English  stock- 
Barley,  Hertfordshire.  His  Orammar  of  the  ing-weaver,  bom  probably  in  Calverton,  Notting- 
Hebreto  Language  (1830);  his  Book  of  Job,  hamshire.  He  was  educated  at  Oxford,  took 
Translated  from  the  Original  Hebrevo  (1837) ;  orders,  and  afterwards  had  a  living  at  Calverton. 
his  Hebrew,  Chaldaic,  and  English  Lexicon  In  this  town  he  invented  his  stocking-frame, 
(1840)y  and  several  other  works  won  for  him  a  ond  started  a  small  manufactory.  There  was 
high  reputation.  some  interest  taken  in  the  invention  by  Queen 

LEE,  Samuel  Philips  (1812-97).  An  Ameri-  Elizabeth  and  James  I.,  but  they  were  too  con- 
can  naval  officer,  bom  in  Fairfax  County,  Va.  wrvative  to  consider  it  seriously,  and  Lee,  having 
He  entered  the  United  States  Navy  as  a  mid-  received  much  encouragement  from  Henry  IV., 
shipman  in  1826.  In  1862,  as  commander  of  the  w«nt  to  France  and  set  up  his  frames  at  Rouen. 
Oneida,  he  participated  in  the  capture  of  New  Here  he  worked  with  great  success.  After  his 
Orleans  by  Farragut  and  in  other  operations  on  death,  which  occurred  soon  after  the  assassina- 
the  Mississippi.  In  July  of  the  same  year  he  tion  of  Henry  IV.,  Lee's  workmen  returned  to 
was  commissioned  captain,  and  was  put  in  com-  England,  and  brought  the  valuable  invention 
mand  of  the  North  Atlantic  Blockading  Squad-  back  with  them. 

ron.    In  the  summer  of  1864  he  was  transferred  LEE,  William  (1737-95).    One  of  the  repre- 

to  the  command  of  the  Mississippi   Squadron,  aentatives  of  the  United  States  in  Europe  during 

He  was  commissioned  commodore  m   1866,  and  the  American  Revolution ;  the  fifth  son  of  Thomas 

rear-admiral  in  1870,  when  he  was  put  in  com-  Lee  and  the  brother  of  Richard  Henry  Lee,  Fran- 

mand  of  the  North  Atlantic  fleet.    He  retired  in  cis  Lightfoot  Lee,  and  Arthur  Lee.    He  was  bom 

1875.  in  Stratford,  Va.,  but  some  time  before  the  Revo- 

LEE,  Sidney  (1859—).    An  English  scholar,  lutionary  War  took  up  his  residence  as  a  mer- 

bom  in  London,  December  5,  1859.    He  was  edu-  chant  in  London,  where  he  acted  as  the  agent  of 

cated  at  the  City  of  London  School  and  Balliol  the  Colony  of  Virginia  for  a  time,  and  in  1773 

College,  Oxford.     In  1883  he  became  assistant  was  elected  sheriff  of  Middlesex.  -  He  was  an  ar- 

editor  of  the  Dictionary  of  National  Biography;  dent  partisan  of  Wilkes,  and  in  1775  was  elected 

and  on  the  retirement  of  Leslie  Stephen  (q.v.)  in  on  the  Wilkes  ticket  alderman  of  London,  which 

1891  he  was  appointed  editor-in-chief.    Under  his  position  he  held,  nominally,  until  January,  1780. 

supervision  appeared  the  last  thirty-seven  vol-  In  June,  1777,  he  joined  Thomas  Morris  in  super- 

umes.     To  the  great  work  he  contributed  eight  intending  the  mercantile  affairs  of  the   United 

hundred    and    twenty    articles,    or    three    vol-  States  at  Nantes,  and  for  a  time  had  virtually 

umes.     He  is  most  favorably  known  for  8trat'  entire  charge  of  the  commercial  interests  of  the 

/oftf-ofi--4i?on   from   the   Earliest    Times    to    the  United  States  in  France.     On  May  9,  1778,  he 

Death  of  Shakespeare    (1885;   new  ed.    1890);  was  appointed  by  Congress  a  commissioner  to  the 

a  concise  Life  of  Shakespeare   (1898;   abridged  courts  of  Vienna  and  Berlin,  but  remained  in 

for  the  use  of  students,  1900)  ;  A  Life  of  Queen  Paris  for  nearly  a  year  after  receiving  his  com- 

V%4Storia    (1002);   Facsimile  Reprint   of  Shake-  mission,   and   subsequently   lived    at    Frankfort, 

9peare*s  First  Folio  (1902) ;  and  his  Shakespeare  Germany,  but  accomplished  nothing.    In  Septem- 

First  Folio  Facsimile,  with  Introduction  and  Oen-  her,  1778,  he  drew  up,  with  Jan  Neufville,  an 


78 

AnMterdani  merduint,  a  commercial  treaty  which  ing  tnink^— one  dorsal,  one  ventral,  and  two  lat- 

was   indorsed   by  the   burgomaster   of  Amster-  eral — ^with  their  branches;    there  is  no   heart, 

dam,  and  which  later  served  as  a  pretext  for  The  blood  system  is  in  such  close  and  intimate  re- 

Ungland's  declaration  of  war  against  Holland,  lation  with  the  body-cavity  that  it  is  difficult  to 

In  June,  1779,  Lee  was  recalled  from  his  mis-  determine  accurately  the  limits  of  each.  The  a^a- 

sions,  both  of  which  had  been  unsuccessful.    He  tion  of  the  blood  takes  place  in  the  skin,  or  rarely 

iiied  at  Green  Spring,  Va.    Lee's  diplomatic  cor-  by  special  outgrowths  of  the  body-walls,  which 

resp<»idence,  together  with  a  brief  biographical  function  as  gills.  Leeches  are  oviparous,  and  each 

sketch,  may  be  found  in  Wharton    (^.>,  The  individual   is  hermaphroditic,   while  in  certain 

Xevolutionary  Diplomatic  Correspondence  of  the  allied  forms    (Histriobdella,  etc.)   the  sexes  are 

United  States  (Washington,  1889).  distinct.     The  eggs  are  laid  in  sacs,  or,  as  in 

IJBB,WiLiJAM  Little  (1821-67).    An  Ameri-  pl«I»ine,    the   .ftSh-leech,    are    covered    with    a 

ean  la^vyer.    He  was  bom  at  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y.;  transparent  fluid  substance  which  hardens  and 

studied  at  Norwich  University,  Vt,  and,  after  envelops  the  eggs.    Development  is  usually  direct, 

being  superintendent  of  a  military  academy  at  ^^  ^}\^^  ?  Jf  "^^™''?^''."^'  .*u*  T"^  ^^*^ 

Portemou^,  Va.,  also  at  the  Harvard  Law  School.  ^"^  ^he  adult.     When  f eedmg  the  leeches  pair 

His  practici  in  Troy,  N.  Y.,  was  interrupted  by  ""^^^  "^^  impr^ates  the  other  by  passmg  sper- 

threatening  consumption,  and  in  1846  he  started  m«toF*ores  through  the  i*enis  into  the  vagina. 

for  Oregon  by  sea,  but  was  delayed  at  Honolulu;  Simultaneous  mutual  fertilization  has  also  been 

undertook  several  suits  for  the  Government  and  ^f,"^*   They  have  small  eyes  (in  the  medici- 

was  made  Hawaiian  Chief  Justice  and  Chancellor.  5**  leech  ten)    which  appear  as  black  spots  on  the 

He  drew  up  a  new  constitution  and  civil  and  J?'^*^  "*i«  °*  ^he  segments  back  of  the  mouth, 

criminal  codes,  and  was  appointed  president  of  ^**^«^J^  *"  very  simple  «Bd  seem  to  be  merely 

the  commission  which  was  t^have  charge  of  the  modified  sense-papilla,  of  which  there  are  manv 


a  reciprocity  treaty  between  that  country  and  r"^'}?.  Macrohdella  valdriana  is  said  to  reach  a 
Hawaii  -^  "^  '  length  of  two  and  a  half  feet.  Some  are  very 
--.-.1_.  ..o,  ,  ,  ,  V  •  •  i-i-xL  slender,  while  others  are  broad  and  very  flat.  The 
LEECH  (AS  ((Fce,  leech,  physician,  Goth,  ^^lors  are  usually  duU  gray,  brown,  dark  green, 
likets,  OHG.  lAhht,  Idcht^  physician,  from  AS.  ^^j^^  jji^^jj^  ^  '^  '"  *  e  » 
lac.  medicine,  gift).  An  annelid  of  the  order  Leeches' frequently  change  their  skin;  and  one 
or  class  Hirudinea,  divided  into  a  number  ol  cause  of  the  gUat  mortality  so  often  experienced 
groups,  Hirudinidffi,  etc.,  some  of  which  contain  ^mong  leeches  kept  for  medicinal  use  is  the  want 
many  species.  They  are  mostly  inhabitants  of  ^^  *^tic  pUnts  in  the  vessels  conUining  them, 
tresh  waters,  although  some  live  m  grass,  etc.,  ^^  ^^ich  to  rub  themselves  for  aidln  this 
m  moist  places,  and  some  are  manne.  They  process,  and  for  getting  quit  of  the  slime  which 
are  most  common  m  warm  climates.  The  body  is  their  skins  exude.  Lee^h  aquaria  in  which  aqua- 
soft,  and  composed  of  segments  (e.g.  Pontobdel-  ^ic  plants  grow  are,  therefoVe,  much  more  favor- 
la)  hke  that  of  the  earth-worm,  but  not  fur-  ^ble  for  the  health  of  leeches  than  the  tanks  and 
nished  with  bristles,  except  m  one  genus,  to  aid  ^^^Is  formerly  in  use.  The  medicinal  leech 
in  progression  as  in  the  earth-worm ;  instead  of  (Eirudo  medicinalis)  is  a  European  species,  a 
which,  a  sucking-disk  at  each  extremity  enables  ^are  native  of  Great  Britain ;  leeches,  however, 
the  leech  to  avail  itself  of  its  power  of  elongating  are  generally  imported  from  Hamburg  and  from 
and  shortening  its  body,  by  means  of  which  it  the  south  of  Europe.  The  ancients  were  well  ac- 
moves  with  considerable  rapidity  The  external  quainted  with  leeches,  but  their  medicinal  use 
rings  (annuli)  which  show  m  the  body- wall  do  geemg  to  have  originated  in  the  Middle  Ages.  The 
not  correspond  to  the  inner  segments,  but  are  horse-leech  {Hwmopia  sanguisorha)  is  common  in 
much  more  numerous,  \^hlle  there  are  usually  Great  Britain;  it  is  much  larger  than  the  medi- 
??  "^SlSf"^*^®  number  of  rings  may  be  more  cinal  species,  but  its  teeth  are  comparatively 
than  200.  There  are,  at  the  middle  of  the  body,  ^lunt,  and  it  is  little  of  a  blood-sucker,  and 
3,  6,  «,  or  12  rings  to  each  segment  The  mouth  useless  for  medicinal  purposes.  In  many  parts 
IS  m  the  anterior  suckmg-disk.  The  mouth  of  of  India,  as  in  the  warm  vallevs  of  the  Him- 
many  of  the  specif  is  admirably  adapted  not  aiava,  the  moist  grass  swarms  with  leeches, 
only  for  killing  and  eating  the  minute  aquatic  gome  of  them  very  small,  but  very  trouble- 
animals  which  constitute  their  ordma^  food,  so^e  to  cattle  and  men  who  have  occasion  to 
but  for  making  little  wounds  m  the  higher  ani-  ^alk  through  the  grass.  The  moist  valleys  of 
mals  through  which  blood  may  be  sucked.  The  java.  Sumatra,  Chile,  and  other  tropical  countries 
mouth  of  the  medicinal  leech  has  three  small,  g^arm  with  land-leeches.  Many  species  of  leech 
white,  hard  pharyngeal  teeth,  minutely  serrated  are  found  in  the  United  States,  the  most  com- 
alofig  the  edges,  and  ciinred  so  as  to  form  little  ^^^  ^nes  belonging  to  the  genera  Xephelis  and 
semicircular  saws  provided  with  muscles  ^  Glossiphonia  (litter  known  as  aepsfne).  For 
ful  enough  to  work  them  with  great  effect  and  to  ^  synopsis  of  the  North  American  species,  con- 
produce  a  triradiate  wound,  i.e.  three  short,  deep  ^^^^'^   y^^^j^    invertebrate  Animals  of  Vineyard 


)mpartments,   some   of  which  have  '         "V^tJ;'   /\v«  Jr^^J"  iqqq/ 

large  lateral  c»k;  and  a  leech  which  has  once  *^"*^'  '^^-  ^'-  ( ^^  ashington,  1898). 

gorgpd  itself  with  blood  retains  a  store  for  a  very  LEECH,  John  (1817-04).    An  English  carica- 

lone  time,   little  changed,   in  these  receptacles,  turist.    He  was  born  in  Ix)ndon,  August  29,  1817, 

while  the  digestive  process  goes  slowly  on.    The»  and  was   educated   at  the  Charteniouse,   where 

circulatory  system  consists  of  four  great  pulsat-  he  formed  his  lifelong  friendship  with  Thackeray. 


79 


At  the  wish  of  his  father  he  studied  medicine 
At  Saint  Bartholomew's,  where  he  was  most  dis- 
tinguished for  his  anatomical  drawings,  a  talent 
which  he  turned  to  account  on  the  collapse  of  his 
father's  fortune.  In  art  he  was  practically  self- 
taught.  His  first  work,  "Etchings  and  Sketches 
by  A.  Pen,  £i»q."  (1835),  was  a  series  of  street 
characters,  drawn  on  stone.  After  this  appeared 
his  sketches  in  Bell's  Life  in  London,  After 
designing  for  various  magazines  and  executing 
several  series  of  plates  in  collaboration  with 
Percival  Leigh,  he  became  associated  with  Punch 
(1841).  His  sketches  for  Punch,  upon  which  his 
fame  chiefly  rests,  were  separately  published 
under  the  title  "Pictures  of  Life  and  Character" 
(1834-69) .  Among  the  works  which  he  illustrated 
were  Dickens's  Christmas  Stories  (1843-48), 
Comic  History  of  England  (1847-48),  and  its 
companion-piece,  Comic  History  of  Rome  (1852). 
In  1868  he  journeyed  through  Ireland,  the  out- 
come of  which  was  a  book  Little  Tour  in  Ireland, 
written  by  his  traveling  companion,  Dr.  Hole, 
which  he  illustrated.  He  also  designed  illustra- 
tions for  the  Illustrated  London  Sews,  Punch's 
Pocket  Book,  and  Once  a  Week.  He  died  at  Ken- 
sington  (London),  October  20,  1864. 

Leech  represents  the  transition  from  Cruik- 
shank  to  Dii  Maurier,  when  humorous  art  was 
progressing  from  the  coar%  and  boisterous  satire 
of  earlier  times  to  the  more  refined  forms  of  the 
present  day.  The  work  of  I>eech  was  more  refined 
than  that  of  Cruikshank,  although  he  had  as  keen 
an  eye  for  the  ridiculous,  and  his  caricatures 
were*  truer  to  life.  Consult  the  biographies  of 
Leech  by  Brown  (London,  1882)  and  Frith  (ib., 
1801 ) . 


(AS.  IcBce,  leech,  physician,  Goth. 
ICkeis,  OHO.  Uthhi,  l^chi,  physician,  from  lOc, 
medicine;  the  worm  is  so  called  from  its  medic- 
inal use).  The  application  of  leeches  for  the 
purpose  of  abstracting  blood.  This  method  of 
blood-letting  is  employed  in  medicine  in  place 
of  cupping  or  venesection  in  the  case  of  local 
inflammation  or  acute  congestion.  Having  at- 
tached itself  to  the  integument  by  means  of 
teeth  and  suction  apparatus,  the  leech  secretes 
a  liquid  which  preventa  the  blood  from  coagu- 
lating; and  hence  the  persistent  bleeding  in  some 
cases  after  &  leech  is  removed.  A  leech  is  most 
easily  applied  by  inserting  it  tail  end  first  in  a 
■mall,  narrow  bottle,  and  then  inverting  the  bottle 
against  the  skin,  and  letting  the  leech  slide  down. 
If  it  refuses  to  bite,  a  few  drops  of  sweetened 
milk  or  of  bloo^put  on  the  skin  will  overcome 
its  reluctance  ana  incite  it  to  attach  itself.  The 
leech  may  be  detached  by  sprinkling  salt  on  it. 
At  each  application  a  leech  ordinarily  takes  about 
one  drachm  of  blood.  It  may  be  made  to  disgorge 
hy  treating  it  with  salt,  or  by  stripping  it  gently 
from  tail  to  head.  Leech-bites  leave  deep  and 
permanent  though  small  scars.  Leeches  are  em- 
ployed in  cases  of  meningitis,  in  conjunctivitis,  in 
purulent  inflammation  of  the  external  ear,  and 
in  the  treatment  of  swollen  joints,  such  as  occur 
after  a  traumatism.  The  troublesome  bleeding 
which  follows  in  some  cases  is  treated  with  styp- 
tics, or  with  pressure  of  a  gauze  compress  over 
the  wound. 

The  use  of  leeches  is  not  cleanly  nor  aseptic, 
and  occasionally  infection  follows.  Hence  many 
prefer  to  employ  the  'artificial  leech,'  which  con- 
matM  of  a  tube  provided  with  a  piston  for  exhaust- 
ing the  sir  wi&in  it.    A  scarificator  having  first 


been  used,  the  margin  of  the  end  of  the  tube  is 
anointed  and  placed  firmly  against  tte  skim,  and 
the  air  exhausted.  Blood  passes  out  into  the 
tube.  The  best  'artificial  leech'  ie  that  devised 
by  Dench  of  New  York. 

LEECH  U^KE.  A  lake  in  Cass  County,, 
north  central  Minnesota  (Map:  Minnesota,  D  3). 
It  is  nearly  25  miles  long,  15  miles  broad,  and  liea 
at  an  elevation  of  1207  feet;  it  discharges  its 
waters  by  a  short  outlet  into  the  Mississippi. 
The  surrounding  country  is  well  timbered  and 
constitutes  the  Leech  Lake  Indian  Reservation. 

LEEDS.  A  town  in  the  northwest  of  the  West 
Riding  of  Yorkshire,  England,  in  the  valley  of  the 
Aire,  22  miles  west-southwest  of  York  (Map:  Eng- 
land, £  3) .  It  is  the' first  town  in  the  county  and 
the  fifth  in  England  in  point  of  population.  It 
lies  in  an  extensive  coal-field  and  in  a  productive 
agricultural  and  grazing  region.  The  Aire  River, 
which  has  been  open  for  navigation  since  1659, 
fiows  into  the  Humber,  and  affords  communica- 
tion with  the  sea  on  the  east;  to  the  west  water 
communication  is  aff'orded  by  the  Leeds  and  Liv- 
erpool Canal,  finished  in  1816.  The  railway  facili- 
ties are  exceptionally  fine.  The  notable  buildings, 
include  the  Church  of  Saint  Peter's,  a  noble  edi- 
fice; and  Saint  John's,  New  Briggate,  consecrated 
by  Archbishop  Neale  in  1634,  an  almost  unique 
example  of  a  'Laudian'  church  still  retaining  the 
original  fittings.  There  is  also  the  town  halU 
with  a  tower  225  feet  high.  Its  great  hall,  161 
feet  long,  72  feet  wide,  and  75  feet  high,  is  richly 
decorated,  and  contains  one  of  the  largest  and 
most  powerful  organs  in  Europe.  There  is  a 
colossal  statue  of  Queen  Victoria  in  the  vestibule, 
and  one  of  Wellington  in  the  front  of  the  build- 
ing. Kirkfltall  Abbey,  about  3  miles  from  Leeds^ 
v/r9  founded  between  1147  and  1153  by  Henry  de 
Lacie  for  the  Cistercian  Order  of  monks.  It  is 
a  fine  old  ruin,  remarkable  for  its  simple  gran- 
deur and  unity  of  design.  It  was  bought  by- 
Colonel  Xorth  and  presented  to  the  borough  in.. 
1888.  Adel  Church,  about  four  miles  from  Leeds,, 
is  an  interesting  building,  erected  in  1140.  Near 
it  was  a  Roman  station  where  antiquities  have 
been  found.  There  are  many  charitable  institu- 
tions, among  which  are  the  Harrison  almshouses, 
the  fever  and  smallpox  hospitals  of  the  munici- 
pality, an  excellent  infirmary,  etc.  The  York- 
shire College,  afliliated  with  the  Victoria  Uni- 
versity, has  several  fine  college  buildings,  with 
well-equipped  departments  of  chemistry,  engi- 
neering, biology,  art,  and  technical  training,  as 
well  as  a  medical  department,  which  is  located 
near  the  Leeds  Infirmary.  The  public  recrea- 
tion grounds,  owned  by  the  corporation,  are 
Woodhouse  Moor,  Hunslet  Moor,  Ivy  House  Es- 
tate, East  End  Park,  and  Armley  Park.  Round - 
hay  Park,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  demesnes  in 
England,  at  a  distance  of  2  miles  from  Leeds,, 
was  bought  by  the  corporation  of  the  town  in 
1872  for  £140.000,  and  converted  into  a  recrea- 
tion-ground for  the  use  of  the  public.  The  muni- 
cipal activity  of  the  City  Council  is  indicated 
by  65  committees,  comprising  15  standing  com- 
mittees, 40  sub-committees,  and  8  sections.  The 
borough  is  divided  into  16  wards,  and  is  gov- 
erned by  a  mayor,  16  aldermen,  and  48  councilors. 
The  municipality  o%vns  fish,  cattle,  fruit,  and  com 
markets,  gas  and  water  works,  and  electric 
lighting  plant,  tramways,  baths,  free  libraries^ 
and  cemeteries ;  subsidizes  institutions  for  techni- 


LEEDS.  80  IiEEUWABDEir. 

cal  education;  and  maintains  a  fire  brigade,  an  was  granted  by  King  John  in  1208.  Populatian, 
eflfective  police  force,  and  bands  of  music  for  the  in  1891,  14,128;  in  1001,  15,500. 
summer  season.  It  provides  garden-lots  for  arti-  lEEK  (AS.  l^c,  OHG.  louh,  Ger.  Lauch; 
sans  and  other  people  of  small  means,  and  has  possibly  connected  with  Olr.  lusa,  plant),  Allium 
modern  sewage-works  for  convertmg  the  refuse  ^rum,  A  biennial  plant  of  the  order  Liliaceas, 
mto  fertiUzers.  .  .v  «  ...  ^  ,  a  native  of  the  south  of  Europe.  It  is  closely 
Leeds  is  the  great  centre  of  the  British  woolen  elated  to  the  onion,  but  instead  of  a  bulb  has 
trade.  Among  the  staple  manufactures  are  ^  ^^^^^  thickening  at  the  base  of  the  stem  which 
fine  broadcloths,  army  clothmg,  and  fancy  cloths  ^ay  reach  a  heiSit  of  3  feet.  The  leaves  are 
sent  from  neighboring  towns  to  be  finished  in  ^^^^^  ^^  j^^jj  ^^^^  ^nd  a  foot  or  more  long;  the 
I^ds.  There  are  also  important  manufactures  f^^y^^^j^  j^  ^  large  and  very  dense  terminal  globu- 
of  felt  carpeting  and  drugget.  The  iron  industry  ^r  umbel,  which  is  not  bulbiferous.  The  leek 
includes  the  smelting  of  ore,  founding,  and  the  ^^^  ^^^  j  j^  cultivation,  and  some  of  the  vari- 
manufacture  of  machinery,  engines,  agricultural  ^^5^^  exhibit  the  effects  of  cultivation  in  greatly 
implements,  etc  There  are  extensive  manufac-  increased  size  and  delicacy.  The  lower  part  of 
tures  of  fine  decorative  earthenware  leather,  ^^^  ^^  before  it  has  run  up  into  a  flower- 
shoes,  ready-made  clothing,  chemicals,  Aax,  sillw,  ^^j^  blanched  by  earthing  up  or  other  means 
glass,  railway  cars,  tobacco  paper  fire-brick,  ^j^j^^  ^^^  induce  it  to  swell  and  extend,  is  much 
etc.  The  estimated  annual  value  of  Leed's  prod-  ^«i.^^^j  i„  Tr„*«,.«  *«,  »»i;n<,«^,  «,i,.««aio  K«f  in 
ucts  is  $55,000,000.  esteemed  m  Europe  for  culinary  purposes,  but  in 

ProbaWv  named  after  a  British  chief  Lede  or  A™«'»<^»  ^^s   "^^  become    widely   popular.      Its 

T^^    ^^  ^  ^     f ;    i^  xLf  -  f    I  flavor  is  much  milder  than  that  of  the  onion.    It 

Lcod,  in  Saxon  times  Leeds  was  an  important  .  n  j  .-      .^   1  j  .-:«.• 

cent^,  and  ie  called  Loide8-in-Elmeto  by  Bede.  "  «f  "ally  ^^y^  "F'-K.  a-d  is  used  during 

Ito  charters,  the  first  dating  from  12oi  were  JJ'I./''"''?'':*  *"'.*,*'^- n"i'*'""^V"  f,"^i^"J 

granted  in  the  reigns  of  Kfugs  John,  Charles  l>«ht  and  dry  so  1.    Gardeners  often  transplant 

I.,  Charles  II.,  and  James  II.    It  was  made  a  city  ^^l'"?  ^'^^  »°t**«<l  "*  "^"fi^  i'"u"',^„^"t  It 

in  1893,  and  sends  five  members  to  Parliament  ?"K«.°".\  "^''-  ,.^,  8«"«™'-  i^*  J"*"^  "f  Jf  ^ 

At  her  Jubilee,  in  1897,  Queen  Victoria  created  i»«r  Vb^  p-1 '  tc"  ' 

the  chief  magistrate  Lord  Mayor.     Population,  ^^^*"*^*'»  yji.oM.MUk  ^.x^^^x, 

in  1801,  53,200;   in  1851,  172.300;   in  1891,  367,-        LEEB,  lAr.    A  town  of  East  Friesland,  in  the 

500;     in    1901,    429,Q00.      Consult:      Thoresby,  Province  of  Hanover,  Prus-sia,  50  miles  by  rail 

Ducatus  Leodiensia    (Leeds,    1715) ;     Whitaker,  west-northwest  of  Oldenburg,  on  the  right  bank 

Loidis  and  Elmeie  (Leeds,  1816)  ;    Baines,  Hia-  of  the  Leda,  near   its   junction  with  the   Ems 

ioric  Sketch  of  Leeds   (Leeds,  1822);    Jackson,  (Map:    Prussia,  B  2).     It  is  an  important  in- 

Ouidis  to  Leeds  (Leeds,  1889)  ;    Kidson,  Histori-  dustrial  town,  with  manufactures  of  machinery, 

cal  Xotices  of  the  Leeds  Potteries  (Leeds,  1892).  cigars,  tobacco,  etc.,  breweries,  distilleries,  iron- 

LEEDS,  Duke  of.    See  Danbt,  Thomas  Os-  ^o^nd"««;  ^^^  ship-building  yards.     It  carries 

BORNE   Eabl  of  ,  on  an  extensive  foreign  trade  in  gram,  groceries, 

▼^•nn-Tkcs  'mm"rra'rr% a -r  -BTBiani-rvr  at      r\-      *  xv  auimal  aud  dairy  products,  and  in  its  own  manu- 

I^EDS  MUSICAL  FESTIVAL.    One  of  the  f^^tures.     Population,  in  1890,  11,075;  in  1900, 

minor  musical  festivals  of  England.     The  first  i2,302.     Leer  is  believed  to  be  one  of  the  oldest 

festival  was  held  m  1767,  to  raise  funds  for  the  ^^^^s  of  the  province,  although  it  obtained  muni- 

city  hospital  which  had  been  inaugurated  in  that  ^ipal  rights  only  in  1823. 

year.    The  next  festival  was  held  in  18o8,  m  the        •««««*»,«»  J^      *  .  ,    ,  j.    * 

new  Town  Hall,  immediately  after  its  opening  by  ^  LEES'BTTBO.    A  town  and  the  county-seat  of 

Queen  Victoria.     Another  festival  was  held  in  Loudoun    County,    Va.,    38   miles   northwest   of 

1874  and  again  in   1877,  since  when  they  have  ^lexandria;     on   the   Southern  Railway    (Map: 

been  given  triennially  and  the  proceeds  devoted  Virginia,  G  2).     It  is  the  centre  of  a  rich  agn- 

to  the  city  hospital.  cultural,  stock-raising,  and  dairying  region,  and 

LEE-HAMILTON,   Eugene    (1845-).     An  *'*^n^''?'%"*°"/^*'i'"^*-     ^^P"^**^*^^'   ^^   ^^^^' 

English  poet,  bom  in  London.    He  was  educated  ^^^^'   *"  ^^^'  ^^''*- 

in  France,  Germany,  and  at  Oxford ;   entered  dip-        LEETE,    William    (c.  1603-83).      A    colonial 

lomatic  service,  took  part  in  the  Alabama  arbi-  Governor  of  Connecticut.    He.  was  bom  in  Eng- 

tration  at  Geneva,  and  was  secretary  of  the  lega-  land,  where  he  studied  law  and  served  for  a  time 

tion  at  Lisbon.    His  health  failing,  he  retired  to  in  the  Bishop's  Court  at  Cambridge.   He  turned 

Italy,  where  he  lived  with  his  half-sister,  Violet  Puritan;  emigrated  to  America  in  1637;  settled 

Paget  (q.v.).  Among  his  volumes  are  Poems  and  in  the  New  Haven  Colony  in  1639;  and  was  one 

Transcripts      (1878)  ;       Apollo     and     Marsyas  of  the  founders  of  Guilford  and  a  'pillar  of  the 

(1884);  Imaginary  Sonnets  (1888);    The  Foun-  church'  there.     He  served  as  Deputy  Govemor 

tain  of  Youth,  a  Fantastic  Tragedy  in  Five  Acts  of  New  Haven  from  1658  to  1661,  and  then  as 

(1891)  ;    Sonnets  of  the  Wingless  Hours  (1894)  ;  Govemor  until  the  Colony  was  united  with  Con- 

Forest    Notes     (1899);    and    a    translation    of  necticut  under  the  royal  charter  of  1662.     He 

Dante's  Inferno   (1898).  is  said  to  have  harbored  the  regicides  Goffe  and 

LEEK.     A  manufacturing  and  market  town  ^Y^a"ey,  and  he  certainly  evaded  the  demands 

in  Staffordshire,  England,  24  miles  northeast  of  2^  *'^®  ^57*^  emissaries  for  their  arrest.    He  was 

Stafford    (Map:     England,   E    3).      The   parish  peputy  Govemor  of  the  united  Colony  from  1669 

church   dates   from    1180.     The   to^^-n   contains  *<*  ^^^^^  »°<^  ^**  ^^®^  Govemor  until  his  death, 
numerous    educational    and    benevolent    institu-        LEE0WABDEN,  Ift'vSr^den.    A  town  of  the 

tions.     It  has  manufactures  of  silk  goods  and  Netherlands,  capital  of  the  Province  of  Friesland, 

agricultural  implements.     It  owns  the  gas  and  in  a  rich  and  extensive  plain,  on  the  Harlingen 

water  works,  markets,  cemetery,  and  public  baths,  and  Groningen  Canal,  16  miles  east-northeast  of 

and  maintains  an  isolation  hospital,   public  li-  Harlingen   (Map:    Netherlands,  D  1).     Numer- 

brary,  and  technical  school.    The  town  charter  ous  canals   intersect  the   town,   its  streets  are 


LEETJWASDEN. 


81 


straight,  and  walks  have  been  laid  out  on  the 
site  of  the  former  fortifications.  Leeuwarden  has 
a  handsome  town  hall  and  an  ancient  palace  of 
the  Stadtholder  of  Friesland.  There  are  several 
learned  societies,  among  them  the  Frisian  Soci- 
ety for  the  study  of  history,  antiquities,  and  lan- 
guage, which  possesses  an  interesting  museum. 
The  town  has  several  libraries.  The  Gothic  chan- 
cery of  the  sixteenth  century  was  formerly  the 
seat  of  the  law  court  for  Friesland.  The  indus- 
tries include  the  manufacture  of  gold  and  silver 
ware,  musical  instruments,  and  mirrors.  The 
town  is  a  large  fruit  and  beef  market,  and  trades 
in  flax,  chicory,  woolen  goods,  groceries,  wines, 
and  brandy.  Population,  in  1892,  30,689;  in 
1900,  32,162.  Leeuwarden  was  a  walled  town  as 
early  as  1190,  and  till  the  end  of  the  thirteenth 
century  was  a  port  on  a  bay  called  the  Borndiep, 
which  the  drifting  sand  gradually  filled  up. 

LEEXTWENHOEX,  lft'ven-h(55k,  Antonius 
VAN  (1632-1723).  A  Dutch  naturalist,  born  at 
Delft.  He  did  not  receive  a  learned  education, 
but  he  was  a  man  of  means  who  devoted  himself 
to  the  manufacture  of  lenses  and  to  the  investiga- 
tion of  microscopic  forms  of  life,  without, 'how- 
ever, following  any  scientific  plan  of  procedure. 
He  discovered  and  identified  the  red  corpuscles  of 
the  blood,  described  striated  muscle-fibres,  and 
demonstrated  the  circulation  of  the  blood  in  the 
capillaries.  He  was  also  the  first  to  find  Hydra, 
Infusoria,  and  rotifers,  many  species  of  which  he 
described.  Spermatozoa  (q.v.)  were  first  seen  by 
his  pupil  Ludwig  Hamm.  Leeuwenhoek  studied 
the  anatomy  of  many  insects  and  observed  the 
parthenogenetic  reproduction  of  aphides.  He  dis- 
proved many  cases  of  supposed  spontaneous  gen- 
eration among  animals.  Most  of  Leeuwenhoek's 
writings  were  published  in  London  in  the  Philo- 
sophical Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society,  and 
in  the  M4moires  of  the  Paris  Academy.  His 
works  were  published  in  Leyden,  under  the  title 
Opera  Omnia,  sive  Arcana  Natures  Ope  Exactis- 
simorum  Microscopiorum  Detecta    (1724). 

LEETJWIN,  107/In,  Cape.  The  southwest  ex- 
tremity of  Australia,  marked  bv  a  first-class 
lighthouse,  visible  at  20  miles  (Map:  Australia, 
A  5).  It  was  first  sighted,  in  1622,  from  the 
Leeuwin,  a  Dutch  vessel. 

LEEWABD,  IcR/^rd,  ISLANDS.  A  part  of 
the  West  India  group.  The  name  has  four  dis- 
tinct applications :  geographically,  it  is  sometimes 
used  in  reference  to  the  Greater  Antilles  and 
adjacent  islands,  sometimes  to  the  islands  off  the 
Venezuelan  coast  west  of  Trinidad  (these  were  the 
Leeward  Islands  of  the  Spaniards),  and  some- 
times to  the  islands  lying  between  the  Virgin 
group  and  Martinique  (in  the  first  two  cases 
the  name  was  used  to  denote  islands  not  directly 
exposed  to  the  trade  winds)  ;  politically,  the 
name  is  applied  to  9'  British  colony  erected  in 
1871  and  consisting  of  Antigua,  Montserrat, 
Saint  Christopher  and  Nevis,  a  part  of  the 
Virgin  group,  Dominica,  and  their  dependencies. 
The  area  of  the  colony  is  about  700  square  miles ; 
population,  in  1901,  127,434,  of  whom  about  95 
per  cent,  were  negroes  and  colored  persons.  See 
articles  on  the  islands  named  above. 


When  a  ship  is  steering  in  any 
direction,  and  a  strong  wind  is  blowing,  so  as 
to  make  an  acute  angle  with  the  direction  of  the 
ship,  the  ship's  actual  course  is  the  resultant  of 


two  forces,  one  represented  by  her  headway  (or 
locomotive  power ) ,  the  other  by  the  force  urging 
her  in  the  direction  of  the  wind.  This  resultant 
must  be  somewhat  between  the  two;  and,  with 
the  same  power  of  wind,  the  angle  between  the 
direction  in  which  the  ship  is  steering  and  the 
resultant  will  be  great  or  small  as  the  headway 
is  diminished  or  increased.  This  angle  repre- 
sents the  leeway;  and  the  distance  lost  to  lee- 
ward is  shown  by  the  side  of  the  triangle  sub- 
tending this  angle.  In  computations  of  the  course 
pursued,  allowance  has  to  be  made  for  leeway. 

LEFANXJ,  Ic-fa-nS?/,  Joseph  Sheridan  (1814- 
73).  An  Irish  novelist  and  journalist,  born  in 
Dublin.  He  was  educated  at  Trinity  College, 
Dublin ;  joined  the  staff  of  the  Dublin  University 
Magazine  ( 1837),  and  was  its  editor  and  proprie- 
tor from  1839  till  1872;  purchased  three  Dublin 
papers,  and  united  them  in  the  Evening  Mail 
( 1839 )  ;  and  wrote  several  capital  Irish  novels. 
Of  his  novels  the  bea^  is  Uncle  Silas  (1864). 
He  wrote  two  fine  Irish  ballads,  "Phaudhrig 
Croohoore"  and  "Shamus  O'Brien."  His  Pur- 
cell  Papers,  a  series  of  Irish  stories,  were  edited 
with  a  memoir  by  A.  P.  Graves  (London,  1880). 

LEFEBTJHE-W^Y,  Ic-fft'bur'  vft'15',  Louis 
James  Alfred  (1817-69).  A  French  organist 
and  composer,  bom  in  Paris.  When  only  fifteen 
years  old  he  succeeded  his  father  as  organist  at 
Saint  Roch.  In  1832  he  entered  the  Conserva- 
tory, and  in  1834  won  two  second,  and  the  next 
year  two  first  prizes.  He  further  studied  compo- 
sition, counterpoint,  and  the  organ  withHal^vy, 
Berton,  Adam,  and  S^jan.  From  1847  to  1858  he 
was  organist  at  the  Madeleine,  and,  from  1863  to 
his  death,  at  Saint  Sulpice.  In  1850  he  received 
the  decoration  of  the  Legion  of  Honor.  As  an 
organist  he  was  especially  famous  for  his  won- 
derful improvisation.  His  piano  compositions 
were  popular,  but  his  organ  pieces,  "Cantiques," 
and  "Oflfertoires"  are  superior.  He  also  wrote  an 
op^ra  comique,  Les  recruteurs  ( 1861 ) ,  symphonies 
for  orchestra,  chamber-music,  and  masses. 

LEFEBVBEy  le-fe^vr*,  FBAN901S  Joseph, 
Duke  of  Denzig  ( 1755-1820 ) .  A  marshal  of  France. 
He  was  born  at  Ruff'ach,  in  Alsace,  entered  the 
army  at  eighteen,  and  was  a  sergeant  in  the 
French  Guards  when  the  Revolution  broke  out. 
He  rose  rapidly  in  rank.  Hoche  in  1793  made 
him  brigadier-general,  and  the  next  year  general 
of  division.  He  fought  at  Fleurus,  and  along 
the  Rhine  from  1794  to  1797.  In  that  year  he 
was  commander-in-chief  of  all  the  French  armies 
for  a  few  months  after  the  death  of  Hoche.  He 
took  part  with  Bonaparte  in  the  coup-d'^tat  of 
1709,  and  in  1804  was  made  a  marshal  of  the 
Empire.  He  distinguished  himself  in  the  war 
against  Prussia  in  1806-07.  He  conducted  the 
siege  of  Danzig,  and  after  its  capture  was 
created  Duke  of  Danzig.  He  won  fresh  laurels 
in  the  campaign  in  Spain  in  1808,  especially  by 
his  capture  of  Bilbao  and  Segovia.  In  1809  he 
was  present  at  Eckmtthl  and  Wagram,  and  put 
down  the  insurrection  in  the  Tyrol.  During  the 
Russian  campaign  he  had  the  command  01  the 
Imperial  Guard,  and  in  1814  fought  valiantly 
against  the  Allies  in  France.  Submitting  to 
the  Bourbons  after  Napoleon's  abdication,  he 
was  made  a  peer. 

LEFEBVBE,  Jxtleb  Joseph  (1834 — ).  A 
French     historical    and    portrait    painter.     He 


82 


was  bom  at  Touman,  Seine-et-Mame.  A  pupil 
of  L^n  Cogniet,  he  won  the  Prix  de  Rome 
in  1861  with  the  ''Death  of  Priam."  He  is  a 
rival  of  Henner  in  painting  beautiful  women; 
but,  however  delicate  in  finiah,  his  manner  has 
an  almost  classic  simplicity.  His  drawing  is  cor- 
rect and  his  knowledge  of  form  is  complete,  but 
his  treatment  is  smooth,  and  he  represents  the 
academic  tendencies  of  to-day.  His  works  con- 
sist mostly  of  single  figures.  He  sent  from  Rome 
"Caritas  Romana''  (1864);  "Sleeping  Maiden" 
(1865) ;  "NymphwiththeInfantBacchus"(1866), 
now  in  the  Luxembourg.  He  created  a  great  sen- 
sation with  his  "Reclining  Woman"  (1868), and 
with  the  allegory  of  "Truth"  (1870),  a  nude 
woman  holding  aloft  a  mirror,  probably  the  best 
known  of  his  works,  and  now  in  the  Luxembourg. 
His  other  works  include:  the  "Grasshopper" 
(1878) ;  "Graziella"(1878),  in  the  Metropolitan 
Museum,  New  York;  "Slave  Carrying  Fruit" 
(1874),  Ghent  Museum ;  "Chloe"  (1875); 
"Pandora"  (1877) ;  "La  Fiametta"  (1881),  from 
Boccaccio;  "Psyche"  (1883);  "Lady  Godiva" 
(1890);  "A  Daughter  of  Eve"  (1892).  Among 
his  portraits  were  those  of  M.  L.  Raynaud  and 
the  Prince  Imperial  (1874).  He  obtained  medals 
in  1865, 1868,  and  1870,  and  a  first-class  medal  at 
the  Paris  Exhibition  of  1878.  He  was  decorated 
with  the  cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1870, 
made  an  officer  in  1878,  and  member  of  the 
Academic  des  Beaux- Arts  in  1891. 

LEFEBVBE-DESirOIJETTES,  le  fft'vr'-dfl'- 
nOS'et',  Charles,  Count  (1773-1822).  A  French 
general,  born  in  Paris.  He  entered  the  French 
army,  serving  in  Belgium  in  1792,  and  after- 
wards as  aide-de-camp  to  Napoleon  at  Marengo. 
He  distinguished  himself  at  Austerlitz;  was 
made  brigadier,  and  in  1808  general  of  division. 
At  the  siege  of  Saragoesa  he  was  taken  prisoner 
by  the  English,  but  escaped  from  England  and 
took  part  in  the  Austrian,  Russian,  and  Prus- 
sian campaigns,  and  fought  in  France  against 
the  Allies  in  1814.  He  was  made  a  peer  by  Na- 
poleon in  1815,  and  was  at  Fleurus  and  Water- 
loo. Condemned  to  death  by  the  Bourbons,  he 
escaped  to  the  United  States,  and  attempted  to 
establish  a  colony  of  French  refugees  in  Ala- 
bama. Despondent  and  homesick,  he  obtained 
permission  to  return  to  France,  set  out  joyfully, 
and  was  drowned  off  the  coast  of  Ireland. 

IiEFilVBB,  le'fg'vr',  FAVBE,  fa'vr',  or  FA- 
BEB,  ik'bfiT^,  Pierre  (1506-46).  One  of  the  six 
coadjutors  of  Loyola  in  the  establishment  of  the 
Order  of  Jesuits.  He  was  born  at  Villaret,  in 
Savoy.  He  came  of  a  peasant  family,  and  was 
educated  at  the  College  of  Sainte-Barbe  in  Paris, 
where  he  became  Loyola's  tutor  and  closest 
friend.  With  five  others  he  laid  the  foundations 
of  the  Order  at  Montmartre,  August  15,  1534. 
Leffevre  received  the  appointment  of  professor 
of  theology  in  the  CoUegio  di  Sapienza  in  Rome 
in  1537,  and  the  next  year  was  sent  to  Parma  on 
a  special  mission  for  the  reformation  of  the  dio- 
cese. He  visited  Germany  in  1541,  when  he  dis- 
puted with  the  Reformers  at  Ratisbon,  and  again 
in  1544,  when  he  founded  the  Jesuit  College  at 
Cologne.  He  established  the  Jesuit  colleges  at 
Coimbra.  Madrid,  Valladolid,  and  Valencia.  He 
died  in  1546,  when  on  his  way  to  join  the  Coxm- 
cil  of  Trent.  After  his  death  he  was  canonized. 
Lefftvre  was  a  man  of  ^reat  eamestneBS,  learning, 
and  eloquence,  kindly  in  nature  and  pure  in  life. 


LS  FkVBXD'ESTAPLES,  d«'t&'pl',  Jacqxtss, 
See  Fabkb,  Jacqubs  Lb  Fevu  d'Estaflbs. 


I,  Mabbhaxx  (1821-76).  An 
American  engineer,  bom  at  Bedford,  Long  Island. 
After  a  common-school  education  he  became 
a  clerk,  then  a  civil  engineer,  and  then  went 
into  business.  For  eleven  years  ( 1849-60)  he  waa 
assoeiated  with  different  telegraph  companies. 
He  patented  an  automatic  svstem  of  telegraphic 
transmission,  became  electrical  engineer  of  the 
American  Telegraph  Company,  and  consulting 
engineer  of  the  Atlantic  Cable  Company,  for 
which  he  made  valuable  inventions.  In  1861  he 
went  South  in  command  of  the  Seventh  Regi- 
ment; was  called  out  again  in  1862  and  in  1863; 
and  was  on  duty  in  New  York  City  during  the 
draft  riots  of  July,  1863.  In  1867  he  resigned 
his  ofiiee  with  the  Western  Union  (formerly  the 
American)  Telegraph  Company,  and  became  in- 
terested in  its  commercial  news  department. 
Two  years  later  he  became  president  of  the 
Gold  and  Stock  Telegraph  Company,  and  in 
1871  took  control  of  the  commercial  news  de- 
partment after  its  purchase  by  this  company. 

LtiFKOSIA,  lM'k5-B^a.     See  Nicosia. 

US  FIi6,  le  flo,  Adolfhe  Charles  Emmaxuel 
(1804-87).  A  French  soldier  and  politician.  He 
was  bom  at  Lesneven;  was  educated  at  the 
Military  School  of  vSaint-Cyr;  and  in  1830  joined 
the  French  army  in  the  Algerian  campaign.  In 
1848  he  was  promoted  to  be  brigadier-general. 
In  the  same  year  he  was  sent  as  Ambassador  to 
Russia,  whence  he  returned  in  1849  and  became 
a  member  of  the  National  Assembly.  He  was  at 
first  an  adherent  of  Louis  Napoleon,  but  finally 
opposed  his  designs,  and  was  among  those  whom 
the  coup-d'^tat  of  1851  drove  into  exile.  Return- 
ing to  France  in  1857,  he  lived  in  retirement  until 
after  the  fall  of  Napoleon.  During  the  German 
War  of  1870-71  he  was  for  a  short  time  Minister 
of  War,  and  at  its  close  was  appointed  by  Thiers 
to  fill  the  same  office.  He  soon  resigned  and  was 
Ambassador  to  Russia  from  1871  to  1879. 

LEFOBT,  le-fOr',  FBAN90IS  (1653  or  1656- 
99).  A  Russian  admiral  and  statesman,  born 
and  educated  at  Geneva.  After  sefving  for  some 
time  in  the  French  and  Dutch  navies,  he  entered 
the  Russian  Army,  and  distinguished  himself 
against  the  Turks  and  Tatars.  He  took  an  active 
part  in  the  intrigues  which  made  Peter  the  Great 
the  sole  ruler  of  Russia.  Peter  never  forgot 
Lefort.  who  became  his  favorite  and  devoted 
servant,  and  next  to  the  Czar  the  most  important 
personage  in  Russia.  He  was  a  man  of  great 
aeuteness  and  ability,  and  with  Patrick  Gordon 
became  a  great  force  for  occidental  civilization 
in  Russia.  He  remodeled  the  Russian  Army  and 
laid  the  foundation  of  the  Russian  Navy.  In  1694 
he  was  made  admiral  and  generalissimo.  When 
Peter  the  Great  visited  foreign  countries  in  1697 
Lefort  was  the  chief  of  the  embassy,  in  the  train 
of  which  the  Czar  traveled  incognito. 

UBHTBL,  le-fw6K,  HBcrc«  Martin  (1810-81). 
A  French  architect,  bom  at  Versailles.  He  re- 
ceived instruction  from  his  father  and  Huyot 
before  he  entered  the  Ecole  des  Beaux-Arts, 
where  he  won  the  Prix  de  Rome  in  1839.  His 
principal  works  were  the  buildings  connecting  the 
Louvre  with  the  Tuileries.  He  succeeded  Vis- 
conti  (1854)  as  architect  for  this  important 
structure^   and  aonMwhat  modified   hia   plana» 


88 


LEGACY. 


He  wftB  elected  a  member  of  the  Institute  in  concavity  outward,  so  that  the  knees  are  ap» 

1856.     Other  works  of  Lefuel  are  the  national  proximated  and  may  even  touch.     The  cause  is 

porcelain   factories   at   Sevres   and   the   theatre  generally  rickets,  and  the  remedy  is  the  same  as 

m  the  ChAteau  of  Fontainebleau.  in  bow-leg. 


LEG  (from  Olcel.  leggr,  legi  Dan.  keg,  Swed. 
lag^  calf  of  the  leg) .  That  part  of  the  lower  ex- 
tremity which  lies  between  the  knee  and  the 
ankle.  It  consists  of  two  bones,  the  tibia  and 
fibula  (see  Skeletoit,  Foot),  and  of  masses  of 
muscles  (together  with  -nerves  and  vessels) 
which  are  held  in  their  position  by  coverings  of 
fascia,  and  are  enveloped  in  the  general  integu- 
ment. 

The  shaft  of  the  tibia  is  of  a  triangular  pris- 
moid  form,  and  presents  three  surfaces  and  three 
borders.  The  internal  surface  is  smooth,  convex, 
and  broader  above  than  below;  except  at  its 
upper  third,  it  lies  directly  under  the  skin,  and 
may  be  readily  traced  by  the  hand.  The  exter- 
nal and  the  posterior  surfaces  are  covered  by 
numerous  muscles.  The  muscular  mass  forming 
the  calf  (formed  by  the  gastrocnemius,  soleus, 
and  plantaris  muscles)  is  peculiar  to  roan,  and 
is  directly  connected  with  his  erect  attitude  and 
his  ordinary  mode  of  progression.  The  anterior 
border  of  th^  tibia,  the  most  prominent  of  the 
three,  is  popularly  knoM*n  as  the  shin,  and  may 
be  traced  down  to  the  inner  ankle.  The  fibula,  or 
small  bone  of  the  leg,  lies  on  the  outer  surface  of 
the  tibia,  and  articulates  with  its  upper  and  lower 
extremities,  and  with  the  astragalus  inferiorly. 
It  affords  attachments  to  many  of  the  muscles 
of  this  region.  The  region  is  nourished  by  the 
anterior  and  posterior  tibial  arteries,  into  which 
the  popliteal  artery  separates.  Both  these  ar- 
teries occasionally  require  to  be  tied  by  the  sur- 
geon in  cases  of  wounds  or  aneurism.  The  blood 
is  returned  toward  the  heart  by  two  sets  of 
veins — the  deep,  which  accompany  the  arteries, 
and  the  superficial,  which  are  known  as  the  inter- 
nal or  long  saphenous,  and  the  external  or  short ' 
saphenous  veins.  These  superficial  veins  are 
very  liable  to  become  permanently  dilated  or 
varicose  (a  condition  the  nature  and  treatment 
of  which  are  considered  in  the  article  Varicx)8B 
Veins),  if  there  is  any  impediment  to  the  free 
transmission  of  the  blood,  or  even  from  the  mere 
weight  of  the  ascending  column  of  blood,  in  per- 
sons whose  occupation  requires  continuous  stand 
ing.  The  nerves  of  the  leg,  both  sensory  and  mo- 
tor, are  derived  from  the  great  sciatic  nerve  and 
from  its  terminal  branches,  the  internal  popliteal 
and  the  external  popliteal  or  peroneal  nerve.  In 
cases  of  fracture  or  broken  leg,  the  two  bones  are 
more  frequently  broken  together  than  singly,  and 
the  most  common  situation  is  at  the  lower  third. 
The  tibia  is  more  liable  to  fracture  than  the 
fibula,  in  consequence  of  its  sustaining  the  whole 
weight  of  the  body,  while  the  fibula  has  nothing 
to  support. 

Bandt-Leo,  or  Bow-Lec  This  is  a  condition 
in  which  the  curve  of  the  tibia  is  increased  and 
the  1^  is  bowed  with  the  concavity  inward.  It 
is  due  to  allowing  a  child  to  walk  too  early,  or  to 
rickets  (q.y.),  or  rarely  to  muscular  contraction 
before  the  child  is  put  on  his  feet.  The  condition 
may  be  remedied  by  means  of  a  surgical  opera- 
tion, in  which  the  outer  condyle  of  the  femur 
is  cut  off  in  a  slanting  line,  and  the  limb 
aligned,  after  which  the  condyle  is  allowed  to 
knit  to  the  femur  in  its  new  position. 

Kkock-Knes.  This  is  a  condition  in  which 
the  cnrve  of  each  leg  is  much  increased,  with  the 


LEGACY  (OF.  legacie,  from  Lat.  leg^tum, 
bequest,  from  legare,  to  bequeath,  send  on  a  com- 
mission, from  lex,  law).  A  gift  of  a  chattel  or 
sum  of  money  made  by  the  will  of  a  deceased 
person.  The  term  is  synonymous  with  bequest. 
(See  Will.)  Devise  (q.v.)  is  the  corresponding 
term  in  case  of  gifts  by  will  or  of  real  estate. 

Legacies  may  be  either  apecifio  or  general.  A 
specific  legacy  is  a  bequest  of  a  specific  thing,  as 
a  particular  horse,  picture,  piece  of  silver,  or 
other  article.  A  general  legacy  is  a  bequest 
payable  out  of  the  general  assets  of  the  estate 
of  the  deceased  person.  It  may  be  a  gift  of 
money  or  it  may  be  of  property  without  in  any 
manner  separating  or  distinguishing  it  from 
other  property  of  like  kind  belonging  to  the  testa- 
tor. The  important  difference  between  the  two 
kinds  of  legacies  is  that  if  the  subject-matter  of 
the  specific  legacy  fail,  that  is,  if  the  picture  be 
destroyed  or  disposed  of  by  the  testator  during 
his  lifetime,  or  if  the  horse  die,  the  legacy  lapses 
and  the  legatee  takes  nothing  under  his  bequest. 
In  the  case  of  general  legacies,  as  the  legacy  is 
not  to  be  paid  by  or  "out  of  any  particular  prop- 
erty, the  legacy  does  not  lapse  so  long  as  there 
are  any  assets  of  the  estate  applicable  to  the 
payment  of  legacies.  When,  however,  there  are 
not  sufficient  assets  in  the  estate  (after  paying 
the  testator's  debts,  which  must  first  be  paid)  to 
pay  legacies,  the  specific  legacies  must  be  paid  in 
preference  to  general  legacies,  which  must  abate, 
i.e.  be  reduced  pro  rata.  The  order  of  abatement 
may,  however,  be  fixed  by  the  terms  of  the  will. 

A  third  class  of  legacies,  which  partakes  of 
the  character  of  both  specific  and  general  leg- 
acies, consists  of  what  are  known  as  demonstra- 
tive legacies.  A  demonstrative  legacy  is  one 
which  the  testator  directs  to  be  given  out  of 
specific  money  or  property  or  its  proceeds,  as^ 
for  example,  a  gift  of  a  certain  number  of  stocks 
and  bonds  out  of  a  larger  number,  or  of  a  chattel 
to  be  purchased  out  of  the  proceeds  of  a  certain 
portion  of  the  testator^s  estate.  The  demon- 
strative legacy  is  like  a  specific  legacy  in  that 
it  is  given  out  of  a  specific  fund,  and  in  that  it 
does  not  abate  with  general  legacies,  but  it  is 
like  a  general  legacy  in  that  it  does  not  generally 
abate  with  the  loss  of  the  particular  fund  or 
property  out  of  which  it  is  to  be  paid.  Legacies 
may  also  be  either  abaolute,  that  is,  one  which 
vests  absolutely  in  the  legatee  on  the  testator's 
death  without  condition;  or  conditional  or  con- 
tingent, that  is,  one  to  which  the  legatee  does 
not  become  entitled  until  the  happening  of  some 
certain  event  after  the  testator's  death.  It  is 
generally  provided  bv  statute  that  legacies  are 
not  payable  until  tne  expiration  of  one  year 
after  the  testator's  death,  from  which  date  inter- 
est is  payable  on  the  legacy  if  there  are  funds 
and  it  is  not  otherwise  provided  by  the  will. 

If  the  legatee  dies  before  the  testator  the  leg- 
acy in  general  lapses  and  will  pass  to  the  residu- 
ary legatee,  that  is,  the  one  to  whom  the  will 
gives  all  personal  property  not  otherwise  dis- 
posed of.  If  there  is  no  residuary  clause  in  the 
will,  lapsed  legacies  pass  under  the  statutes  of 
distribution  in  force  in  the  various  jurisdic- 
tions to  the  next  of  kin  of  the  testator.  In 
a   few   States    it   is   provided   by   statute  that 


XiEGACT. 


84 


LEGAL  EDUCATIOir. 


legacies  to  a  child  of  the  testator  in  case  of  the 
cluld's  death  before  the  death  of  the  testator, 
shall  go  to  the  child's  issue.  Legacies  may  also 
in  effect  lapse  by  ademption,  i.e.  some  act  of  the 
testator  during  his  lifetime  by  which  he  pays 
or  satisfies  the  legacy  in  advance  of  his  death. 
(See  Ademption.)  In  general  any  legal  person 
may  be  a  legatee.  Legacies  to  a  married  woman, 
however,  upon  payment,  vest  in  her  husband 
at  common  law,  and  a  legacy  to  an  infant  is 
payable  to  his  guardian  for  the  infant's  benefit. 
In  many  States  there  are  various  statutes  lim- 
iting the  power  of  a  testator  to  make  bequests 
to  corporations  and  to  aliens,  so  that  bequests 
to  corporations,  and  also  for  charitable  uses  not 
authorized  by  the  statute,  are  void.  (See  Uses 
and  Trusts.)  Formerly  a  bequest  to  the  wit- 
ness of  a  will  rendered  the.  will  void.  Now, 
under  most  statutes  of  wills  the  will  is  valid, 
but  the  bequest  is  void.  In  some '  States  be- 
quests to  the  testator's  illegitimate  children  are 
void.  In  general  such  bequests  are  valid,  but  the 
word  children,  when  used  in  a  will,  will  be 
deemed  to  mean  legitimate  children,  if  there  are 
such,  to  the  exclusion  of  illegitimate.  The  more 
important  rules  as  to  the  construction  of  clauses 
giving  bequests  are  discussed  under  Wnx.  See 
also  Administration.  Consult  the  authorities 
referred  to  imder  Will. 

LEGAL  EDTJCATION.  On  the  Continent 
OF  Europe  Before  1088.  In  the  time  of  the  Ro- 
man Republic  it  was  customary  for  a  prospective 
lawyer  to  begin  at  the  age  of  sixteen  to  listen 
systematically  to  the  advice  given  to  clients  by 
some  learned  jurisconsult,  and  the  student  also 
had  to  familiarize  himself  with  the  Twelve  Tables. 
It  was  thus  that  Cicero  learned  law  under  the 
two  Scsevolas.  In  the  time  of  Augustus  the  study 
of  the  Twelve  Tables  was  superseded  by  the  study 
of  the  Praetorian  Edict.  About  the  same  time 
certain  jurisconsults  began  to  devote  themselves 
principally  to  giving  instruction.  Among  the 
earliest  and  most  famous  of  these  teachers  were 
Labeo  and  Sabinus,  to-day  best  remembered  for 
their  connection  with  the  two  sects  of  lawyers, 
the  Proculians  and  the  Sabinians.  From  about 
the  beginning  of  the  third  century  there  were 
systematic  law  schools,  especially  at  Rome  and 
at  Constantinople.  The  course  in  the  law 
schools  covered  four  years,  and  students  were  sup- 
posed to  complete  it  at  the  age  of  twenty.  Be- 
fore 533  the  texts  studied  were  the  Institutes  of 
Gains,  the  same  author's  treatises  on  married 
women's  property,  guardianship,  wills,  and 
legacies,  the  Praptorian  Edict,  Papinian,  Paulus, 
and  the  Constitutions.  By  a  Constitution  of  533 
the  course  of  study  was  rearranged,  and  the  old 
texts  gave  place  to  Justinian's  Institutes,  Digest, 
and  Code,  The  framing  of  the  Corpus  Juris 
CiviliSy  indeed,  was  partly  guided  by  the  needs  of 
students  and*  was  largely  executed  by  the  pro- 
fessors of  Constantinople  and  Berytus. 

In  the  East  the  study  of  the  Corpus  Juris 
Civilis  was  superseded  by  Greek  paraphrases  and 
then  by  new  treatises.  In  Italy,  however,  the 
study  of  the  Corpus  Juris  Civilis  was  never 
wholly  abandoned.  It  is  not  known  to  what  ex- 
tent there  was  systematic  study  of  law  in  the 
Dark  Ages,  but  in  the  eleventh  century  Pavia  and 
Ravenna  were  centres  of  law  teaching,  the  for- 
mer being  preeminent  in  Lombard  law  and  the 
latter  in  Roman  law. 

On  the  Continent  of  Europe  Since  1088. 


The  year  1088  has  become  recognized  rather  ar- 
bitrarily as  the  beginning  of  European  university 
instruction.  It  is  taken  as  the  vear  of  the  found- 
ing of  the  University  of  Bologna,  because  it 
marks,  as  nearly  as  practicable,  the  commence- 
ment of  the  teaching  of  law  by  Imerius.  This 
teacher  made  Bologna  famous  as  a  place  for 
studying  the  Corpus  Juris  Civilis  and  attracted 
pupils  from  the  whole  civilized  world.  In  addi- 
tion to  bringing  this  study  into  renewed  promi- 
nence, he  conferred  upon  legal  education  the  great 
benefit  of  introducing  students  to  the  entire 
Digest,  and  thus  he  encouraged  thorough  work 
and  the  pursuit  of  a  long  course.  By  the  middle 
of  the  twelfth  century  the  appearance  of  Gra- 
tian's  Decrctum  made  possible  a  systematic  study 
of  the  canon  law^,  and  soon  Bologna  l)ecame  a 
favorite  resort  for  students  of  the  Corpus  Juris 
Canonici.  Academic  degrees  appeared  in  the 
thirteenth  century.  Early  in  the  fifteenth  cen- 
tury the  statutes  as  to  degrees  indicate  that 
the  student  of  the  Corpus  Juris  Civilis  became  a 
bachelor  in  about  five  years  and  that  two  years 
later  he  was  eligible  to  become  Legum  Doctor — 
in  other  words,  to  receive  a  diploma  certifying  his 
ability  to  lecture  upon  the  leges,  as  the  para- 
graphs of  the  Digest  are  called.  Four  years  of 
study  made  a  student  of  the  Corpus  Juris  Ca- 
nonici a  Bachelor,  and  two  years  later  he  might 
receive  the  degree  of  Decretorum  Doctor.  The 
student  who  combined  the  two  kinds  of  law  might 
become  Juris  Utriusque  Doctor  in  ten  years  after 
beginning  study.  The  teaching  was  by  lectures 
which  elucidated  the  text,  developed  a  systematic 
view  of  the  subject,  and  solved  hypothetical 
problems.  Soon  after  the  time  of  Imerius  the 
study  of  the  civil  and  the  canon  law  spread  to 
the  universities  that  gradually  arose  in  all  parts 
of  Europe. 

Throughout  the  Continent  of  Europe  the  uni- 
•  versities  are  to-day  the  only  route  to  the  legal 
profession.  The  requirement  for  admission  to  the 
course  in  law  is  a  general  education  substantial- 
ly equivalent  to  that  acquired  by  two  or  three 
years  of  residence  as  an  undergraduate  of  an 
American  college.  The  course  in  law  covers  not 
less  than  three  nor  more  than  four  years.  From 
country  to  country,  there  are  some  differences  in 
details.  In  Germany,  for  example,  the  degree 
Juris  Utriusque  Doctor  does  not  admit  to  the 
bar,  and  need  not  be  taken  bv  the  prospective 
lawyer;  and  admission  to  the  bar  is  secured  ex- 
clusively through  a  Government  examination,  for 
which,  however,  university  work  equivalent  to 
the  requirements  for  a  degree  affords  the  only 
possible  preparation;  and  the  examination  must 
be  succeeded  by  practical  work  for  three  years,  in 
which  time  the  candidate  passes  successively 
from  administrative  duties  to  assisting  a  judge 
of  one  of  the  lower  courts  and  then  to  helping  a 
practicing  lawyer  with  the  daily  tasks  of  a  law 
office;  and  for  persons  hoping  to  become  admin- 
istrative or  judicial  officers  these  three  years  of 
practical  work  are  followed  by  a  second  Govern- 
ment examination.  In  France,  on  the  other  hand, 
the  degrees  are  a  baccalaureate  in  two  years,  a 
licentiate  in  three  years,  and  a  doctorate  in  four 
years;  and  the  licentiate  degree  admits  to  the 
bar  as  an  avocat,  whereas  two  years  of  study  un- 
der the  law  faculty  suffice,  without  a  degree  either 
in  general  knowledge  or  in  law,  to  admit  the 
candidate  to  the  grade  of  an  avou4»  Finally,  in 
Germany,  but  not  in  France,  almost  all  legal  in- 


LEGAL  EDUCATIOir. 


85 


LEGAL  EBUCATIOir. 


struction  is  given  by  persons  who  have  never  been 
engaged  in  practice. 

In  England.    The  study  of  the  Corpus  Juris 
Civilis  and  of  the  Corpus  Juris  Canonici  seems 
to  have  entered  the  English  universities  as  soon 
as  they  were  founded;   and,  indeed,  there  is  a 
commonly    received   opinion   that   the   Lombard 
jurist  Vacarius  taught  civil   law^  at  Oxford  in 
1149,  a  date  eighteen  years  before  the  University 
of  Oxford  can  be  proved  to  have  been  in  existence. 
The  civil  law  continues  to  be  taught  in  the  Eng- 
lish universities.     The  canon  law  ceased  to  be 
taught  after  the  Reformation.    The  common  law 
found  little  recognition  in  the  universities  until 
recently ;  and,  indeed,  even  to-day  the  universities 
can  hardly  be  said  to  be*  making  a  serious  at- 
tempt to  become  places  for  the  professional  study 
of  law.    The  famous  lectures  on  the  common  law 
delivered  at  Oxford  by  Blackstone,  beginning  in 
1753,  were  addressed  to  audiences  largely  com- 
posed of  undergraduates,  and  kept  in  mind  to  a 
considerable  extent  the   needs   of   persons   who, 
without  intending  to  enter  the  profession,  wished 
to  learn  the  general  features  of  the  political  and 
legal  system  of  their  country.    To  an  American  it 
seems  strange  that  this  auspicious  beginning  did 
not  lead  to  a  professional  school  of  law;  but  in 
fact  such  a  development  at  the  universities  seems 
contrary  to  tlie  desires  of  the  universities  and 
of  the  profession.     Both  Oxford  and  Cambridge 
have  a  considerable  number  of  teachers  of  civil 
law  and  of  common  law ;  but  the  instruction  gives 
less   prominence   to   common   law   than   to   civil 
law  and  to  such  comparatively  non-professional 
topics  as  constitutional  law,  international  law, 
and   analytical   jurisprudence;    and   the   courses 
are  taken  chiefly  by  undergraduates  as  part  of 
their  preparation  for  the  degree  of  bachelor  of 
arts.    There  is  provision,  both  by  instruction  and 
by  appropriate  degrees,  for  law  study  by  gradu- 
ates in  arts  who  expect  to  become  lawyers,  but 
these  law  degrees,  of  which  fewer  than  twenty  are 
annually  conferred  in  each  university,  are  taken 
chiefly  by  persons  who'll ave  pursued  the  requisite 
studies  in  London.     Indeed,  the  Inns  of  Court, 
which  alone  have  the  power  to  call  to  the  bar, 
continue  to  be  substantially  the  only  centres  for 
a  barrister's  education.  These  four  Inns — the  Inner 
Temple,  the  Middle  Temple,  Lincoln's  Inn,  and 
Gray's  Inn — ^have  been  for  about  six  centuries  the 
learned  societies  to  which  every  barrister  belongs, 
and  their  historic  associations,  even  independently 
of  the  conservatism  of  the  profession,  render  it 
very  difficult  for  legal  education  to  become  domi- 
ciled elsewhere.     Theii  origin,  or  at  least  their 
importance,  seems  to  have  some  connection  with 
the  flxing  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  at  West- 
minster  by   reason  of  the   provision   in   Magna 
Charta  requiring  that  court  to  sit  in  one  place. 
A  picture  of  the  student's  life  about  the  middle 
of  the  fifteenth  century  is  given  by  Fortescue. 
At  that  time  there  were  ten  Inns  of  Chancery,  be- 
sides the  four  Inns  of  Court,  and  it  was  common 
for  students  to  begin  with  the  former  and  to  com- 
plete their  education  at  the  latter.     The  total 
residence  requisite  for  admission  to  the  bar  was 
apparently  eight  years.    This  time,  however,  was 
not  wholly  devoted  to  law,  for  other  accomplish- 
ments, including  singing  and  dancing,  were  pur- . 
sued  by  the  studenl^;   and,  indeed,  it  seems  to 
have  been  common  for  persons  who  did  not  con- 
template entering  the  profession  to  go  to  the  Inns, 
rather  than   to   the  universities,   for   the   final 


embellishments  of  education.  In  those  days,  dur- 
ing the  four  terms  of  court,  all  barristers  were 
resident  in  the  Inns,  and  thus  the  students  had 
excellent  means  of  preparation  for  the  profes- 
sion. .There  were  systematic  lectures,  called 
readings,  by  barristers,  and  at  public  moot-courts 
and  private  boltings  and  even  at  meals  the  stu- 
dents discussed  actual  and  hypothetical  cases. 
There  was,  indeed,  an  atmosphere  of  law,  much 
like  the  atmosphere  of  an  American  law  school. 
In  the  sixteenth  century  students  are  known  to 
have  made  great  use  of  the  2iatura  Brevium,  the 
Old  Tenures,  and  Littleton's  Tenures;  and  the 
readings  and  mootings  and  boltings  continued. 
After  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century 
Coke's  Institutes  became  the  chief  text-book;  and 
about  the  same  time  the  old  nTachinery  of  teach- 
ing began  to  be  disused.  In  addition  to  the  means 
of  study  already  indicated,  it  is  known  that  stu- 
dents made  collections  of  notes  from  the  Year 
Books  and  other  reports  of  cases  and  that  they 
spent  much  time  in  copying  pleadings.  From  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  student, 
while  keeping  his  terms  at  his  Inn  by  eating  such 
number  of  dinners  as  proved  his  residence,  began 
his  studies  by  copying  pleadings  in  the  office  of 
a  special  pleader,  and  passed  thence  to  the  office 
of  a  barrister  in  general  practice,  paying  to  these 
instructors  such  substantial  fees  as  procured 
adequate  guidance  in  study.  This  remains  the 
common  mode  of  preparation.  The  student,  after 
passing  a  preliminary  entrance  examination  in 
grammar,  composition,  Latin,  and  the  history  of 
England — from  which  entrance  examination  he 
is  exempt  if  a  graduate  of  one  of  the  universities 
— enrolls  himself  in  one  of  the  Inns.  He  next 
keeps  twelve  terms  by  eating  six  dinners  at  the 
Inn  each  term-— though  members  of  the  universi- 
ties need  eat  only  three  dinners  each  term.  Mean- 
while he  has  probably  been  passing  six  months 
in  the  office  of  a  solicitor  in  good  conveyancing 

Practice  and  a  year  or  two  in  the  office  of  a 
arristcr  with  a  good  chamber  practice,  and  thus 
he  has  learned,  among  other  things,  to  frame 
statements  of  cases  to  be  submitted  by  a  solicitor 
to  a  barrister,  to  give  opinions  upon  such  cases, 
and  to  frame  pleadings.  Simultaneously  he  at- 
tends court  and  does  the  reading  necessary  for 
the  examinations  for  call  to  the  bar.  These 
examinations  include  Roman  law  and  constitu- 
tional law;  but  they  are  devoted  principally  to 
the  ordinary  heads  of  English  law  and  equity, 
and  they  cover  the  whole  ground.  In  the  absence' 
of  extraordinary  circumstances,  admission  cannot 
occur  until  three  years  after  entering  the  Inn. 
The  examinations  are  conducted  by  the  Council 
of  Legal  Education,  which  is  appointed  by  the 
Inns.  The  Council  maintains  lectures  by  readers 
and  assistant  readers,  but  these  lectures  are  not 
largely  attended,  and,  though  established  half  a 
century  ago,  have  not  yet  made  much  impression 
upon  the  system  of  legal  education. 

The  solicitors  are  under  regulation  by  the 
Incorporated  Law  Society,  which  maintains  lec- 
tures and  examinations  similar  to  those  of  the 
Council  of  Legal  Education.  The  Incorporated 
Law  Society,  however,,  is  the  older  body,  and  lec- 
ture and  examinations  for  solicitors  considerably 
antedate  lectures  and  examinations  for  barristers. 
In  the  United  States.  In  America,  as  else- 
where, legal  education  was  once  obtained  exclu- 
sively in  lawyers*  offices.  Professorships  entitled 
professorships    of  law,   but   devoted,    it   would 


LEGAL  EDUCATZOir. 


86 


LEGAL  EDUCATIOir. 


seem,  to  preaenting  popular  and  not  technical 
viewa  of  iaw  to  undergraduate  college  students 
and  to  the  general  public,  were  founded  rather 
early,  e.g.  at  William  and  Mary  College  in  1779, 
at  the  College  of  Philadelphia  in  1790,  at  Colum- 
bia College  in  1794,  and  at  Harvard  College  in 
1815  under  the  will  of  a  testator  who  died  in 
1781.  It  is  not  clear  when  lectures  were  de- 
livered under  the  first  of  these  professorships  by 
its  earliest  incumbent,  Chancellor  W3rthe.  The 
professorship  at  Philadelphia  resulted  in  a  course 
of  lectures  by  Justice  James  Wilson,  in  1790-91. 
The  professorship  at  Columbia  was  twice  held  by 
Chancellor  Kent,  first  from  1793  to  1795,  and 
secondly  from  1823  to  1826;  and  the  work  of 
Kent's  second  holding  of  the  professorship  was 
of  a  technical  nature  and  produced  the  Commen- 
taries on  American  Laio,  The  Harvard  profes- 
sorship, called  the  Royall,  was  first  held  by 
Isaac  Parker. 

The  earliest  class-room  instruction  in  technical 
law  was  furnished  not  at  the  colleges  named,  but 
in  the  famous  private  law  school  founded  at 
Litchfield,  Conn.,  by  Tapping  Reeve  and  main- 
tained until  1833.  This  institution,  though  unin- 
corporated, was  thoroughly  organized,  having  a 
course  of  fourteen  months,  pursuing  the  lecture 
system,  conducting  examinations  and  moot- 
courts,  and  attracting  in  some  years  as  many  as 
fifty  students  from  all  parts  of  the  United  States. 
Thus  in  the  case  of  Litchfield  it  is  clear  that 
there  was  a  law  school,  whereas  in  some  other 
cases  it  is  difficult  to  say  whether  there  was  a 
law  school  or  simply  an  ordinary  law  office  pay- 
ing extraordinary  attention  to  law  students.  The 
Harvard  Law  School  dates  from  1817,  when 
there  were  two  professors  and  when  students  who 
hod  completed  their  general  education  began  to 
come  to  Harvard  for  professional  instruction ;  but 
the  Harvard  Law  School  was  not  conspicuous 
until  1829,  when  Justice  Story  became  Dane  pro- 
fessor of  law.  There  was  a  private  law  school 
in  1821  at  Needham,  Va.;  and  that,  though  it 
lasted  but  a  short  time,  it  was  carefully  managed 
is  indicated  by  Taylor's  Journal  of  the  Law 
School.  There  was  a  private  law  school  at 
Northampton,  Mass..  in  1823;  and  this  school 
ceased  in  1829,  when  one  of  its  instructors  be- 
came Royall  professor  at  Harvard.  The  Yale 
Law  School  dates  from  1824,  being  apparently 
an  outgrowth  of  a  private  school.  There  was  a 
private  law  school  at  Winchester,  Va.,  in  1826, 
and  during  its  short  existence  it  produced  Tuck- 
er's Commentaries  on  the  Laws  of  Virginia,  The 
law  school  of  the  L^niversity  of  Virginia  was 
opened  in  1826.  The  Cincinnati  Law  School  was 
opened  in  1833. 

There  has  been  a  steady  growth  of  law  schools 
in  number  and  in  attendance;  and  in  recent 
years  this  ^owth  has  been  so  emphatic  as  to 
prove  that  Uie  law  schools  are  now  recognized  as 
the  only  places  for  obtaining  adequate  prepara- 
tion. In  1890-91  there  were  54  law  schools,  with 
406  instructors  and  5252  students.  In  1900-01 
there  were  100  law  schools,  with  1106  instructors 
and  13,642  students.  The  numerical  advances  in 
these  ten  years  were  accompanied  by  other 
changes,  most  of  them  unquestionably  changes  for 
the  better.  The  requirements  for  admission  have  ^ 
been  increased,  so  that  now  half  of  the  schools 
require  at  least  a  high-school  education,  and 
three  or  four  require  a  degree  in  arts  or  in 
science.    The  law  course  has  oeen  lengthened,  on 


the  average,  about  one  year,  so  that  now  rather 
more  than  half  of  the  schools  oflfer  a  course  of 
three  years.  There  has  been  a  tendency  to  change 
the  method  of  study  from  the  lecture  and  text- 
book systems  to  the  case  system,  which  was  in- 
troduced at  Harvard  by  Professor  Langdell  in 
1870,  and  which  gained  a  foothold  at  the  Albany 
Law  School  in  1889,  and  at  the  State  University 
of  Iowa  and  Columbia  University  in  1890. 

There  is  difi'erence  of  opinion  as  to  the  merita 
of  the  three  systems  of  legal  teaching— or,  better^ 
of  legal  study.  Under  the  lecture  system  the 
student  first  derives  his  knowledge  at  the  lecture 
and  from  the  lecturer ;  and  the  student  very  prob- 
ably takes  notes  and  ultimately  answers  questiona 
as  to  his  understandiifg  of  the  instruction  given. 
Under  the  text-book  system  the  student  primarily 
derives  his  knowledge  at  his  own  room  and  from 
the  statements  made  by  text- writers ;  and  he  goea 
to  the  lecture-room  to  be  questioned  on  his  recol- 
lection and  understanding  of  the  statements  in 
the  text-books,  and  to  receive  more  light  from 
the  instructor.  Under  the  case  system  the  stu- 
dent primarily  derives  his  knowledge  of  law  at 
his  own  room  and  through  his  own  analysis  of 
select  reported  cases;  and  after  extracting  from 
these  cases  the  propositions  of  law  necessarily  in> 
volved  in  the  decisions — the  rationes  decidendi — 
he  goes  to  the  lecture-room  to  state  and  discuss 
these  cases  and  to  participate  in  the  solution  of 
hypothetical  problems  based  upon  them.  Under 
each  system  there  may  be  statements  of  law  by 
the  instructor,  reading  text-books,  study  of  re- 
ported cases,  and  discussion  of  problems;  but, 
notwithstanding  the  possibility  that  each  system 
may  be  so  treated  as  to  seem  like  some  other,, 
and  notwithstanding  the  personal  peculiarities 
which  cause  each  instructor  to  pursue  to  some 
extent  a  method  of  his  own,  the  distinction  be- 
tween the  several  systems  is  in  practice  readily 
drawn,  and  each  law  school  is  commonly  known, 
according  to  the  system  to  which  it  is  principally 
devoted,  as  a  lecture  school,  a  text-book  scjiool, 
or  a  case  school,  although  some  of  them  attempt 
to  combine  systems  and  thus  are  rather  difficult  of 
classification.  The  100  schools  in  existence  in 
1900-01  appear  to  have  been  divisible  thus:  lec- 
ture schools,  4;  text-book  schools,  82;  case 
schools,  14. 

The  condition  of  the  100  schools  existing  in 
1900-01  is  further  indicated  by  the  following- 
figures.  The  schools  connected  with  universities 
numbered  71.  There  were  25  evening  schools; 
and  there  were  5  with  separate  evening  and 
day  departments,  the  remaining  70  having  day 
departments  exclusively,  although  many  gave  ail 
lectures  either  before  or  after  the  usual  hours  of 
legal  busineas.  The  academic  year  generally 
lasted  between  30  and  40  weeks ;  but  in  three  in- 
stances there  was  an  academic  year  shorter  than 
30  weeks.  The  length  of  the  course  varied  thus: 
one  year,  7  schools;  two  years,  40;  three  years, 
51 ;  four  years,  2,  each  of  these  two  being  an 
evening  school  unable  to  demand  full  work  from 
its  members.  The  schools  with  courses  shorter 
than  three  years  were  almost  exclusively  in  the 
South,  Indiana,  New  York,  and  the  northern  part 
of  the  Pacific  Coast.  Of  the  13,642  students, 
2119  held  degrees  in  arts  or  in  science,  and  3366 
took  the  degree  of  LL.B.  in  1901.  The  value  of 
grounds  and  buildings  was  $1,875,000.  The  en- 
dowment funds  amounted  to  $1,151,920.  The  in- 
come from  endowments  and  from  tuition  was- 


LEGAL  EDUCATION. 


87 


LEGAL  TENDER. 


94.  The  volumes  in  the  libraries  num* 
338,167.  Of  the  1106  instructors,  about 
!Voted  themselves  almost  exclusively  to 
Qg.     Seven  schools  maintained  legal  peri- 

lely  connected  with  improvements  in  law 
s  is  a  recent  advance  in  requirements  for 
$ion  to  the  bar.  There  are  now  in  as  many 
States  examinations  by  commissions  having 
iction  throughout  the  State.  In  these 
,  and  in  some  others,  written  examinations 
le  rule.  Examinations  often  include,  in 
on  to  definitions  and  classifications  that 
>een  substantially  memorized,  the  solution 
)othetical  problems  resembling  those  aris- 

actual  practice.  The  requirement  of  law 
preparatory  to  admission  to  the  examina- 
I  in  as  many  as  18  States  three  years,  and 
nany  as  1 1  States  two  years.  In  about  half 
!  States  there  is  also  a  requirement  of  a 
chool  education. 

al  education  is  a  frequent  subject  of  dis- 
Q  at  meetings  of  law  societies.  The  Ameri- 
IT  Association  has  a  standing  committee  on 
Education  and  Admission  to  the  Bar,  and 

Section  of  Legal  Education.  In  1901  the 
ation  of  American  Law  Schools  was 
>d,  holding  meetings  at  the  same  time  and 
as  the  American  Bar  Association. 
LIOGBAPHT.  Consult:  Poste,  Gains  (Oxford, 
,  pp.   122-124;   Holland,  Institutes  of  Jus- 

(Oxford,  1881),  pp.  25-32;  Hunter,  Roman 
London,  1897),  pp.  55,  79-80;  Roby,  Intro- 
n  to  the  Digest  (Cambridge,  1886),  pp.  26- 
ohm.  Institutes  of  Roman  Lata  (Oxford, 
,  pp.  98-100,  139-141;  Savigny,  Geschichte 
tomischen  Rechts,  vol.  iii.  (Heidelberg, 
,  pp.  83-419,  643-718;  Muther,  Oeschichie 
Tchiswissenschaft  (Jena,  1876) ;  Compayrft, 
rd  and  the  Origin  tmd  Early  History  of 
raiiies  (New  York,  1893),  pp.  214-239; 
all,  Universities  of  Europe  in  the  Middle 
(Oxford,  1895)  ;  Hart,  Gorman  Universities 
York,  1874)  ;  Conrad,  German  Universities 
^w,  1885),  pp.  124-141;  Lexis,  Die 
7fcen  Universitateny  vol.  i.  (Berlin,  1893), 
79-420;  Akademischcs  Taschenhuch  fUr 
en      (Berlin,     published     semi-annually)  ; 

History  of  the  French  Bar  (London,  1885)  ; 
ret  de  Vitudiant  de  Paris  (Paris,  published 
lly)  ;  Annuaire  de  Vinsiruction  (Paris)  ; 
icue.  De  Laudihus  Legum  Anglice  (Lon- 
775),  chs.  xlviii.-xlix. ;  Waterhous,  Fortes- 
Illusiratus  (London,  1663),  pp.  539-546; 
lie,  Origines  Juridicales  (London,  1671), 
19-160;  Pearee,  Guide  to  the  Inns  of  Court 
on,  1856)  ;  Smith,  History  of  Education  for 
nglish  Bar  (London,  1860)  ;  Gibson  and 
erbutty,  HoiC  to  Become  a  Barrister  (Lon- 
002) ;  Calendars  of  the  Universities  of  Ox- 
Jamhridge,  I^ondon,  Dublin,  Edinburgh,  and 
7w;  Report  to  the  House  of  Commons  from 
'lect  Committee  on  Legal  Education  (Lon- 
846)  ;  Parliamentary  Report  of  the  Com- 
mers  to  Inquire  into  the  Arrangements  in 
,ns  of  Court  and  Inns  of  Chancery  for  Pro- 
g  the  Study  of  the  Law  (London,  1855)  ; 
imentary  Report  of  the  Commissioners  to 
ler  the  Proposed  Oresham  University  in 
n  (London,  1894)  ;  The  Green  Bag  (Bos- 
published  monthly),  especially  historical 
»s  in  vols,  i.-iii.;  Reports  of  the  American 
[ssoeiation    (Philadelphia,  published  annu- 


ally), especially  the  volume  for  1891;  Reports 
of  the  Commissioner  of  Education  of  the  United 
States  (Washington,  published  annually),  espe- 
cially the  volume  for  1890-91,  pp.  376-563,  and 
the  bibliography  on  pp.  565-578;  Jones's  Index 
to  Legal  Periodicals  (Boston,  1888-89),  title 
Legal  Education. 

LE  GALLIENNEy  le  g&lOl-^n,  Richard 
(1866—).  An  Ehglish  journalist  and  man  of 
letters,  bom  in  Liverpool,  January  20,  1866.  He 
was  graduated  from*  Liverpool  College,  and 
served  articles  to  a  firm  of  chartered  accountants 
for  seven  years,  when  he  abandoned  business  to 
devote  himself  to  literature.  For  a  few  months 
(1889)  he  was  private  secretary  to  the  actor 
Wilson  Barrett.  In  1891  he  became  literary 
Clitic  for  the  star,  and  soon  joined  also  the  staffs 
of  the  Daily  Chronicle  and  the  Speaker,  Two 
years  later  he  was  involved  with  Robert 
Buchanan  in  a  controversy  on  the  question,  "Is 
Christianity  Played  Out  ?"  The  outcome  was  the 
Religion  of  a  Literary  Man  (1893).  In  1899 
he  wrote  Rudyard  Ktpling,  an  attack  on  Kip- 
ling's art  and  infiuence.  The  range  and  quality 
of  his  general  criticism  is  well  represented  by 
Retrospective  Reviews  (2  vols.,  1896)  ;  and  a 
certain  grace  by  The  Book-Bills  of  Narcissus 
(1891),  Prose  Fancies  (1st  series,  1894;  2d 
series,  1896),  and  Sleeping  Beauty  and  Other 
Prose  Fancies  (1900).  In  1898  he  visited  the 
United  States  on  a  lecture  tour,  and  afterwards 
took  up  his  residence  in  New  York.  For  a  time 
he  wrote  articles  for  the  New  York  Journal, 
Among  his  publications  not  cited  above  are: 
My  Lady's  Sonnets  (privately  printed,  1887)  ; 
Volumes  in  Folio  (1889);  English  Poems 
(1892);  Robert  Louis  Stevenson  and  Other 
Poems  (1895);  The  Quest  of  the  Golden  Girl, 
a  novel  (1896),  an  adaptation  of  the  Rubaiyat 
of  Omar  Khayyam;  Young  Lives  (1899) ;  Travels 
in  England  (1900);  An  Old  Country  House 
( 1902) ;  Mr,  Sun  and  Mrs,  Moon  ( 1902) ;  George 
Meredith,  Some  Characteristics  (1902). 

LEGAL  TENDEBw  In  its  broadest  sense,  an 
offer  or  attempt  to  perform  a  contract  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  appropriate  legal  require- 
ments. When  thus  used,  the  term  includes  an 
offer  to  perform  by  doing  something,  as  well  as 
an  offer  to  perform  by  paying  something.  In  the 
former  case  a  legal  tender,  that  is,  an  offer 
to  perform  the  contract  at  the  agreed  time  and 
place,  as  in  the  case  of  a  sale  and  delivery  of  a 
chattel,  discharges  the  person  making  the  tender 
from  all  contract  liability,  although  the  other 
party  declines  the  tender.  In  the  same  w^ay  a 
legal  tender  of  the  amount  due  on  a  mortgage  or 
a  pledge,  even  though  it  be  rejected  by  the  credi- 
tor, will  operate  to  discharge  the  property  from 
the  lien  of  the  mortgage  or  pledge. 

A  tender  of  payment,  however,  does  not  dis- 
charge the  debtor.  Its  effect  is  to  save  the  ten- 
derer from  paying  interest  thereafter,  and  from 
the  costs  of  a  suit  for  the  debt.  In  order  that  a 
tender  of  payment  be  legal,  it  must  be  a  proffer 
of  money  actually  produced  and  accessible  to  the 
creditor,  or  the  production  must  be  waived  by 
him ;  the  exact  amount  due  must  be  offered  or  a 
sum  tendered  from  which  the  creditor  can  take 
the  exact  amount  without  making  change,  and  it 
must  be  unconditional. 

The  term  is  also  used  to  denote  the  kind  of 
money  that  is  legally  tenderable  in  the  payment 
of  debts.    This  is  regulated  with  considerable  mi- 


LEGAL  TENDEBb           88  LEGABB. 

uuteness  by  modem  statutes.    In  Great  Britain  power.    Moreover,  they  deemed  the  statutes  un- 

Bank  of  England  notes  are  a  legal  tender  for  any  constitutional  because  tney  impaired  the  obliga- 

sum  above  £5.     Gold*  coins  of  the  Royal  Mint,  tion  of  contracts  and  amounted  to  a  taking  of 

unless  diminished  in  weight  below  the  statutory  private  property  for  public  use  without  compen- 

standard,  are  a  legal  tender  for  a  payment  of  any  sation.     It  was  admitt^   by  the   minority   in 

amoimt;    its    silver    coins    for   an   amount   not  Hepburn  v.  Griswold,  and  the  majority  in  the 

exceeding  forty  shillings ;   its  bronze  coins  for  later  cases,  that  the  laws  did  impair  the  obligation 

an    amount    not   exceeding   one    shilling.      The  of  contracts  made  before  their  passage,  but  it  was 

Crown,   with   the  advice  of.  the  Privy  Council,  said,  "While  the  Constitution  forbids  States  to 

may  by  proclamation  declare  foreign  or  colonial  pass  such  laws,  it  does  not  forbid  Congress."    The 

coins  legal  tender.     In  tl^is  country,  under  the  Fifth  Amendment,  which  forbids  taking  private 

Federal  Constitution  and  statutes,  the  various  property  for  public  use  without  just  compensa- 

gold  coins  of  the  National  Mint,  the  notes  of  the  tion  or  due  process  of  law,  it  was  declared,  had 

United  States,  ordinarily  called  greenbacks,  and  always  been  understood  as  referring  only  to  a 

a  specified  class  of  United  States  Treasury  notes  direct  appropriation,  and  not  to  consequential  in- 

are  a  legal  tender  for  debts  of  any  amount.    Sil-  juries    resulting    from    the    exercise    of    lawful 

ver  dollars  are  a  legal  tender  "for  all  debts,  ex-  power.    And,  finally,  it  was  held  that  the  statutes 

cept  where  otherwise  expressly  stipulated  in  tne  were  passed  in  the  proper  exercise  of  the  power 

contract;"    while    the    other    silver    coins    (the  to  borrow  money  and  maintain  the  army  and 

half-dollar,  quarter-dollar,  and  dime )  are  a  legal  navy  in  time  of  war. 

tender  for  an  amount  not  exceeding  ten  dollars.  In  1878  Congress  directed  that  the  legal -tender 

Minor  coins    (the  five-cent  piece  and  the  cent)  notes  of  the  United  States  which  were  redeemed, 

are   tenderable    for    an   amount    not    exceeding  *or  received  into  the  Treasury  from  any  source, 

twenty- five  cents.    Consult;  3  and  4  William  IV.  should  be  reissued  and  kept  in  circulation.     As 

ch.  98,  §  6;  The  Coinage  Act,  1870,  33  and  34  the  final  decision  in  the  legal-tender  cases  above 

Vict.,  ch.  10;  United  States  Constitution,  Art.  1,  referred  to  had  been  rested  in  part  upon  the 

§  10;   United  States  Revised   Statutes,   §§3584-  necessity  of  the  earlier  legislation  as  a  warmeas- 

3590,  as  amended;    also  the  authorities  referred  ure,  the  validity  of  the  act  of  1878  was  assailed 

to  under  Contbact.  with   much   confidence.     However,   with    but   a 

LEOAL-TEITDEB  CASES.    A  series  of  cases  IT.^iJ'fl?*  *""*  l^  •^'"""*  ^♦'*'''*'',*'"T'°u!i 

.   f^^^  XL     c r-      *     *  *!.     TT  •*  -J  ou  A  held  that  Congress  has  power  to  make  Lnited 

i^volvi^^^^  states  notes  a^egal  tenJer  in  the  payment  of 

ConS  (LclarinTtr  notes  o^  P"^*^  ^^^'^  ^  ^^""^  ^^  P^*^  *«  ^^^^  *'  ^"  ^^"^^ 

j^ongress,  aeciarmg  tne  notes  01  tne  uniiea  btates  j               "Congress,"   said  the  court,  "has  the 

lawful  money  and  a  legal  tender  in  payment  of  «*      "  ♦«   i^J,^*ul  «M;««4^i!!«o  ^1*  Vv.^   i^^u^a 

«ii   A^U4^^  *...Ki:^  ««j  wv«;„«4.«  ,«:♦!.•-.  av     tt^-*  j  power  to   issue   the  obligations   of   the    Lnited 

all  debts  public  and  private  withm  the  United  ^x^^^^  ;„  «„„u  t^^^    „«^  *«  ;^»»^<..  „«^«  fu^^, 

cA^x ^^il^i.  j..i.»^    il  • J.        J  :  i.    ^  A  otates  in  such  form,  and  to  impress  upon  tiiem 

States,  except  duties  on  imports  and  interest  on  ,    Qualities  as  currencv  for  the  nurchase  of 

the  public  debt,  were  constitutional.     The  first  f^^^u^^^Vi^^^fi?^  ^^^ 

case,  which  brought  the  question  squarely  before  ^f,^^^^°J^\?,/°*^^V*!  P^^ 

the  court,  was  Hepburn  1  Griswold  (8  Wallace,  ^T^^i.^^L  fnff^.nt   Z?y^Fr^TT^rr.^a 

603),  a  case  in  which  the  Court  of  Errors  of  IZZ'  anH ^«n W  hni«  nt  .^^^^^ 

Kentucky  had  held  the  acte  of  Congress  above  "'"'^^^i  *°^  '^*''"'?  ^'"*  2^  """i^?  ""^  *^^.  ^''^™' 
.-      ^j,             ;.r  A      »»-«  "X  vyvitgi^roo  €*.^Tc  mgjj^  f^^  money  borrowed,  of  impressing  upon 

menlioned  unconstitutional.   It  was  first  aMued  at  ^^        ^.j,           ^^t     ^^  ^j.^^  of  being!  le^il 

the  December  term   1867   reargued  at  the JWm-  ^^^j      ^^^  ^^      ^^^„^  ^^      j^„t^  j  bts.  was  a 

ber  term,  1868,  and  decided  November  27,  1869,  universally'understood  to  belong  ti  sover- 

by  a  divided  court      Chief  Justice  Chase  and  K         ^  Europe  and  America  at  the  time  of  the 

Associate  Justices  NeUon,  Clifford,  Field,  and  j^^f     ^„j  adoption  of  the  Constitution  of  the 

Grier  were  for  the  affirmance  of  the  decision  of  t  ?,,;♦« jc*«**»-     rfi,*  .^^^^w.^^.^*^^  ^4  i?,,«»,>«   ««♦ 

the  court  below,  while  Justices  Miller,  Swayne,  V""'^^  ^^^^l:    ^^  governments  of  Europe,  act- 

^  wutc  i^ciuvT,  iiruAtK;  </uai.xu^o  AutiAci,  «w»jruc,  through  thc  mouarch    or  the  legislature,  ac- 

and  Davis  dissented.    In  April    1869,  an  act  was  ^^«^.      ^  ^y^    distribution  of  powerl  under  their 

passed  increasing  the  number  of  associate  justices  -eg^jfive  constitutions    had  and  have  as  sover- 

of  the  Supreme  Court  from  seven  to  eight.    Early  ^^I^'^^^®  constitutions,  naa  ana  na\e  as  sover 

•      iQTA    T     Y  "^"7;^^'"'"  "r"^    j"*" ''*'5,"t -^'v  eign   a   power   of   issuing   paper   money   as   of 

SLnf       ^^  %             resigned,   and   Justices  ^^^^i^  ^i^_..     This  lecfsion  has  closed   all 

Bradley    and    Strong    were    appointed    to    the  judicial  discussion,  and  declares  the  rule  of  law 

vacancies.  After  this  reconstruction  of  the  cmirt,  ^         t^is  point.    Whether  a  national  paper  cur- 

a  motion  was  made  for  the  reargument  of  Hep-  ^       ,^g„  ^^  a  legal  tender  is  now  a  Question 

burn  r.  Griswold,  which  was  granted  by  a  vote  ^„  ^^^       ,5^,^^,   j8,„^  „„,        Consult"   Legal 

1    IL^          'm  ~/  %T'-}  ^   °°M  ''"*?qVT  Tender  Case,  Juilliard  v.  Gieenman  (110  U.  S.. 

was  again  considered  and  decided  in  May,  1871.  42I,  1884)  ;  Thayer,  "Legal  Tender,"  in  Harmrd 

Again  was  the  court  divided,  but  this  time  a  ^„^  j^^J^'^   ,1^87    ;  Bancroft,  A  Plea  for  the 

majority,  consisting  of  Justices  Miller,  Swayiie,  Constitution  (New  York,  1886)     Miller,  Lectures 

Davis,  Bradley,  and  Strong,  upheld  the  constitu-  j^  Constitution  of  the  United  States  (New 

tionality  of  the  act,  while  Chief  Justice  Chase  York    1891) 

and  Justices  Nelson,  Clifford,  and  Field  dissented.  '           ' ' 

(Legal-Tender  Cases,  12  Wallace,  457.)  LEGABE,  Ic-grg',  Hugh  Swinton  (1797- 
All  of  the  judges  agreed  that  Congress  had  the  1843).  An  American  jurist  and  statesman,  bom 
power  to  direct  issues  of  paper  currency.  The  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  of  Huguenot  stock,  January 
difference  of  opinion  related  solely  to  its  power  2,  1797.  He  died  in  Boston,  Mass.,  June  2,  1843. 
to  make  such  currency  a  legal  tender,  especially  Though  delicate,  he  was  well  educated  at  South 
for  existing  debts.  The  majority  in  Hepburn  v.  Carolina  College;  then  studied  law  for  three 
Griswold,  who  were  the  minority  in  the  later  years,  visited  Edinburgh,  where  he  completed  his 
cases,  held  that  this  power  was  neither  specific-  education,  and  traveled  on  the  Continent.  Re- 
ally granted  by  the  Constitution,  nor  was  it  turning  home,  he  devoted  himself  to  planting 
necessary  to  the  accomplishment  of  any  granted  for  a  time,  was   soon   elected   to  the  Legisla* 


LEGABB.  89  LEGEND. 

tuve,  and  then  began  to  practice  law  in  Charles-  a  diplomatic  officer.    See  Diploicact;  Miitisteb; 

ton.  •  He  was  elected  to  the   Legislature   once  Inviolabiiitt. 

more   (1824-30),  and  was  afterwards  made  At-        i^jo^tO,    14-gft't6    (It,    tied).      In    music, 

tomey-General  of  the  State,  being  at  the  same  ^  direction  that  the  notes  are  to  be  played  as  if 

^ZJ^^L    n^oAT^^A  ^"'^^h  h-  Jf  bound  or  tied  together,  or  in  such  a  manner  that 

*    rL  1     1  *^     i"  ?i'     n    ^     *K     w  nf  the  one  note  flows  int<^  the  following  one.    Lega- 

tnbuted  learned  articles.    During  the  Nulhflca-  ^  ^     to  the  character  of  the  whole  move- 

tion    crisis    he    opposed   extreme    measures,    al- 4.1 ««^i„  *«  „  ^««4.„:«  ,vi*^«o« 

though  he  was  always  in  favor  of  States  rights.  "^^""^  °^  °^^"^^y  ^^  '^  ^"^^^^  P^'*"^' 
From  1832  to  1838  he  served  as  charge  d'affaires  LEGAZPE,  14-gath'p&,  or  LEGASFI,  Ift-gils'- 
at  Brussels.  On  his  return  he  was  elected  to  Con-  p^,  Miguel  Lopez  (c.  1510-72).  A  Spanish  sol- 
gress,  where  he  served  one  term,  winning  reputa-  dier  and  conqueror  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 
tion  as  a  debater  on  the  pro-slavery  side.  Op-  He  was  born  at  Zumarraga  (Guiptizcoa),  and 
position  to  the  sub-treasury  scheme  caused  his  went  to  Mexico.  Having  distinguished  himself  as 
defeat  and  drew  him  over  to  the  Whigs.  In  chief  secretary  of  the  city  and  Government  of 
1841  he  became  Attorney-General  under  Tyler,  Mexico,  he  was  put  in  charge  of  the  expedition 
and  served  until  his  sudden  death,  having  also  sent  out  by  the  Viceroy,  velasco,  in  1564,  to 
conducted  the  State  Department  after  the  re-  conquer  the  Philippines.  With  a  convoy  of  four 
tirement  of  Webster.  He  was  a  man  of  profound  ships  Legazpe  arrived  there  in  1565,  and  seut 
learning,  especially  in  the  civil  law,  and  his  out  parties  to  explore  and  occupy  the  country, 
essays  on  literary  and  general  topics  were  equal  The  first  settlement  was  made  at  San  Miguel  on 
to  anything  of  the  kind  produced  at  the  time  in  the  island  of  Zebu  (May,  1565),  and  after  corn- 
America.  His  writings  were  edited  by  his  sister  pleting  the  conquest  of  Luzon  he  founded  the 
in  two  volumes  (1846).  city  of  Manila   (May,  1571).     The  islands  were 

LEGATE   (Lat.  legatus,  ambassador,  deputy,  annexed  with  little  bloodshed,  thanks,  in  a  great 

lieutenant,  governor,  from  legare,  to  send  on  a  °»«*«^Ef'  *^  the  humane  nature  of  Legazpe  him- 

commission,  bequeath).    A  title  most  commonly  5f.^  .  Thej;  received  from  him  the  name  of  Islas 

applied   to  the   diplomatic  and  other   represen-  Filipinas,  in  honor  of  Philip  II. 
tatives  of  the  Pope  outside  of  Rome.     Legates         LEGEND    (OF.    legende,   Fr.    Ugende,    from 

are  of  three  kinds:    (1)   Legati  a  latere   (from  ML.  legenda,  story,  from  Lat.  legenda,  nom.  pl.« 

the  side) ;    (2)   commissioners  or  nuncios,  legati  neu.  oi  legendusy  to  be  read,  gerundive  of  legere, 

mi88i,  nuntii  apostolici,  with  a  minor  class  of  to   read).     In   the   technical   language   of   folk- 

internuntii;    (3)  legates  by  virtue  of  their  office,  lore,  a  narrative  relating  to  a  sacred  person  or 

legati  nati.    The  dignity  of  a  legate  a  latere  has  locality,  and  connected  with   religious  belief  or 

been  confined  to  cardinals  since  the  decree  of  In-  worship.    Legends  were  primarily  lives  of  Chris- 

nocent   IV.    (1243-54)    on  the  subject.     Legates  tian  saints,  because  these  were  included  in  the 

a  latere  are  either  ordinary  or  extraordinary;  selections    (legenda)    to  be  read  in  public  wor- 

the  first  commonly  governed  provinces  within  the  ship.     (See  Lesson.)     In  the  early  Church,  on 

Papal   States;   the  second  are  commissioned  to  the  anniversary  of  a  martyr,  it  appears  to  have 

visit  foreign  courts  for  special  purposes,  such  as  been   usual   to   read   the   story   of   his   passion, 

a  negotiation  for  a  peace  or  arrangements  for  a  Later,  readings  from  lives  of  the  saints  formed 

general   council.     The   legati   missi   or   nuncios  a  part  of  monastic  worship  (office  of  noctums). 

correspond    to    the    ambassadors    or    ministers  Different  churches,  according  to  local  ideas  and 

maintained  by  secular  States  at  foreign  capitals,  stories,    enlarged    the   lives   of   their   respective 

The  dignity  and  jurisdiction  of  a  legatua  natus  is  saints,  so  that  in  time  it  became  necessary  to 

permanently  attached  to  a  metropolitan  see  by  gather  and  coordinate  the  material.    As  a  result 

Papal  concession;  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  of  this  process,  toward  the  end  of  the  thirteenth 

held  this  position  up  to  the  Reformation,  and  century.  Jacobus  de  Voragine    (James  of  Vara- 

Cardinal   Richelieu   attempted   to   secure   it   for  gium)   composed  the  famous  Legenda  Aurea,  or 

himself.     Legates  formerly  exercised  an  imme-  Golden  Legend.     The  term  legend  there  denoted 

diate  jurisdiction  as  representing  the  Holy  See;  the  entire  work,  but   subsequently   it  came   to 

hence  frequent  conflicts  with  local  episcopal  au-  designate  the  story  of  any  particular  saint.    The 

thority  arose.   To  quiet  these  conflicts,  the  Coun-  tendency  of  such  narratives  was  toward  a  pres- 

cil  of  Trent   (Sess.  xxiv.  cap.  20)    decreed  that  entation    continually    more    fanciful.      Legends, 

legates  were  not  to  presume  on  the  strength  of  at  first  brief  and  simple,  became  long  and  imagi- 

any  faculties  whatsoever  to  impede  the  bishops  in  native.     Consequently,  they  came  to  be  regarded 

matrimonial   causes   or   in    those   of   criminous  with   suspicion,   so   that  the   word   was    finally 

clerks,  nor  to  toke  proceedings  unless  recourse  taken  to  signify  any  narrative  professing  to  be 

had  been  had  to  the  bishop  and  he  had  neglected  historical,  but  in  reality  of  a  traditional   and 

to  act.     An  authority  somewhat  similar  to  the  imaginative  character. 

ancient    l^atine    jurisdiction    was    granted    by        in  regard  to  origins,  the  general  principle  is 

Pope  Leo  XIII  t»  a  permanent  apostolic  delegate  that  a  story  primarily  historical   (though  from 

for  the  United  States  and  to  one  for  Canada;  ^he  first  often  also  semi- fabulous)    becomes,  in 

and  similar  officials  have  been  sent  also  to  the  ^^urse    of    time,    more    and    more    imaginative 

Philippines  and  to  Cuba  to  adjudicate  the  oues-  through    absorption    of    material    from    current 

HTftS"^"^"^*  Spanish-Amencan  War  literature  or  folk-lore,  in  such  a  manner  that  the 

of  1898.  actual   occurrence   is  resolved  into  the  popular 

LEGATIOH.  A  diplomatic  minister  or  envoy  ideal.  This  process  has  by  no  means  ceased ;  as 
and  his  suite,  or  persons  associated  with  him  in  examples  may  be  cited  the  accounts  of  modern 
bis  official  capacity.  The  term  is  also  employed  Russian  Jewish  rabbis,  to  whom  are  popularly 
to  designate  his  official  residence  and  inclosure.  ascribed  wonderful  qualities  bestowed  after  the 
The  word  'legation'  is  also  sometimes  employed  to  pattern  of  Talmudic  authors.  Thus  the  person- 
denote  the  territorial  jurisdiction  or  district  of  ality  of  the  founder  of  the  fanatical  sect  of  the 


LBGEKD.                                90  LEGENDBE. 

Chasidim,  Baal  Shem  (Israel  Besht),  who  lived  can  Folk-Lore  Society,  vol.  y.    (Boston,  1897). 

in  the  eighteenth  century,  has  become  obscured  For  the  immense  literature   of   Christian  •lives 

in  the  accounts  of  his  admirers,  who  represent  of  the  saints  and  legends  of  the  Virgin,  consult 

him  as  a  miracle-worker,  predicted  by  prophets,  the  authorities  referred  to  under  the  correspond- 

and  encompassed  with  an  aureole;   the  man  him-  ing  titles.     The  Legenda  Aurea  of  Jacobus  de 

self  seems  to  have  been  a  quiet  mystic.    The  un-  Voragine  was  printed  in  English  translation  by 

historical  elements  which  have  been  incorporated  Caxton     ( 1484) ;     recently    reprinted    by    Ellis 

in  legends  may  be  referred  to  several  categories.  (London,  1900)  ;    a  French  translation  by  Roze 

For  instance,  a  great  influence  has  been  exercised  (Paris,  1902).    See  Mabttbolooy;  Mythology; 

by  the  tendency  to  repeat  types  and  events  of  the  Saint. 

Old  and  New  Testaments.  A  second  class  of  LEQEN'I).  In  music,  the  title  of  compositions 
l^endary  incidents  arises  from  a  confusion  of  that  are  based  on  some  legend  of  saints.  But 
fact  and  metaphor;  for  example,  inasmuch  as  to*day  the  title  is  frequently  given  by  composers 
the  name  Christopher  signifies  Christ-Bearer,  the  to  shorter  instrumental  compositions  of  an  ele- 
saint  was  represented  as  a  giant  carrying  on  his  giac  character  which  have  no  underlying  pro- 
shoulders  the  infant  Jesus.     Yet  a  third  class  gramme  whatever. 

represents  the  survival  of  ideas  and  beliefs  be-  LiKlEEDE  DES  SINGLES,  l&'zhaNd'dA  s^ 

longing  to  more  ancient  faiths,  as  in  the  (rela-  ^f^y^  l^  (p^..  The  Legend  of  the  Centuries).    A 

tively  late)  story  of  the  rescue  by  Saint  George  collection  of  brilliant  narrative  poems  by  Victor 

of  the  daughter  of  a  kmg  of  Libya,  which  pre-  jjugo    (1859),  depicting  episodes  from  different 

fieryes  the  tale  of  the  dragon-slayer  Perseus.  ^^  ^he  world's  history. 

A  word  must  be  said  on  the  literary  use  of  t  •m/i-n'M-rv  f\r»  ny\r%-r\  m/\<vrfAT      a              u 

Christian  legends.    During  the  Middle  Ages  their  I-EGEND  OF  GOOD  WOM^.     A  poem  by 

versification  continued  to  be  a  favorite  form  of  Chaucer  written  probably  m  1385.    He  mtended 

poetic  composition.     Rhymed  accounts  of  Saints  ^%  S^^^.  ^^^  ^^uT^""^-  u'"f ^""^^  celebrated  women 

Eulalia  and  Alexis  belonj^  to  the  principal  monu-  ^^  antiquity,  but  finished  only  nine.     The  plan 

ments   of  old   French   literature.     In   Germany,  was  token  from  Boccaccio's  Z)e  CZari*  Miz/tcri^ 

legends  were  poetically  treated  in  the  thirteenth  ^"S9^*"^^7  evidently  drew  also  from  Ovid,  Livy, 

<jenturv  by  Hartmann  von  Aue,  Rudolf  von  Ems,  |,^,^»"«j ,  ^f  F»^'    «2ji    *    ^^'^  V**"^^^^T  J"^ 

and   Konrad   von   WQrzburg.     The   Renaissance  V^^""]^'^  ^•'*^*-  J^''''''''  ^^  Dante  and  Guido 

and  the  Protestant  Reformation  put  an  end  to  ^^^l^  S?^*'''"^  ""^^  ^^  f  f ",*    Tennyson's  Dream  of 

this   literary  interest,  which,  however,  was  re-  ^^^'^  ^^^^^^  ^^«  modeled  on  this  poem, 

newed  during  the  romantic  revival  of  the  eigh-  LEGEND  OF  JTJBAL,  The.     The  title  of  a 

teenth  and  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth  cen-  collection  of  poems  by  George  Eliot  (1874). 

tury.     Legend  was  then  considered  less  as  veri-  LEGEND  OF  MONTHOSE,  A.    A  novel  by 

table  history  than  as  an  expression  of  sentiment  Sir  Walter  Scott  (1819). 

ai^  folk-thought.  LEGEND  OP  SLEEPY  HOLLOW,  The.    A 

From  a  primal  application  to  Christian  hagi-  tale  by  Washingt<m  Irving,  in  the  Sketch  Book. 
ology,  the  legend  has  been  extended  to  include  xhe  tradition  of  the  Headless  Horseman,  eon- 
histories  belonging  to  other  faiths  It  is  m  the  ^ected  with  the  spot,  is  used  bv  a  rival  for  the 
nature  of  things  that  every  people  should  pos-  h^nd  of  Katrina  van  Tassel  to  put  a  stop  to  the 
sess  a  multitude  of  traditional  narratives,  taken  courtship  of  Ichabod  Crane,  the  awkward  schooV 
to  be  historical,  and  explanatory  of  their  usages  master.  Ichabod's  wild  ride  in  his  fruitless  st- 
and beliefs.  Mohammedan  saints  also  have  their  tempt  to  escape  his  ghostly  companion  ends  at  the 
legends,  which  have  not,  however,  found  a  place  bridge,  when  the  headless  rider  rises  on  his 
in  the  authorized  worship.  In  dealing  with  the  horse  and  hurts  his  head  at  the  luckless  school- 
religion  of  ancient  Greece,  it  is  usual  to  distin-  master,  who  falls  to  the  ground  and  is  not  seen 
guish  legends  of  heroes  from  myths  concerning  again.  The  discovery  of  a  shattered  pumpkin  on 
the  gods,  as  if  the  former  had  more  of  an  his-  the  spot  of  the  encounter  is  left  unexplained,  but 
torical  element,  while  the  latter  were  more  pure-  Katrina's  successful  suitor  laughs  knowingly 
ly  imaginative ;  but  this  distinction  is  by  no  ^hen  the  subject  is  mentioned, 
means  clear  or  well  defined  Among  American  LEGENDRE,  Ic-zhiliv'dr',  Admen  Marie 
Indians  the  name  of  legend  has  been  given  to  (1752-I833).  A  French  mathematician,  bom  in 
sacred  histories  which  relate  to  personages  hon-  p^^is.  He  early  became  professor  of  mathe- 
ored  in  the  cult,  and  which  frequently  supply  ^^tics  in  the  military  school,  and  later  in  the 
information  respecting  the  origin  and  migrations  ^^rmal  school  at  Paris.  He  was  a  member  of 
of  the  tribe  It  is  probable  that  similar  legends,  the  Academy  and  of  the  Bureau  of  Longitudes, 
of  a  quasi-historical  character,  constitute  a  uni-  ^nd  in  1816  was  appointed  examiner  for  ad- 
versal  property  of  races  m  a  primitive  condition  mission  to  the  Ecole  Polytechnique.  In  1824. 
of  culture.               ^        ^1                        .          ...  in  an  election  at  the  Academv,  because  he  did 

BiBLiocEAPHY.     For    the    manner    m    which  „^t  vote  for  the  candidate  of' the  Government, 

legends  became  part  of  public  worship,  as  well  ^^  ^.^s  deprived  of  his  pension,  and  he  died  in 

as  for  an  account  of  Old  English  legends,  con-  poverty.     Legendre  was   one  of   the   leaders   in 

suit:    Horstmann,  Altenglische  Legenden    (Heil-  introducing  the   metric   system,    and   was   asso- 

bronn,  1881)  ;  for  remarks  on  classification  and  ciated  with  Prony  in  preparing  the  great  centesi- 

origin  of  legends.  Maury,  Croyances  et  Ugendes  mal    trigonometric   tables.      He    contributed   ex- 

du  moyen  Age  (Paris,  1896)  ;  for  literary  use  of  tensively  to  the  theory  of  attraction  (from  1783), 

legends    in    Germany.    Bttlow,    Zur    Nachfolge  and   introduced   into'  the   discussion   of   the   at- 

€hri8ti  (Leipzig,  1859)  ;    for  legends  of  Moham-  traction  of   spheroids  the   special   cases  of  La- 

medans,    Weil,    Bihlische   Legenden   der    Muael-  place's  coefficients  which  bear  his  name.    He  also 

ni4inner    (Frankfort,    1845)  ;     for   American-In-  wrote  important  memoirs   (1787-88)   on  geodesy, 

■dian  legends,  Matthews,   "Navaho  Legends  Col-  introducihg  a  method  of  treating  the  spherical 

lected  and  Translated."  in  Memoirs  of  the  Ameri-  triangle  as  plane,  provided  certain  corrections  arc 


LEG^NDBB.                             91  LEGEBDEKAIK. 

made  with  respect  to  the  angles.  The  method  of  fellow-men  with  a  sense  of  his  power;  it  is  con- 
least^  squares  was  introduced  in  his  Nouvelles  scious  deception.  This  distinction  is  significant 
mithodes  mentioned  below,  although  Gauss  had  in  the  history  of  magic  and  is  maintained  even  in 
already  (1795)  used  it.  The  celebrated  law  of  modern  civilization ;  for,  although  many  forms  of 
quadratic  reciprocity  (see  Number),  which  the  first  type  of  magic  are  imitated  by  tricks  of 
Gauss  called  'the  gem  of  arithmetic/  appeared  legerdemain,  notoriously  in  the  spiritualistic 
in  a  memoir  of  1785,  but  the  first  proof  was  stance,  there  still  persists  credulity  in  occv.ltism 
given  in  his  ThSorie  dea  nomhrea.  The  most  im-  in  connection  with  the  frankest  recognition  of  the 
portant  of  Legendre's  works  is  the  Traits  dea  natural  causes  of  the  deceptions  of  jugglery. 
fonctions  elliptiquea,  upon  which  he  worked  for  Legerdemain  and  jugglery  are  sometimes 
forty  years.  It  is  a  tribute  to  his  generosity  that  grouped  under  the  title  'natural  magic,*  probably 
just  as  his  work  was  appearing  the  labors  of  on  the  analogy  of  'natural  philosophy,'  since  so 
Abel  and  Jacobi  became  known,  and  were  at  once  many  of  their  deceptions  are  applications  of  sim- 
recognized  by  him  as  superior  to  his  own.  He  pie  principles  of  physics  and  chemistry;  but  the 
even  went  so  far  as  to  embody  them,  with  due  two  terms  are  not  precisely  synonvmous.  Jug- 
credit,  in  his  last  volume.  (See  Functions.)  glery  is  the  broader  term*,  d'enotmg  not  only 
The  work  which  had  the  greatest  popularity,  and  tricks  of  deception,  but  performances  \vith  para- 
whieh  was  a  classic  for  a  century,  was  his  phernalia  demanding  great  skill  and  dexterity, 
EUmenta  de  g^ometrie  (1794,  15th  ed.  1881;  in  which  no  deception  is  intended.  Legerdemain, 
Ger.  trans,  by  Crelle,  6th  ed.  1873;  Eng.  trans,  however,  is  confined  simply  to  tricks  of  deception. 
1860).  The  later  editions  of  this  work  contain  The  diverse  development  is  perhaps  illustrated 
his  proof  of  the  irrationality  of  r  and  ir*.  His  in  the  jugglers  of  India  and  those  of  Japan.  The 
other  works  are :  Eaaai  aur  la  th^orie  dea  nom-  performances  of  the  former  so  often  cited,  such  as 
hrea  (1798;  4th  ed.  1900;  Ger.  trans,  by  Maser,  the  mango  trick,  the  basket  trick,  and  the  snake- 
1886);  Nouvelle  ihiorie  dea  paralUlea  (1803);  charming  trick,  are  properly  legerdemain,  de- 
youvellea  mWiodea  pour  la  determination  dea  pending  for  their  deception  upon  some  type  of 
orhitea  dea  comHea  (1806)  ;  Exercicea  de  calcul  substitution;  whereas  the  feats  of  the  Japanese 
integral  (1807;  new  ed.,  3  vols.,  1819);  TraitS  are  very  largely  feats  of  equilibration,  as  the 
dea  fonctiona  elliptiguea  et  intSgralea  EuUriennea  balancing  of  objects  upon  various  parts  of  the 
(3  vols.,  1826-32).  body,  demanding  great  skill,  but  not  as  a  rule 

liEGEB,    Xe-zhtf,  Louis   Paul  Mabie    ( 1843  designed  to  deceive. 

— ).      A    French   writer   and   linguist,   bom   at  In  legerdemain  proper  the  essential  feature  is 

Toulouse.    He  was  educated  at  the  Lyo6e  Louis-  generally  an  act  of  substitution,  as  when,  for  ex- 

)e-Grand,  and  early  turned  his  attention  to  the  ample,    the   performer   seems   to   discover   eggs, 

study  of  Slavic  languages.     In  1864  he  went  to  money,  and  the  like  objects  in  places  previously 

Bohemia,  and  this  visit  was  followed  by  many  perceived  to  be  empty.     Often  the  substitution 

others  to  that  country,   Hungary,   Poland,   and  requires  for  its  efficiency  elaborate  mechanical 

especially  to  Russia.    After  teaching  at  the  Sor-  devices,  though  the  most  skillful  thaumaturgists 

bonne,  he  was  at  the  Ecole  Sp^ciale  des  Langues  prefer  to  rely  upon  their  own  manual  dexterity. 

Orien tales,   where   he  became   full   professor   in  The  power  of  deceiving  is  almost  invariably  due 

1877.     In   1885   he  was  appointed  professor  of  to  power  of  diverting  the  percipient's  attention 

the  Slavic  languages  and  literatures  at  the  Col-  at  a  crucial  moment---the  moment  of  the  substi- 

lege  of  France.    Besides  his  contributions  to  the  tution.     In  this  even  more  than  in  celerity  of 

important  journals  of  the  day,  he  wrote  such  movement    lies    the    essence    of    the    art.      The 

works  as  Etudea  alavea  (1875)  ;  Nouvellea  ^tudea  psychological  principles  underlying  the  deception 

alavea  (1880;  second  series  1886)  ;  Contea  alavea  rest  wholly  upon  the  laws  of  attention.    In  pro- 

(1882);     Chronique    dite    de    Neator    (1884);  portion  as  attention  is  intensified,  its  scope  be- 

La  8a/ve,  le  Danube  et  le  BaJkan   (1884)  ;   La  comes  narrowed;    as,  for  example,  concentrated 

Bulgarie  (1885)  ;  Hiatoire  de  VAutriche-Hongrie  inspection  of  any  object  renders  stimuli  affecting 

(1878  and  1889) ;  Ruaaea  et  Slavea  (1890) ;  and  the  marginal  regions  of  the  field  of  vision  prac- 

La  litt4rature  ruaae  (1892).  tically  invisible.    It  is,  accordingly,  the  first  duty 

LEOEBBEMAIN,  lej'?rd^-mfin'  (Fr.,  sleight  of  the  performer  to  centre  the  percipient's  at- 

of  hand).     The  art  of  performing  tricks  of  de-  tention  as  strongly  as  possible  upon  the  object- 

ception — ^in  the  narrower  sense,  with  the  hands  matter  of  the  trick  to  be  performed.     Succeed- 

alone;    broadly,   with   any   aid  of   physical   ap-  ing  >»  this,  he  gains  a  practical  control  over  the 

pliances.  percipient's  range  of  vision  and  has  little  difii- 

The  arts  of  magic,  seemingly  as  ancient  as  ^^^^7  i"  diverting  it  at  the  crucial  moment  It 
human  intelligence,  are  of  two  general  types :  ™*y  ^^^^  be  said  that  the  keenest  scrutiny  is  the 
(1)  Forms  such  as  necromancy,  divination,  sor-  likeliest  to  fall  victim  to  the  trick. 
eery  or  enchantment,  perhaps  astrology,  in  which  The  part  of  the  legerdemainist  himself,  how- 
the  magician  works  by  means  of  spells,  incanta-  ever,  is  one  of  great  difficulty ;  foy  he  niust  be 
tions,  or  of  some  occult  science  supposed  to  give  able  to  discoOrdinate  his  actions  and  diversify 
him  knowledge  of  superhuman  agencies  and  power  his  attention  to  a  degree  only  attainable  by  long 
to  direct  them;  (2)  legerdemain  and  jugglery  in  practice.  His  hands  and  eyes  must  be  trained  to 
which  the  magician  displays  his  own  skill  at  work  apart — ^the  hands  performing  the  substitu- 
wonder-working,  Ordinarify,  among  primitive  fion,  eyes  and  bodily  pose  misleading  the  per- 
peoples,  the  magician — witch-doctor,  medicine  cipient.  Similarly,  his  attention  must  oompre- 
man,  or  what  not — is  himself  deceived  by  the  hend  and  direct  many  diverse  details  at  once, 
usages  of  magic  of  the  first  type,  receiving  them  The  origin  of  thaumaturgy  is  of  remote  an- 
as mysteries  of  his  cult  and  implicitly  relying  tiquity.  Savages  the  world  over  have  developed 
upon  their  efficacy.  Magic  of  the  second  type,  cults  and  mysteries  which  transmit,  with  other 
however,  is  used  and  understood  by  him  merely  lore,  tricks  of  legerdemain  from  generation  to 
«8  a  means  of  impressing  his  more  ignorant  generation.  The  Navaho  Indians  perform  a  tridc 
Vou  XII.— 7. 


IiEGSSDEMATET.                          92  LBGHOJEUI. 

with  the  cactus  almost  identical  with  .the  mango  fucius),  with  Tso-chuan's  Commentary.  The  re- 
trick  of  India;  and  nearly  all  of  the  simpler  per-  maining  books  of  the  series — the  Yih,  King,  or 
fonnances  are  known  to  widely  separated  peo-  '*Book  of  Changes;"  the  Li £i,  or  "Book of  Rites;" 
pies.  The  wonder-workers  of  Egypt  and  Mesopo-  the  Hiao  King,  or  "Book  of  Filial  Piety" — were 
tamia  were  anciently  famous,  and  many  of  the  afterwards  published  at  Oxford,  without  the» 
miracles  recorded  indicate  that  the  Roman  Chinese  text,  and  are  found  in  the  "Sacred 
priests  utilized  principles  of  hydrostatics  and  Books  of  the  East"  series,  edited  by  Max  Mtiller. 
optics  for  the  production  of  illusions.  Jugglers  He  also  prepared  and  issued  for  the  use  of  gen- 
were  known  among  the  Anglo-Saxons,  but  appear  eral  readers  the  F'our  Books  without  the  Chinese 
to  have  attained  no  great  proficiency.  Indeed,  it  text,  and  the  critical  notes.  In  1886  he  also- 
was  only  with  Robert  Houdin  (1805-71)  that  prepared  and  issued  the  text  and  translation  of 
legerdemain  became  a  matter  of  science.  Houdin  A  Record  of  BtKidhistic  Kingdoms  by  the  Chi- 
built  many  clever  contrivances  and  wrote  several  nese  pilgrim  Fa-Lien  (a.d.  399-414),  with  an  in- 
books  on  the  subject,  never  claiming  to  be  a  troduction  and  critical  notes;  and  in  1891  in  the^ 
wonder-worker  in  miraculous  sense,  but  only  a  "Sacred  Books  of  the  East"  series,  The  Texts  of 
clever  manipulator.  Since  his  day  others — nota-  Taoism  (the  Tao-teh-king,  Chwang-tse,  and  the 
biy  the  Herrmanns — have  advanced  the  art  to  a  Kan-ying  Pien)  in  two  volumes.  He  also  pub- 
degree  far  in  advance  of  any  previously  attained,  lished  a  volume  on  The  Religions  of  China 
On  the  other  hand,  many  impostors  have  utilized  (1881).  He  wrote  Notions  of  the  Chinese  Con- 
legerdemain  to  produce  'materializations'  of  ceming  Ood  and  Spirits,  and  Confucianism  in'. 
spirits,  clairvoyant  readings,  slate-writings,  and  Relation  to  Christianity  (1877). 
the  like.  Hypnotism  has  also  been  widelv  used  LBCKOETT,  Mortimicb  Bobiieb  (1831-96). 
by  professional  exhibitors— often  fraudulently;  j^j^  American  soldier,  bom  in  Ithaca,  N.  Y.  He- 
and  very  many  tricks  which  are  merelv  exhi-  early  removed  to  Ohio,  and  there  studied  at  first 
bitions  of  known  natural  prmciples  or  feats  of  medicine  and  aften^-ards  law,  which  last  he 
apparent  strength,  as  the  supporting  of  weighte  practiced  with  success.  From  1865  to  1868  he  was 
on  the  pelvic  arch,  have  been  passed  as  thauma-  professor  of  pleading  and  practice  in  the  Ohio, 
turgic  phenomena.  College  of  Law,  and  in  1858  becmne  superinten- 

Consult:     Pousin,  youreZte  magte  hlanche  d4-  ^ent  of  schools  at  Zanesville.     At  the  outbreak 

votive   (Pans,  1863-54)  ;  8orceller%e  anaenne  et  of  the  Civil  War  he  helped  raise  the  78th  Ohio- 

moderns  expltqu^e   (1868)  ;  Robert  Houdin.  fife-  Volunteer  Infantry,  of  which,  in  January,  1862, 

V^Jn^^  ia  pre«*uitflrt<a*ion  et  deUi  mapte  (Pans,  ^^  ^^g  commissioned  colonel,  and  which  he  com- 

JSS?   '  TT     1^®^';^  Natural     Magic     (London,  sanded  at  Fort  Donelson,  Shiloh,  and  Corinth. 

1851);  Hopkins,  ifo^ic   (New  York,  1898).  j^  November,  1862,  he  was  appointed  bri^ier- 

LEGEB-LINES  (OF.  legier,  leger,  Fr.  I4ger,  general  of  volunteers,  and  participated  m  the- 
It  leggiero,  light,  from  Lat.  levis,  light).  In  Vicksburg  campaign,  during  which  he  was- 
music,  the  name  of  the  short  lines  above  or  below  wounded.  Later  hd  commanded  the  Third  Di- 
the  staflT,  which  are  used  to  express  those  notes  vision  of  the  Seventh  Army  Corps  on  Sherman's, 
which  lie  beyond  the  five  lines  of  the  staff.  The  march  to  the  sea.  He  was  brevetted  major-gen- 
spaces  between  these  auxiliary  lines  are  called  eral  of  volunteers  in  July,  1864,  and  was  com- 
leger-spaces.  missioned  major-general  a  year  later.     He  waa. 

LBOGB,  James   (1815-97).     A  Scottish  mis-  appointed  United  ISte^^ 

sionary  and  Sinologist;  born  at  Huntley,  Aber-  '"  ^^^h  and  held  that  position  until  1881,  when? 

deenshire.     He  was  educated  at  the  Aberdeen  ^«  resigned  to  resume  his  private  practice. 

Grammar  School  and  Aberdeen  University,  where  LEOGBTT,  Wiluam   (1802-39).     An  Ameri- 

he  graduated  in  1835,  and  proceeded  to  London,  can  author,  born  in  New  York  City.     He  was 

entering  Highbury  Theological  School.     Having  educated  at  Georgetown  College,  D.  C,  entered 

been  ordained,  he  was  sent  in  1839  by  the  Lon-  the  navy  in  1822  as  midshipman,  and  served  un- 

don  Missionary  Society  to  the  East  as  a  mission-  til   1826.     During  this  time  he  had  written  a 

ary  to  the  Chinese.    Until  1842  he  was  sUtioned  volume  of  poems,  entitled  Leisure  Hours  at  Sea,. 

at  Malacca,  but  when  Hong  Kong  became  a  Brit-  and    after    resigning    from    the    navy    he    cora- 

ish  colony  in  that  year  he  moved  thither.    From  menced  his  literary  work  as  editor  of  the  Critic, 

the  first  he  was  an  earnest  and  industrious  stu-  a  weekly  journal,  which  was  afterwards  united 

dent  of  Chinese,  giving  his  attention  chiefly  to  with    the   New   York    Mirror.      Several    of   his. 

the    Chinese    classics.      His    missionary    labors,  articles  which  appeared  in  the  Mirror  and  other 

however,  were  not  neglected,  and  during  his  years  magazines  he  subsequently  published  in  a  volume* 

of  service  in  that  colony  he  baptized  no  fewer  with  the  title   of   Tales  by  a  Country  School- 

than  600  converts,  besides  acting  as  the  pastor  master,  which  was  followed  by  Sketches  at  Sea, 

of  the  Union  Church.     In  1876  he  became  pro-  In    1829  he  became   one  of  the  editors  of  the 

fessor  of  Chinese  language  and  literature  at  Ox-  Evening  Post,  and  in  connection  with  this  work 

ford  University,  a  chair  which  had  been  founded  attracted    attention    by    vigorously    denouncing- 

especially  for  him.  those  who  mobbed  the  abolitionists  in  1835,  and 

His  greatest  aiid  most  lasting  work  was  his  by  earnestly  defending  the  right  of  free  discus- 
translation  of  the  Chinese  classics.  Between  1861  sion.  Retiring  from  the  Post  in  1836,  he  estab- 
and  1873  he  issued  at  Hong  Kong  eight  volumes,  lished  the  Plaindealer.  He  was  appointed  by- 
containing  the  Chinese  text,  translation,  and  President  Van  Buren  diplomatic  agent  to  Guate- 
most  elaborate  and  learned  Prolegomena,  The  mala,  but  died  suddenly  at  New  Rochelle  while 
Four  Books,  containing  "The  Analects  of  Con-  preparing  for  his  departure.  He  had  many  de- 
fucius,"  "The  Great  Learning,"  "The  Doctrine  voted  friends,  among  whom  was  William  C. 
of  the  Mean,"  and  Mendus:  the  Shu  King  or  Bryant,  who  wrote  a  highly  eulogistic  poetical 
"Book  of  History;"  the  Shih  King  or  "Book  of  tribute  to  his  memory. 

Poetry;"  and  the  Ch*un  Ch'un,  or  "Spring  and  LEG^HOBN  (It.  lAvomo,  ML.  Lihumum,  Lat. 

Autumn"  (the  only  work  ever  written  by  Con-  Port  us  Heroulis  lAbumi,  Partus  Lahronig)^    A 


LEGHOBN.                              93  LEGIOK. 

dtj  of  Italy  in  Tuscany,  on  the  Mediterranean,  via  the  Black  Sea;    other  imports  are  spirits, 

capital  of  the  Province  of  Leghorn,  113  miles  by  sugar,   tobacco,   cotton,   wool,   hides,   and   coal. 

rail  southeast  of  Genoa,  208  miles  northwest  of  The  value  of  the  exports  and  imports  in   1900 

Rome,  02  miles  west  of  Florence  (Map:  Italy,  E  was    $9,700,000    and    $16,000,000    respectively. 

4).    In  1551  it  had  only  749  inhabitants;  but  now  The  armored  vessels  of  the  Italian  navy  are  built 

the  only  Italian  cities  surpassing  or  rivaling  it  at  the  works  of  the  Orlando  Brothel's.    Among 

commercially  are  CSenoa  and  Naples.     The  city  the    manufactures    are    glass,   porcelain,   coral 

has  broad,    straight,    well-paved    streets,    laree  ornaments,  and  chemical  products.     There  are 

public  squares,  and   splendid  boulevards.     The  iron-foundries.    Population,  in  1881  (commune), 

main  street,  on  which  are  all  the  principal  shops,  97,615;    in   1901,  98,321.     Leghorn  became  im- 

is  the  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele,  running  east  from  portant  only  after  the  decay  of  the  neighboring 

the    harbor    and    crossing    the    broad    Vittorio  city  of  Porto  Risano,  the  harbor  of  which-  is  now 

Emanuele  Square,  in  which  is  an  equestrian  sta-  entirely  filled  up.     It  came  into  the  possession 

tue  of  King  Victor  Emmanuel  by  Rivalta.     In  of  Florence  in  1421,  was  fortified  by  Alessandro 

(jaribaldi  Square  is  a  monument  to  the  great  de'  Medici,  and  was  declared  a  free  port   (the 

patriot;    in   Carlo  Alberto   Sauare   are   colossal  first  in  the  Mediterranean)   by  the  Grand  Duke 

statues  of  Ferdinand  III.  ana  Leopold  II.,  the  Cosimo   I.     Consult  Vivoli,  Annali  di  Livomi 

last    Grand    Dukes    of    Tuscany;     in    Cavour  (Leghorn,  4  vols.,  1842). 

Square   is   a   marble   statue  of  the  statesman;  rirnmw     /t-*      i^^wV      *.,./««v^*w    .     n^^^f 

ta"  Micheli   Sq^r.   a   .tatue   of   Ferdinand   I..  ^ehS '^fom  ^fc.U'^C  ch^«;^''^aelk'   S^ 

S-ce^ry  LS;?'iher!l.™*'twX'th?2^  >f»'^.tegein.  to  I.o^)     :n.e  Uctical  unit  of  the 

leenin  century  cainearai  tnere  are  twenty  tnree  Ko^an  ,„„_      i^  e„ly  Rome,  the  army  con- 

Gr«k.  Armenian,  Waldenaian,  Srottish) ,  and  a  ^j,^  ^  ^j  „j  ^^^^  ^^,  ^^  ^^  ^y^^  ,„ 
handwme  syni^gogue  founded  m  1581.  The  most  irregilar  force  that  could  be  summoned  to  com- 
interesting  public  butWing  is  the  roval  castle.  ,,at  in  time  of  need  by  the  chief.  Romulus  is 
There  are  several  good  hotels  and  a  num-  „id  to  have  organised  Vi  force  consisting  of  3000 
A  ^'-J**'***!"*^  establishment  with  caffis  .,.^^  „^  ,^» ^  infantrymen,  and  300  celeres, 
and  terraces.  Leghorn's  popularity  as  a  bath-  „  hor^men  (knights)  j  these  were  furnished  ii^ 
mg  resort  is  constantly  growing,  and  dunng  j  „„„berg  (?ne  thousand  milites  and  one 
the  season,  from  July  16th  to  September  16th  J^ndred  celeres)  by  each  of  the  three •  tribes, 
many  of  the  villas  aloM  the  shore  to  the  south  Ramnes,  Tities,  and  Luceres,  into  which  the  citi- 
are  occupied  by  EMlish  and  Americans.  Elec-  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^^^  and  commanded  severally  by 
tnc  cars  connect  the  railway  station  with  the  ^^e  trihunus  militum  and  the  tribunus  cclerum. 
bathing  estaUishmimts  and  with  the  subuAwi  „.  ^g,  ^i  Servius  Tullius,  however,  accord- 
summer  resorts  of  Ardenia  and  Anti«iano.  The  ,  ^  the  tradition  of  the  ancients,  who  first  or- 
new  r*<*-track  near  Ardenza  is  one  of  the  best  » j^^  ^^^  ^rmy  on  a  substantial  iilitaiy' basis. 
B  Italy.  Montenero,  two  and  a  half  miles  from  f^  accordance  ^th  the  democratic  reforms  of 
Ardenza.  »  a  resort  for  pilgrims,  having  an  t^^  ^j^g  the  warriors  were  not  drawn  exclusive- 
tmageof  the  Madonna  much  esteemed  by  sailors.  ,     ,,„„  t^^  patriciate;  the  lower  classes  also, 

1^  7**tfc.T'^  '^  ^i"*"  *""°  *^  •*"""*  ^'^J^  or  proUtarii.  were  pemlitted  to  bear  arms.  The 
lognole,  thirteen  miles  away  and  is  stored  in  i^^^^  or  youngs  men,  from  seventeen  to 
an  imm^se  reservoir.  Educational  institutions  forty-gii,  fonied  the  bjickbone  of  the  army,  and 
are  the  Royal  Marine  Academy,  the  Royal  Com-  tore  the  brunt  of  actual  fighting  in  the  field;  the 
mercial  Marine  Institute,  a  .Vceum  a  ffirmna-  .^f^^,  ^Ider  men,  from  forty-six  to  sixty,  de- 
srem,  and  a  public  library  with  60,000  volumes,  f^^^^  ^^^  ^j^  an^  ^^  the  field  in  times  of 
Oiantable  institutions  f re  two  pest-houses,  a  ^^j  „eed.  They  fought  in  the  form  of  the 
ereathospiUl.  founded  in  1622,  an  asylum  for  ^^^^4  „  solid  b6dy,  without  any  regular  di- 
foundlings.  and  an  orphan  asylum  Leghorn  is  (Ijgion  j^to  batulions,  except  on  the  basis  of  age 
t^  seat  of  a  bishop,  and  of  an  American  and  and  rank  described  above  f  a  system  that  wis 
otlier  foreign  consuls  .  „  , .  „  ,.  ,  maintained  until  the  beginning  of  the  fourth 
The  inner  harbor  (Porto  Veochio  or  Mediceo)  ^„^  ^^^^  a  new  refoni  is  said  to  have 
admits  vessels  of  small  draught  only;  the  outer  been  organized  by  Camillus  (n.c.  390).  This 
Il^'u'  Nuovo),  added  in  1854,  is  pro-  „e„  gygt^^  ^ad  for  its  basis  the  legio,  or  army 
tected  by  a  semicircular  mole  flye-eighths  of  a  corps,  two  of  which  formed  the  eiercitus  con- 
mile  long,  with  lighthouses  at  both  ends.  From  ,„jo„>,  or  consular  army.  The  legion  was  com- 
them  18  to  be  had  a  «)mprehensive  view  of  the  sanded  by  six  trihuni  militum,  always  mem- 
city  and  of  the  islands  of  Elba,  Gorgona,  and  ters  of  the  nobility,  who  took  turns,  by  the  day  or 
Capraja.  On  a  rocky  island  in  the  outer  harbor  the  month,  in  the  actual  command.  Legions  were 
IS  a  lighthouse  (Faro)  erected  m  1303.  Nnmer-  always  enrolled  for  a  single  year's  campaign, 
ous  canals  intersect  the  town,  and  a  ship  canal  and  dismissed  at  the  end  of  the  season.  The  war- 
connects  the  harbor  with  the  Amo,  which  flows  riors  were  compelled  to  furnish  their  own  equip- 
Into  the  Mediterranean  nine  miles  north.  Leg-  ment,  except  that  the  proletarii  were  equipped 
horn  has  regular  steamship  communication  with  by  the  State.  With  the  gradual  conquest  of  Italy, 
Genoa,  Corsica,  Malta,  the  Levant,  Marseilles,  however,  and  the  numerous  wars  with  nations 
and  Hamburg.  The  tonnage  of  vessels  entered  in  beyond  the  sea,  this  system  of  annual  citizen 
1885  and  1000  was  1,434,000  and  1,839,054  re-  soldiery  became  imnoesible,  and  war  tended  to 
spectively.     The  principal  exports   are   cotton,  become  a  profession. 

wool,  and  raw  silk  to  the  Levant;   other  exports  The  army,  as  organized  on  the  legionary  sys- 

are   olive   oil,   wine,   candied   fruit,  borax   and  tern  of  the  Republic,  was  divided  as  follows :  the 

boracie  acid,  tartar,  soap,  hemp,  hides,  quick-  legion  consisted  normally  of  4200  infantry  and 

•ilTer,    furniture,    and   marble.     The   principal  300  cavalry;  the  infantry  body  (aside  from,  the 

inporta  are  grain  and  petroleum  from  Russia  pro{etart«)' was  divided  into  thirty  maniples,  and 


UBOIOV.                                94  IiEGIOH. 

each  manijple  was  subdivided  into  two  centuries,  under  Septimius  Severus  there  was  a  total  of 
or  'companies.'  But  there  was  also  a  division  ac-  thirty-three  legions,  which  remained  the  full 
cording  to  age  and  experience.  Each  legion  had  number  until  the  reign  of  Diocletian.  Under  the 
1200  hastati,  or  younger  men,  forming  the  first  late  Empire,  the  quota  of  men  to  the  legion  was 
line  in  battle,  1200  principes,  men  of  riper  years,  reduced,  but  the  number  of  legions  was  vastly 
and  600  triafii,  or  veterans;  and  this  was  the  increased.  In  the  fourth  century  there  were 
legion  proper,  as  divided  into  maniples  and  oen-  more  than  175  legions  in  the  field, 
turies.  They  were  armed  with  bronze  helmets  The  legions  of  the  Empire  were  distinguished 
with  plumes  (cassis),  cuirass  (lorica),  greaves  by  numbers  and  names,  as  legio  VIII  Augusta^ 
(ocr^o;),  a  long  semi-cylindrical  shield  (seutttw),  legio  XII  Fulminata,  legio  XV  Apollinaris. 
and  a  short,  pointed,  double-edged  sword  ( gla-  Titles  were  sometimes  bestowed  by  the  Emperors, 
dius).'  The  hastati  and  principes  carried  also  as  special  marks  of  honor,  as  pia  (loyal),  vindem 
each  two  pila,  or  long,  heavy  javelins,  while  the  (avenging).  Sometimes  they  were  derived  from 
triarii  bore  lighter  lances.  In  addition  to  the  the  name  of  the  reigning  Emperor,  as  Severiana, 
nbove,  each  legion  had  1200  velites,  light-armed  Antoniniana,  and  often  from  the  place  of  service, 
troops  drawn  from  the  prole tarii,  armed  with  as  Italioa,  Macedonica,  On  the  legions  of  the 
leather  helmet  [galea)  t  round  shield  {parma).  Empire,  consult  Pfitzner,  Geschichte  der  ro» 
and  short  sword  {gladius).  The  300  horsemen  mischen  Kaiserlegionen  (Leipzig,  1881). 
iequites)  attached  to  the  legion  were  divided  LEGION,.  Theban  (Lat.  Legio  Thehana).  A 
into  ten  tumuB  of  thirty  horse  each,  each  iurma  legion  of  Christians,  said  to  have  suffered  mar- 
under  the  command  of  three  decurions.  Each  tyrdom  to  a  man  under  the  Emperor  Maximian 
infantry  maniple  was  captamed  by  a  centurion,  ( 286-305 ) .  As  the  story  goes  there  was  a  legion 
and  had  its  oi*ti  standard,  while  the  legion  as  a  in  the  Roman  army  recruited  in  the  Thebais, 
whole  had  its  eagle  {aguila  legionaria).  A  new  the  region  round  Thebes  in  Egypt,  led  by  Mauri- 
reform  m  anny  organization  was  due  to  Gains  tins,  and  made  up  entirelv  of  Christians.  This 
Marius  at  the  end  of  the  second  century  B.a  legion  the  Emperor  reviewed  at  Agaunum  in 
The  census  or  position  according  to  social  rank  Switzerland,  and  required  to  swear  allegiance  in 
wholly  ceased  to  be  regarded.  The  Italian  allies  the  usual  heathen  manner.  This  they  refused  to 
of  Rome  were  admitted  to  the  legions.  The  class  do  and  were  massacred  to  a  man.  This  event, 
of  velites  was  abolished,  and  the  cavalry  was  no  first  recorded  in  writing  in  the  fifth  century, 
longer  made  up  exclusively  of  Roman  equites.  made  so  profound  an  impression  that  the  name 
The  army  was  now  a  permanent  body,  and  twenty  of  the  place  was  later  changed  into  Saint  Mau- 
^ears  was  the  usual  term  of  service.  An  impor-  Hoe  and  a  Benedictine  monastery  built  there: 
tant  change  was  effected  also  in  the  internal  the  commander  became  Saint  Maurice,  patron 
organization  of  the  legion.  Its  tactical  division  saint  of  Magdeburg  and  many  other  places;  his 
was  no  longer  the  maniple,  but  the  cohort  lance  became  the  ensign  of  the  Burgundians,  and 
icohors).  The  three  lines  were  assimilated,  and  his  spear  part  of  the  investiture  of  the  Bur- 
the  legion  was  divided  into  ten  cohorts,  each  gundian  kings.  The  arguments  pro  and  con  for 
consisting  of  three  maniples,  or  six  centuries,  this  storv  are  given  in  the  Acta  Sanctorum  of  the 
At  the  same  time  the  effective  strength  of  the  Bollandists  under  September  22d. 
legion  was  increased,  but  during  the  civil  wars  REGION,  TnE  TnuNDEmNG  (Lat.  Legio  Fuh 
the  actual  number  of  men  vaned  with  the  ,^.^^^^j  A  legion  of  the  Roman  armv.  During 
exigencies  and  possibilities  of  the  case.  The  ^^^^^J  Aurelius's  war  with  the  Aiarcomanni 
normal  strength  of  the  cohort  was  soon  raised  to  ^^^  ^.^^  j^j^  according  to  the  narrative, 
600,  making  a  legion  of  6000  men  besides  aux-  ^-  ^^ut  up  in  a  mountainous  defile,  was  re- 
ihary  troops  and  cava  ry  drawn  from  the  bar-  ^^^^^  ^o  great  straits  by  want  of  water;  and 
barian  subjects  and  allies  of  Rome.  In  battle,  ^^^^^^  ^  ^^^^  ^f  Christian  soldiers  prayed  to  the 
the  legion  was  arranged  m  two  lines  of  five  q^  ^f  ^^^  Christians,  not  onlv  was  rain  sent 
cohorts  each ;  but  Coesar  altered  the  formation  seasonably  to  relieve  their  thirst,  but  this  rain 
to  three  lines,  of  four,  three,  and  three  cohorts,  ^^as  turned  upon  the  enemy  in  the  shape  of  a 
respectively.  The  chief  centurion  of  the  tnartt,  fearful  thunder-shower,  under  cover  of  which 
or  veterans,  known  as  primus  pilus,  was  the  the  Romans  attacked  and  utteriv  routed  them, 
ranking  officer  of  the  legion,  but  the  respon-  xhe  legion  to  which  these  soldiers  belonged  was 
Bibility  of  command  was  vested  in  the  legatus  thence,  according  to  one  of  the  narrators,  called 
legionis,  or  lieutenant-general,  while  the  six  the  Thundering  Legion.  This  legend  has  been  the 
iribuni  militum  remained  a  sort  of  honorary  subject  of  much  controversy;  and  it  is  certain 
staff  of  young  nobles,  who  used  this  irrespon-  that  the  last-told  circumstance  at  least  is  false, 
sible  form  of  military  service  as  a  first  step  in  ag  the  name  'Thundering  Legion*  existed  long  be- 
their  public  career,  but  were  actually  rather  a  fore  the  date  of  this  story.  There  would  appear, 
nuisance  in  the  army.  nevertheless,  to  have  been  some  foundation  for 
When  the  battle  of  Actium  (b.c.  31)  left  the  story.  The  scene  is  represented  on  the  col- 
Octavius  in  sole  control  of  the  Roman  world,  umn  of  Antoninus.  The  event  is  recorded  by 
there  were  remnants  of  fifty  legions  under  his  the  pagan  historian  Dion  Cassius  (Ixxi.  8),  who 
oommand.  In  B.C.  27  he  effected  a  thorough  attributes  it  to  Egyptian  sorcerers,  and  by  Capi- 
reorganization  of  the  Roman  armies,  reducing  the  tolinus  and  Themistius,  the  latter  of  whom  as- 
total  number  of  legions  to  twenty-three,  to  which  cribes  it  to  the  prayers  of  Aurelius  himself.  It 
he  added  two  new  ones  about  b.c.  5.  Lender  is  appealed  to  by  the  nearly  contemporary  Ter- 
the  Empire,  when  whole  legions  were  annihilated  tullian,  in  his  Apology  (c.  5),  and  is  circum- 
in  war,  either  they  were  newly  recruited  or  the  stantially  related  by  Eusebius,  by  Jerome,  and 
name  was  dropped.  The  number  of  legions,  how-  Orosius.  It  may  be  conjectured  that  the  fact  of 
ever,  gradually  increased.  Claudius  added  a  one  of  the  legions  being  called  'Thundering'  may 
new  one  after  hid  conquest  of  Britain;  Nero  have  led  to  the  localizing  of  the  story,  and  the 
created  three  more ;  Galba,  one ;  and  so  on  until  ascribing  of  the  name  to  this  particular  tegioa. 


LEGIOB'  OF  HOHOB.                      95  UBOISLATIOH. 

I^OIOK  OF  HOHOB.     A  French  order  of  sources  of  law.    Indeed,  the  complete  seDaration 

meiut  founded  by  Napoleon  in  1802  and  organ-  of  the  two  processes  is  a  device  of  modem  so- 

ized  two  years  later.     The  distinction  was  con-  ciety,  legislative  and  iudicial  functions  not  be- 

ferred   for  meritorious  conduct   in  military  or  ing  distinguished  in  the  earlier  stages  of  legal 

civil  life.    The  order  comprised  in  the  beginning  development. 

3665   chevaliers,   450   officers,   300   commanders.  Legislation  played  an  important  rOle  in  the 

105  grand  officers,  and  a  grand  master,  the  last  legal  development  of  the  Greek  republics  of  an- 

office   being   vested   in    Napoleon   himself.      All  tiquity,  especially  in  the  popular  assemblies  of 

members   at   their   initiation   were    required  to  Athens  and  Sparta,  but  it  attained  its  highest 

pledge  their  support  to  the  defense  of  the  State  development    in    the    republican    era    of    Rome, 

and  of  the  liberties  achieved  by  the  Sevolution.  Here  its  chief  organs  were  the  comitia,  or  popu- 

The   order   experienced   many    alterations    with  lar  assembly  of  free  citizens,  and  the   Senate, 

the  successive  changes  of  dynasties  in   France,  whose  decrees   (aenatua  consulta)  have  been  the 

Its    present    constitution   dates    from    the    year  model  of  succeeding  ages.     During  the  Imperial 

1872,  when  it  was  reorganized  into  five  classes  period  the  legislative  function  gradually  passed 

— chevaliers,  officers,  conmianders,  grand  officers,  out  of  the  hands  of  the  Senate  into  those  of  the 

and  grand  crosses.     Stipends  ranging  from  250  Emperor,  whose  judgments  and  decrees   (known 

francs  for  a  chevalier  to  3000  francs  in  the  case  variously  as  constitutions,  decrees,  rescripts,  and 

of  a  grand  cross  are  attached  to  these  dignities,  mandates)  had  the  force  of  law  without  further 

In    1892    the   order   numbered    43,851    members  sanction.    The  responses  of  the  jurists  {responaa 

of  all  classes,  and  by  law  of  1897  the  maximum  prudentum) ^   to   whom    the   actual    decision    of 

number  of  additional  crosses  to  be  distributed  doubtful    cases    was    referred,    likewise    derived 

was  fixed  at  14,320.     The  emblem  of  the  order  their  authority  from  their  confirmation  by  the 

is    a    five-rayed    star    of    white    enamel    edged  Emperor. 

with  gold,  bearing  on  its  obverse  the  image  During  the  mediaeval  period  legislation 
of  the  Republic  with  the  inscription  R^uhli^ue  throughout  Europe  was  a  function  of  the  prince, 
Frangaiae,  and  on  the  reverse  two  flags  with  sometimes  assisted  by  a  council,  but  never  con- 
the  motto  Honneur  et  Patrie,  It  is  surmounted  trolled  by  it.  Toward  the  close  of  the  Middle 
by  a  wreath  of  oak  and  laurel  and  is  suspended  Ages,  however,  the  rise  of  Parliament  in  Eng- 
from  a  red  ribbon.  Originally  the  cross  bore,  land  led  to  the  withdrawal  of  a  considerable  part 
instead  of  the  emblem  of  the  Republic,  the  por-  of  the  legislative  power  hitherto  exercised  by  the 
trait  of  Napoleon,  and  was  surmounted  by  an  King,  and  its  assumption  by  Parliament.  (See 
Imperial  crown.  The  order  is  also  conferred  on  Legislature.)  Elsewhere  this  power  was  re- 
foreigners,  and  in  some  taaes  upon  women.  tained  by  the  princes  until  the  nineteenth  cen- 

LEGISLATIOK.  The  creation,  alteration,  or  J«f  y»  d^^^S,  t^l^  ^J'^'se  of  which  period  represen- 
repeal  of  law,  by  the  act  of  the  sovereign.  In  Native  legislative  bodies  were  provided  m  all 
primitive  society  legislation  as  a  source  of  law  ^^^^  countries  which  established  constitutional 
had  little  or  no  place,  custom  and  usage  supply-  systems  of  government.  According  to  the  mod- 
ing  whatever  rules  were  found  to  be  necessary  for  ^^^  '^e*  o*  ^'^^  ^™'  legislation  has  reference 
the  regulation  of  the  common  affairs  of  the  com-  ^^  ^^^  formal  enactments  of  those  representative 
munity.  In  such  a  society  the  deficiencies  of  bodies  especially  created  for  purposes  of  law- 
customary  law  were  often  supplied  by  commands  making.  But  besides  the  body  of  legislation 
issued  by  the  King  or  chief,  sometimes  with  the  emanating  from  the  legislatures  there  is  another 
assent  of  his  warriors  or  nobles.  In  some  com-  important  body  of  law  peculiar  to  modern  States 
miinities  this  power  became  vested  in  a  special  which  goes  by  the  name  of  organic  or  funda- 
class  of  learned  persons,  as,  for  example,  the  mental  legislation,  and  is  embodied  in  the  vari- 
Druids  in  Britain  and  the  Brehons  in  Jreland.  ous  constitutions  of  government.  This  form  of 
The  disinclination  to  innovate  upon  the  custom-  legislation  differs  from  the  preceding  class  both 
ary  law,  however,  and  the  comparatively  few  as  to  source  and  status.  In  the  first  place,  it 
legislative  needs  of  a  primitive  society  made  the  emanates  usually  from  constituent  assemblies, 
enactment  of  new  law  a  rare  occurrence.  It  is  or,  as  they  are  popularly  called  in  America,  con- 
doubtful  if  the  great  ancient  codes  contained  stitutional  conventions;  and,  secondly,  it  takes 
much  new  law,  for  it  would  have  been  a  rash  precedence  in  authority  over  the  body  of  law 
act  for  a  lawgiver  to  presume  to  innovate  upon  w^hich  emanates  from  the  legislatures.  There  is 
the  immemorial  customs  of  the  race.  But  with  still  a  third  form  of  law-making  commonly 
the  growth  of  a  more  highly  developed  society  known  as  direct  legislation,  which  results  from 
and  the  advance  of  civilization  new  sources  of  the  application  of  the  principle  of  the  referendum 
law  made  their  appearance.  Legislation,  says  Sir  ( q.v. ) .  According  to  this  method  legislative 
Henry  Maine,  is  one  of  the  three  agencies  by  projects  are  initiated  by  the  legislature  or  by 
which  law  is  brought  into  harmony  with  society,  popular  petition  and  submitted  directly  to  the 
the  other  two  being  legal  fiction  and  equity,  electorate  for  its  approval  or  disapproval,  the 
Bentham,  however,  using  the  term  in  a  wider  validity  of  the  statute  being  conditioned  upon  its 
sense,  includes  both  legal  fiction  and  equity  un-  acceptance  by  a  majority  of  the  voters  at  the 
der  the  head  of  legislation,  on  the  ground  that  polls.  This  method  of  legislation  is  resorted  to 
all  three  processes  involve  the  making  of  new  quite  generally  in  Switzerland,  both  in  the 
law,  the  difference  being  only  one  of  method.  Fetleral  and  cantonal  governments,  as  well  as  in 
The  term  is  more  commonly  employed  in  the  spe-  many  of  the  American  States.  Recently  constitu- 
cial  sense  of  the  enactment  or  amendment  of  tional  amendments  have  been  submitted  in  sev- 
law  by  the  direct  action  of  the  sovereign,  or  of  a  eral  States  of  the  l^nion  for  the  establishment  of 
special  organ  of  the  State  to  which  the  legisla-  a  system  of  popular  initiative  in  legislation. 
tive  power  is  committed.  As  thus  employed,  it  such  as  exists  in  Switzerland.  There  are  iin- 
excludes  the  process  of  adjudication,  which  is,  doubtedly  signs  of  a  growing  tendency  in  the 
however    disguised,    one    of    the    most    prolific  United  States  to  accord  a  more  general  recogni- 


liEOISLATIOK.  96  LBGISLATTTKB. 

tion  to  this  method  of  legishition  as  a  means  in  the  European  systems.  Apart  from  this 
of  avoiding  certain  evils  of  the  representative  divergence  in  the  method  of  initiating  and  ex- 
system,  pediting  the  enactment  of  public  measures,  there 

The  last  form  of  lenslation  to  be  mentioned  u  a  substantial  consensus  among  the  leading 

in  this  connection  is  that  enacted  by  municipal  nations  of  the  world  as  to  the  general  principles 

and     quasi-municipal     corporations      (counties,  of  legislative  organization  and  procedure.   (See 

townships,  etc.).    This  class  of  legislation  deals  Leoislatube. )  The  constitutions  of  many  States 

w^ith  matters  chiefly  of  local  concern,  but  partly  prescribe  detailed  rules  in  regard  to  the  form  in 

of  interest  to  the  State  at  large,  and  is  enacted  which  projects  of  legislation  shall  be  cast,  their 

as  a  result  of  special  grant  from  the  legisla-  reference  to  committees,  the  number  of  readings 

ture.     In  Europe,  as  a  rule,  there  is  a  more  through  which  they  shall  pass,  the  keeping  of  a 

general  grant  of  legislative  power  to  the  locali-  journal,  the  recording  of  the  ayes  and  nays  in 

ties.     In  the  municipalities   (q.v.)   the  organ  of  certain  cases,  reconsideration  of  the  executive 

legislation  is  a  representative  council,  sometimes  veto,  and  sometimes  such  matters  as  amendments, 

consisting  of  a  single   chamber,   sometimes  of  divisions,  discipline,  and  petitions, 
two^  the  right  of  veto  usually  being  given  to        Consult:  Amos,  The  Science  of  Politics  (New 

the   mayor.     In   the   counties   it   is   usually   a  York,   1883) ;  Holland,  The  Elements  of  Juris- 

small  representative  board  of  commissioners  or  prudence    (Oxford,    1882)  ;    Maine,   Early  Low 

supervisors;   in  the  townships  it  is  sometimes  and  Custom  (London,  1883) ;  Burgess,  Political 

a  popular  assembly  of  the  voters,  sometimes  a  Science  and  Constitutional  Law  (£>ston,  1896) ; 

smaller  body  of  trustees  or  commissioners.  and  Lowell,  Oovemments  and  Parties  in  Conti- 

Stotutory  legislation  in  the  United  Stotes  is  nental  Europe  (2  vols.,  Boston,  1896). 
from  the  standpoint  of  its  territorial  application        LEOISLATUBE.     That  body  of  citizens  in 

classified   as  general,   when   it   applies   to  the  ^ny  State  or  nation,  or. part  thereof,  which  is 

SUte  as  a  whole,  and  specuU,  when  ite  applica-  specifically  empowered  to  make,  alter,  and  repeal 

tion  18  restricted  to  a  particular  locality.    The  tte  laws.    In  some  countries,  however,  the  poVer 

abuses  which  have  arisen  from  the  practice  of  ^^  ^he  legislature  is  more  or  less  restricted  by 

special  legislation  have  recently  led  to  the  mcor-  ^^at  is  iSiown  as  the  organic  law  of  those  coun^ 

poration  of  provisions  in  many  State  Constitu.  tries.    In  ancient  system!  of  government,  legisla- 

tions  to  prohibit  this  form  of  legislation,  but  ^ures  were  not  well  developed,  though  in  Athens 

they   have    frequentlv   bwn   evaded   by   a    sys-  there  was  an  assembly  known  as  the^ccte*ta,  and 

tem   of  raumcipal   classification.     See  Munici-  i„  ^^^  there  were  various  councils,  which  exer- 

PALiTY.  j.i.xj-x*x.         *  cis^d  many  of  the  functions  which  belong  to  a 

Viewed  from  the  standpoint  of  time  of  opera-  ^^dem  legislature.    In  the  later  Roman  Empire 

tion,   legislation  may  be  ^ither  prospective  or  the  chief  Source  of  legislation  was  the  Emperor. 

retroactive.     Retroactive   legislation  unless   for  in  the  Germanic  tribes  there  were  councils,  which 

curative  Purposes  is  generally  objectionable  and  ^n  j^^^„  ^^^^^  attend,  and  these  survived  for 

isgenerafly  regarded  with  disfavor    Such  l^sla-  ^  ,         time  in  some  ca^es,  as  for  example  the 

tion  when  applied  to  criminal  matters  or  when  It  witenagemot    (q.v.)    amon^   the   Anglo-Saxons, 

is  intend^  to  impair  the  ob  lotions  of  contracts  though  ite  powefs  were  curtailed.    Likewise  the 

18  forbidden  by  the  Constitution  of  the  United  origin  of  the  Spanish  Cortes  has  been  traced  to 

States.     Looked  at  from  ite  content  legislation  the  early  Middle  Ages,  but  in  general,  legislative 

may  be  either  substantive  or  remedial    I^gisla-  j^^er  ultimately  rested  during  the  Middle  Ages 

tion  of  the  former  character  creates  and  defhies  {^  ^^^  j^.       ^^^^^^  ^^^^^j  ^  «^^^      j^  ^^^      k 

individual  rights;  of  the  latter,  provides  remedies  ^^^^^  gm  jre,  the  Imperial  Diet  possessed  a 
and  affords  protection.  ,,.,,.  shadow  of  legislative  authority.  Of  the  mediasval 
The  methods  and  processes  of  legislation  legislatures,  the  English  Pariiament  is  of  the 
roughly  fall  into  two  general  classes:  (1)  the  ^^st  importance,  because  it  was  the  only  one  to 
cabinet  method,  and  (2)  the  congressional  or  attain  aVomplete  development.  It  developed  out 
committee  method  According  to  the  first  meth-  of  the  Saxon  Witenagemot  and  its  succeJSor  the 
od,  which  prevails  everywhere  m  Europe,  ex-  xr^,^„«  i>^„„i  n«,.««fi  TT«*n  *i;  iiT--!  avT 
cept  in  Switzerland  and'^Germany,  and  even  to  .  ^T  w!^!i  ?r."L!l  1^  J^*;^"!^-  T' 
a  limited  extent  in  Germanv,  the  great  mass  of  tury  however,  it  represented  only  the  higher 
legislation  is  formulated  and  initiated  by  respon-  P^bility  and  clergy  and  possessed  little  or  no 
sible  miniBters  who  have  seats  in  the  Legfsla-  Jjdependent  authority,  burmg  the  reign  of 
ture  and  may  at  the  same  time  be  members  of  ^^""^  ^"-  members  from  the  counties  and  towns 
that  body.  Whether  members  or  not,  the  minis-  representing  the  gentry  and  the  burghers  were 
ters  take  part  in  the  debates  advocating  the  admitted,  and  in  the  struggles  which  followed 
adoption  of  the  public  measures  which  they  wish  over  the  arbitrary  exactions  of  the  King,  Parlia- 
to  have  enacted  into  law,  defending  them  from  ment  ag  the  new  body  now  came  to  be  called, 
the  attacks  of  the  opposition  and  finally  resign-  gained  increasing  power  and  finally  took  over 
ing  when  defeated  upon  any  important  measure.  ^^^^  the  King  the  greater  part  of  the  legislative 
(See  Cabinet.)  According  to  the  second  method  authority  hitherto  exercised  by  him.  It  first 
there  is  no  ministry  to  formulate  and  expedite  asserted  the  right  to  raise  taxes,  then  to  specify 
the  passage  of  bills,  but  each  individual  member  the  purposes  for  which  they  were  to  be  expended, 
introduces  such  public  or  private  bills  as  he  then  to  inquire  into  the  abuses  of  the  adminis- 
chooses  and  relies  upon  the  aid  of  his  colleagues  tration  and  impeach  the  King's  responsible  minis- 
to  secure  their  passage.  This  is  the  method  in  ters  for  misconduct.  Next  it  asserted  the  right 
vogue  in  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  and  to  share  with  the  King  the  law-making  power, 
in  the  lefi^slatures  of  the  several  States.  <See  and  to  give  its  resolutions  precedence  in  author- 
United  States,  section  on  Oovemment,)  Here  ity  over  royal  ordinances,  and  finally  it  succeeded 
thechief  agencies  for  expediting  legislation  are  the  in  esteblishing  ite  right  to  freedom  from  inter- 
committees,  which  play  only  a  subordinate  part  ference  from  the  royal  authority  and  the  right 


I^OISLATITBE.                           97  LEGISLATTTKB. 

>to  determine  upon  the  qualifications  and  elections  representative  to  every   194,000  inhabitants,  in 

of  its  own  members.  the   German  Empire   one  to  every    131,000,   in 

In  the  English  dominions  in  America  legisla-  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  (on  an  average)  one 

lures  modeled  upon  the  Parliament  of  the  mother  to  every  63,000,  in  France  one  to  every  100,000, 

country  came  to  be  established  in  every  colony,  in  Mexico  one  to  every  40,000,  and  in  Switzer- 

At  the"  time  of  the  adoption  of  the  National  Ck)n-  land  one  to  every  20,000.    There  is  a  great  diver- 

stitution  these  bodies  were  bicameral   in  form  sity  with  respect  to  the  principles  of  representa- 

in  all  the  States  except  Georgia  and  Pennsyl-  tion  in  the  upper  houses  of  the  legislatures.    In 

vania,   the   Lower   House  everywhere  being  an  general,  the  representation  is  of  classes  or  of 

exclusively  popular  body.     From  the  first  there  territorial    divisions.      In    the    United    States, 

was  a   clear-cut  distinction  between  legislative,  France,    Switzerland,    Mexico,    and    Brazil,    the 

executive,  and   judicial   powers,  and  the  early  Upper  House  represents  the  individual  States  or 

constitutions  almost  without  exception  expressly  the  larger  administrative  tmits.    In  all  of  these 

required   that  each   set  of  functions  should  he  except  France  the  principle  is  equality  of  repre- 

exercised  by  a  separate  and  independent  organ  sentation  without  respect  to  size  or  population  of 

of  government.     The  only  legislative  power  left  the  area  represented.     In  Great  Britain,  Spain, 

to  the  Governor  was  the  right  to  veto  bills  and  Portugal,  Italy,  Austria,  and  Hungary  the  prin- 

recommend  the  enactment  of  laws  which  seemed  ciple  of  class  representation  predominates,  or,  to 

to  him  wise  and  needful.  speak  more  accurately,  no  general  principle  of 

At  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  po-  representation  exists.    Germany  has  as  a  part  of 

litical    reformers    on    the    European    Continent  its  legislature  a  body,  known  as  the  Bundesrat, 

looked  to  the  institutions  of  England  for  their  in-  which  though  in  one  sense  an  upper  house,  at  the 

spiration,  so  that  during  the  course  of  the  nine-  same  time  resembles  a  meeting  of  diplomatic  rep- 

teenth  century  n^ost  of  the  coxmtries  of  Conti-  resentatives  of  the  several  States  of  the  Empire, 

nental  Europe  adopted  written  constitutions  of  The  source  from  which  the  legislatures  proceed  is 

government  providing  for  legislative  bodies,  par-  now  substantially  the  same  everywhere  in  the  case 

tially  representative  at  least,  and  vested  with  the  of  the  lower  houses,  namely,  universal  manhood 

greater  part  of  the  legislative  power  and  often  suffrage.    To  this  rule  there  are  exceptions,  as  in 

modeled   closely  upon   the   English   Parliament.  Italy,  where  a  complex  system  of  qualifications 

In  some  of  the  Continental  States,  particularly  (education,  tax,  rent)  prevails;  in  Great  Britain, 

France,  Germany,  and  Italy,  the  chief  executive  where  there  is  a  household  lodger  franchise;  and 

still  has  a  large  ordinance  power  which  is  not  in  the  Netherlands,  where  the  payment  of  a  direct 

•only  used  to  fill  in  the  details  of  legislative  acts,  tax  is  required.    So  far  as  the  upper  houses  are 

but  even  to  supplement  them  in  some  cases.  Such  concerned,  there  is  considerable  variety  in  the 

ordinances,  however,  are  always  subject  to  altera-  source  from  which  they  proceed.    In  the  United 

tion  or  repeal  by  the  statutes.     ^  far  as  the  States  and  France  the  Upper  House  is  chosen  by 

general    principles    of    legislative    organization  indirect  election;  in  Mexico,  the  Commonwealth 

•and  procedure  are  concerned,  it  may  be  said  that  of  Australia,  and  Brazil  it  is  chosen  by  direct 

the  European  and  American  States  have  pretty  election;  in  Germany  and  Switzerland  it  is  ap- 

nearly  reached  a  consensus  of  opinion.    In  all  the  pointed  by  the  local  governments.     The  British 

countries  of  America  and  Europe  where  legisla-  House  of  Lords  consists  of  peers  of  the  blood 

tive  bodies  exist,  except  in  some  of  the  Balkan  royal,  English  bishops,  English  peers  (hereditary 

and  Central  American  States,  the  bicameral  sys-  and  created  by  the  sovereign),  Scotch  representa- 

tem  has  been  adopted  as  having  substantial  ad-  tive  peers  (elected  for  duration  of  Parliament),, 

vantages  over  the  old  three-chambered  bodies  of  and  Irish  representative  peers  (elected  for  life), 

•estates,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  single-cham-  The  constitution  of  the  Austrian  Herrenhaus  and 

bered  legislatures  on  the  other.     There  is  also  of  the  Hungarian  Table  of  Magnates  is  in  the 

substantial  agreement  that  the  lower  houses  shall  main  very  similar  to  that  of  the  British  House  of 

be  popular  bodies  and  consequently  vested  with  Lords.    The  composition  of  the  Prussian  Herren- 

the  initiation  of  financial  and  revenue  measures,  haus  is  somewhat  more  complex  than  that  of  the 

With  this  exception  the  two  houses  everywhere  Austrian;  included  in  its  members  are  represen- 

enjoy  substantial  equality  of  powers  in  legisla-  tatives  of  the  large  cities  and  of  the  universities, 

tion.     It  is  a  general  principle,  however,  that  the  The  Senate  in  Italy  is  composed  of  princes  of  the 

upper  houses  shall  also  be  vested  with  certain  ad-  royal  house  and  of  an  unlimited  number  of  peers, 

ministrative   or  judicial   functions   such   as   the  nominated  by  the  King  for  life.     The  members 

trial   of   impeachments   preferred  by   the   lower  of  the  Senate  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada  are  ap- 

houses,  the  ratification  of  treaties,  the  confirma-  pointed  for  life  by  the  Governor-General.    Among 

tion  of  appointments  to  office,  the  issue  of  admin-  the  Commonwealths  of  the  American  Union  the 

istrative  regulations,  etc.    Similar  distinctions  in  source  of  both  houses  is  popular  election, 

favor  of  the  upper  houses  exist  in  the  case  of  the  The  qualifications  for  members  of  the  lower 

local  legislatures  of  the  United  States.  houses  do  not  now  differ  greatly  in  the  various 

The   principle   of   representation   upon   which  modern  States  of  the  world.    In  general  they  are 

the    popular   chambers    rest    is    essentially   the  male  sex;  mature  age, sometimes  twenty-one  years, 

«ame  almost  everywhere,  namely,  apportionment  although  it  is  twenty-five  in  the  United  States, 

according  to  the  population,  often  with  some  re-  France,  Germany,  Spain,  and  Prussia,  and  thirty 

j?ard  to  geographical  division,  and  choice  by  dis-  in  Italy;  citizenship,  and  residence  in  the  State 

trict  ticket,  rather  than  the  apportionment  ac-  and  sometimes  in  the  district  from  which  the 

cording  to  classes  of  voters  and  choice  by  general  member  is  chosen.     The  usual  disqualifications 

ticket.     A  striking  exception  with  respect  to  the  are  conviction  of  crime,  bankruptcy,  pauperism, 

principle  of  apportionment  strictly  according  to  and   the   holding  of   incompatible   office   at  the 

population  is  afforded  by  the  State  of  Connecti-  same  time.     For  eligibility  to  the  upper  houses 

<ut.    The  ratio  of  representation  varies  greatly,  there  is  usually  a  higher  age  qualification,  the 

In  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  it  is  one  average  being  about  thirty,  although  it  is  thirty- 


LSOI8LAT17BX. 

five  in  Brazil,  and  forty  in  Franoe  and  Italy. 
In  £urope  appointed  members  of  the  Upper  House 
are  usually  required  to  be  selected  from  certain 
professional,  learned,  or  noble  classes.  Among 
the  States  of  the  American  Union  the  qualifica- 
tions for  membership  in  both  Houses  are  tne  same, 
usually  mature  age  and  citizenship. 

There  is  substantial  agreement  throughout  the 
United  States  and  Europe  as  to  the  rights  and 
privileges  of  legislative  members.  These  are  the 
right  of  each  House  to  judge  of  the  elections  and 
qualifications  of  its  o\vn  members,  freedom  from 
arrest  during  the  session,  except  for  treason  or 
other  high  crimes,  or  unless  the  member  is  caught 
in  the  act  of  committing  a  crime ;  and  freedom  of 
debate  without  responsibility  to  any  power  except 
the  chamber  for  words  spoken  or  votes  cast. 
There  is  not  yet  unanimity  of  opinion  on  the 
question  of  whether  members  of  the  Legislature 
should  receive  compensation.  In  the  United 
States,  Mexico,  Brazil,  and  France  the  practice 
exists  of  granting  compensation  to  members  of 
both  Houses,  and  in  Switerland,  Belgiiun,  and 
Prussia  to  members  of  the  Lower  House.  In 
Great  Britain,  Germany,  Italy,  and  Spain  mem- 
bers receive  no  compensation.  In  the  American 
Commonwealths  the  practice  is  to  grant  a  small 
salary  or  per  diem  allowance  together  with  mile- 
age (q.v.). 

The  tenure  of  legislative  members  varies  great- 
ly. In  the  upper  chambers  of  the  European  legis- 
latures it  is  generally  for  life  or  long  periods  of 
time,  although  in  France  it  is  nine  years,  and  in 
Switzerland  and  Germany  it  depends  upon  the 
will  of  the  local  governments.  As  to  the  lower 
houses  the  tenures  are  usually  for  short  periods 
of  time,  ranging  from  three  years  in  Switzerland 
to  seven  in  Great  Britain.  In  the  United  States 
it  is  six  years  for  the  Upper  House  and  two  foi 
the  Lower;  in  Mexico  it  is  four  for  the  Upper 
House  and  two  for  the  Lower ;  in  Brazil  it  is  nine 
for  the  Upper  and  three  for  the  Lower.  Frequent 
provision  is  made  for  a  partial  renewal  of  the 
upper  houses.  Among  the  individual  States  of 
the  American  Union  the  most  common  provision 
is  a  four -year  tenure  for  the  Senates  and  two 
years  for  the  lower  houses.  In  some  States,  how- 
ever, annual  elections  of  members  of  the  Legisla- 
ture are  still  held,  although  there  is  a  decided 
tendency  toward  the  adoption  of  the  biennial 
method.  Relative  to  the  powers  of  the  Legisla- 
ture over  its  own  assembling,  opening,  adjourn- 
ment, prorogation,  and  dissolution,  it  may  be 
stated  as  a  general  rule  that  in  the  American 
republics  and  in  the  commonwealths  of  the 
United  States  this  right  belongs  to  the  legisla- 
tures tliemselves,  subject  to  certain  provisions 
in  the  constitutions  relative  to  the  times  of 
meeting  and  the  length  of  the  session.  In  the 
European  legislatures,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
more  common  rule  is  that  these  are  prerogatives 
of  the  head  of  the  State.  To  this  rule,  however, 
there  are  several  exceptions  and  modifications. 
So  far  as  internal  organization,  discipline,  and 
procedure  are  concerned,  the  general  rule  is  that 
each  house  shall  be  left  to  its  own  judgment  sub- 
ject to  a  few  limitations  prescribed  by  the  con- 
stitutions relative  to  publicity  of  procedure,  the 
infliction  of  punishment  on  refractoiy  members, 
and  the  organization  of  the  chamber.  There  is  a 
substantial  agreement  that  a  quorum  for  the 
transaction  of  business  should  be  a  majority  of 
the  legal  number  of  members.     In  some  States 


98  IiSOITIMACr^. 

thia  is  regulated  by  statute,  and  in  others  it  is 
made  a  constitutional  principle.  This  rule,  how- 
ever, is  departed  from  in  the  case  of  the  British 
Parliament  and  the  German  Bundesrat,  in  both 
of  which  cases  the  presence  of  a  comparatively 
small  number  of  members  is  sufficient  to  transact 
business. 

So  far  as  the  frequency  of  legislative  sessions 
is  concerned,  it  may  be  stated  as  a  general  rule 
that  national  legislatures  assemble  annually. 
This  is  required  by  the  Constitutions  of  the 
United  States  and  Franoe,  while  the  demands 
of  a  complex  and  increasing  civilization  make  it 
practically  necessary  everywhere. 

Consult:  Bryce,  American  Commontoealth 
(New  York,  1888) ;  Burgess,  Political  Science 
and  Comparative  Constitutional  La/u>  (Boston, 
1896) ;  Marquardsen,  Handbuch  des  offentlichen 
Rechts  der  Qegenwart  (Freiburg,  1883-94);  De- 
momb3mes.  Constitutions  eiirop^ennea  (2  vols., 
Paris,  1884)  ;  and  Poore,  Charters  and  Consti- 
tutions of  the  United  States  (2  vols.,  Washing- 
ton, 1878). 

See  Legislation;  Speaker;  Ministry;  Gov- 
ERNMEKT7  and  articles  on  the  various  countries. 

XjEGITIM  (Fr.  Ugitime,  from  Lat.  legitincus, 
lawful),  or  Bairn's  Part.  In  Scotch  law,  the 
legal  provision  which  a  child  is  entitled  to  out 
of  the  movable  or  personal  estate  of  the  deceased 
father.  In  Scotland  a  father  is  not  allowed 
wholly  to  disinherit  his  children.  If  a  wife  and 
children  survive,  the  movable  estate  is  divided 
into  three  equal  parts,  one  of  which  is  pre- 
served to  the  children.  If  only  children  survive, 
and  not  the  wife,  then  half  the  personal  estate 
is  legitim,  the  other  half  being  called  'dead's 
part,'  and  being  devisable  by  the  father  at  his 
pleasure.  Though  a  father  may,  in  his  lifetime, 
without  any  check  from  his  children,  squander 
his  property,  still  he  is  not  allowed  on  his  death- 
bed to  make  gifts  so  as  to  lessen  the  fund  which 
will  supply  legitim.  The  legitim  is  claimable  by 
all  the  children  who  survive  the  father,  but  not 
by  the  issue  of  those  children  who  have  prede- 
ceased. It  is  immaterial  what  the  age  of  the 
child  may  be,  and  whether  married  or  not.  Chil- 
dren claiming  legitim  must,  however,  give  credit 
for  any  provision  or  advance  made  by  the  father 
out  of  his  movable  estate  in  his  lifetime.  All  the 
children,  though  of  different  marriages,  share 
equally  in  the  legitim.  The  principle  of  the 
legitim  does  not  exist  at  the  common  law,  but  it 
obtains  in  Louisiana  and  in  all  the  modern 
States  whose  legal  systems  are  derived  from 
that  of  the  civil  law.  See  Inofficious  Testa- 
ment. 

LEOITHCAGY.  in  law,  the  status  of  a  child 
who  is  bom  in  wedlock,  or  who  is  rendered 
legitimate  in  law  by  the  subsequent  marriage 
of  his  parents.  Any  child  born  during  wedlock 
is  presumed  to  be  legitimate,  but  this  presump- 
tion may  be  rebutted  by  positive  proof  that  the 
husband  and  wife  had  not  cohabited  for  a  time 
which  would  completely  negative  any  possibility 
of  the  former  being  the  father  of  the  child.  The 
old  common-law  rule  was  that  the  child  was  con- 
clusively presumed  to  be  legitimate  unless  the 
husband  was  *beyond  the  seas*  for  over  nine 
months  previous  to  its  birth,  but  that  rule  has 
been  modified  as  above  sta-ted.  In  most  juris- 
dictions a  child  bom  out  of  wedlock  may  be 
legitimatized  by  the  subsequent  marriage  of  its 


LEGITIMACY.                             99  LEOSAHD  DU  SATTLLE. 

parents,  in  which  case  it  ha9  the  same  status,  about  8000.     It  is  famous  for  the  yictory  of 

in  law«  as  a  child  bom  in  wedlock.    See  Bastabd.  Milan  and  the  allied  Lombard  cities  over  the 

LEOITIMATION    (from  ML.  legitimare,  to  ^J^g®"'!'    Y^^®^^*^*^  J;^  ??^^SI^?*    ^^:^-^'    ^^ 

make  legitimate,  from  Lat.   legttimus,  lawful).  ^]*^'     [^^Jf^  year  1876,  the  700th  anniversary 

The  process  of  rendering  legitimate  a  person  who  ?\J?®  h&iUe,  a  monument  was  erected  on  the 

was  bom  a  bastard   (q.v.).     This  is  elffected  by  battlefield. 

the  subsequent  marriage  of  the  father  and  mother  LEGOUVfi,  le-gSCyt/,  Ebnbst  ( 1807-1003) . 
of  the  illegitimate  offspring,  and  hence  it  is  often  a  French  dramatist,  essayist,  and  academician, 
called  legitimation  per  mbttequens  matrimonium,  son  of  the  poet  Jean  Baptiste  Legouv^.  His 
This  effect,  however,  can  only  be  produced  pro-  mother  died  in  1810,  and  his  father  soon  had  to 
vided  at  the  time  of  the  birth  the  parents  might  be  put  in  a  lunatic  asylum,  but  the  orphan  had 
have  been  married,  or  there  was  no  obstacle  to  plenty  of  money  and  was  well  educated.  In 
their  then  marrying,  if  so  inclined,  as,  for  ex-  i829  he  won  an  academic  prize  for  a  poem  on 
ample,  if  they  were  both  unmarried,  and  there  the  discovery  of  printing,  but  he  first  made  his 
was  no  impediment.  Sometimes  it  has  happened  mark  twenty  years  later  (1849)  by  the  drama 
thai  the  father.  A,  or  mother,  B,  after  the  child's  Adrienne  Lccouvreur,  written  in  collaboration 
birth,  marries  a  third  person,  and  has  children,  ^ith  Scribe  (q.v.),  as  were  also  Les  contes  de  la 
and  after  the  dissolution  of  the  marriage  A  and  fdne  de  Navarre  (1850),  Bataille  dea  dames 
B  marrv.  In  this  perpleTcing  case  the  courts  (1851),  Lea  doigta  de  Ue  (1858).  His  dramas 
have  held  that  the  intervening  marriage  with  a  written  independently  of  Scribe  are  insignificant, 
third  party  does  not  prevent  the  bastard  child,  g^ye  for  MU^e,  rather  than  play  which  Rachel 
bom  before  that  event,  from  being  legitimated  p^id  500O  francs,  though  Ristori  achieved  sue- 
by  the  subsequent  marriage  of  A  and  B.  But  it  cess  with  it  in  an  Italian  translation.  LegouvG's 
has  not  been  settled  what  are  the  mutual  rights  dramatic  works  were  collected  (1887-90).  He 
of  the  children  of  the  two  marriages  m  such  cir-  ^^^e  also  on  education,  on  the  social  position 
cumstances,  though  it  appears  that  the  legiti-  ^^  women,  and  on  Uari  de  la  lecture  (1877  and 
mate-born  children  cannot  be  displaced  by  the  iggi)^  j^  which  he  was  an  adept.  In  1881 
legitimated  bastard.  The  doctrine  of  le^itima-  Legouv6  was  made  director  of  studies  in  the 
tion  per  mbsequens  matrtmontum  obtains  m  normal  school  for  girls  a't  Sftvres,  and  in  1887 
Scotland  and  in  the  legal  systems  of  the  Conti-  ^  commander  in  the  Legion  of  Honor.  Toward 
nent  which  are  derived  from  the  civil  law,  but  ^he  end  of  his  life  L^^uv6  was  known  for  his 
is  not  recognized  m  Englaud  or  Ireland,  haying  studies  <m  the  character  and  needs  of  women 
been  solemnly  repudiated  by  the  famous  statute  ^^^  children  in  France.  La  femmc  en  France 
of  Merton,  and  the  maxim  prevails  there,  once  ^„  XlXcme  siide  (1864)  was  reissued,  much 
a  bastard,  always  a  bastard.  This  harsh  rule  enlarged,  in  1878.  Measieura  lea  enfanta  ap- 
of  the  common  law  still  prevails  in  many  of  peared  in  1868;  then  came  his  Confcrencca 
the  Lnited  States.  In  several  States,  however,  pariaiennea  (1872) ;  Noa  fillea  et  noa  fila  ( 1877)  ; 
the  milder  rule  of  the  civil  law  has  been  adopted  and  Une  Education  de  jeune  fille  (1884);  all 
Legitimation  is  also  recognized  m  Scotland,  but  y^^  influential  in  changing  French  methods 
not  in  England  or  Ireland,  where  the  parents  ^f  education.  In  1886-87  Legouv6  published  his 
were  not  reallv  married,  though  they  both  ftond-  autobiography,  Soixante  ana  de  aouvenira.  He 
fide  believed  themselves  to  be  married.  This  is  ^^^  always  fond  of  physical  training,  which  he 
called  a  putative  marriage.  ^-^d  as  important  to  France,  and  was  himself 

LEGIT^nCISTS    (Fr.    l^gitimiate,   from   Lat.  a  skillful  fencer  and  pistol-shot.    He  died  March 

legitimua,  legal,  from  lex,  law),  The.  In  France,  14,  1903. 

after  1830,  the  party  that  upheld  the  claims  of  LBGOUVi,  Jean  Baptiste  (1764-1812).    A 

the  elder  line  of  Bourbons  against  the  younger  p^ench  poet  and  dramatist,  bom  in  Paris.     His 

or  Orleaniat  line.     Charles  X.,  who  was  deposed  fi„t  pjay^  X/a  mort  d*Ahel,  was  produced  in  1792, 

m  1830,  belonged  to  the  Bourbons,  while  Louis  and  was  followed  by  Epicharia  (1793),  Quintua 

Philippe,   who   succeeded   him,  belonged   to  the  jrahiua  (1795),  Eteocle  (1799),  and  La  mort  de 

House  of  Orleans.     The  death  of  the  Count  de  ff^^i  IV.  ( 1806) ,  the  only  piece  he  wrote  which 

Chambord,  the  last  of  the  Bourbon  line,  ml  883,  ^,^   ^.^u    received.      His   dramatic    works    lack 

ended  the  dispute  by  leaving  the  Count  de  Pans,  movement  and   interest,  and  the  same  may  be 

grandson    of   Louis    Philippe,    sole   heir    to   the  gaid   of  his  very  popular  poem   Le  rnMte   dea 

claims  of  both  branches  of  the  Bourbon  family,  fe^mea    (1801),    which    went    rapidly    through 

LEONAGO,  lA-nyH'gA.    A  city  in  the  Province  forty  editions.     Legouvft  was  elected  to  the  In- 

of  Verona,  Italy,  33  miles  by  rail  southeast  of  stitutc  in  1798. 

the  city  of  Verona,  on  the  Adige  (Map:    Italy,  F  LEOBAND  DU  SAULLE,  le-gr^N'  dv  s61, 

2).    It  has  a  technical  school,  a  city  library,  and  Henri   (1830-86).     A  French  alienist.     He  was 

two    theatres.      The    country    is    fertile    though  born  at  Dijon,  studied  medicine  there,  and  was 

swampy,  and  Legnago  is  an   important  market  interne  at  Rouen  and  at  Charenton;  was  associate 

for   rice   and   other   grain,   wine,   potatoes,   and  editor  of  the  Qazette  dea  Rdpitaux   (1854-62); 

flax.      On    Mareh    26,    1799,    the    French,   under  and  in   1862  became  doctor  of  medicine  with  a 

Scherer,   were   defeated   here   by   the   Austrians  Hi^i^  jy^  la  monomanie  incendwire.    He  was  an 

under  Kray.     The  old  fortifications  were  razed  associate  of  Lasagne  at  the  prefecture  of  police, 

under  Napoleon  in  1801.    In  1815  the  Austrians,  p^^jg.  ^^s  phvsician  at  the  Salp<^trifere   (1877), 

to  defend  the  passage  of  the  Adige,  refortified  ^^^  ^y^^^f  phvs^ician  of  the  special  infirmarv  for 

Legnago,  making  it  one  of  the  fortresses  of  the  ^he    insane   at   the   prefecture   of    police,    Paris 

famous  Quadrilateral.     Population    (commune),  (I883).    He  was  long  editor  of  the  .4finates  w<«di- 

in  1881,  14,358;    in  1901,  14,529.  co-pay chologiquea.     His    principal    works    were: 

LEON AHOy  l&-ny&^nd.    A  town  16  miles  north-  La  foUe  devant  lea  trihunaux  (1869)  ;    an  essay 

wett  of  Milan,  Italy,  on  the  Olona.    Population,  on   Le   d^lire  dea   pera^cutiona    (1871) ;    Etude 


1 


LEOSAHD  DU  SATTLLE.  100  I<EOTJMIN08JB. 

mMioo-Ugale  sur  lea  ^pileptiques   (1877);    and  cent. ;  and  oxygen,*24.32  per  cent.    Legumin  is  in- 

Traits  de  mMecine  Ugale  (1886).  soluble  in  water,  but  soluble  in  very  weak  acids 

XBGBENZl,    le.gr6n'««,    Giovanni    (0.1625-  ?"<^  ''l^\'*%rl"''„r*  ~*8"'****  ^^  ^^ 

«0) .    An  lUlian  composer/born  at  CluBone,  near  "  "fables  the  casein  of  mammalian  milk,  with 

-n<..«.^^      i.ti^.  k.^^  it...i:../i  ....j<..  dIii.^s  which  it  was  considered  identical  by  Liebig  and 

^jrZ'}Jl^l  ^rlllL   nt  tZtn  l^^Z  othets,    and    was    therefore    called    Vegltoble 

maestro  d%  cappella  to  the  Duke  of  Ferrara,  pro-  however   than  true  casein     Undn  treatment 

duced  his  first  opera,  Achille  in  Bciro,  in  1663.  gen,  nowever,  man  true  casein,     upon  treatment 

The  next  year  he  weit  to  Venice,  whe^e  he  was  ^^^^  sulphunc  acid  legumin  gives  leucm,  tyrosm 

elected  director  of  the  Conservatory  de'  Mendi-  St^"^"no„a{^,tr^^^^^^  fLd  t^^L 

canti  (1672),  and  in  1685  became  miestro  di  cap-  ^^%^.^Z.^??         '       substance  found  in  the 

pella  at  Saint  Mark's.    In  the  later  capacity  he  ^^^^  ^'  cereais. 

enlarged  the  orchestra  and  introduced  a  number        I<EGTJMIN08A    (Neo-Lat.    nom.    pi.,    from 

of  innovations.    He  was  one  of  the  first  to  write  Lat.  legumen,  bean ) .    A  great  order  of  dicotyle- 

trios   for  two  violins  and   violoncello,   and  his  donous  plants,  the  second  of  flowering  plants  in 

operas  (eighteen  in  all)  are  marked  by  a  freer  number  of  species,  containing  herbs,  shrubs,  and 

use  of  melody  and  a  more  coherent  instrumenta-  trees,  growing  in  all  kinds  of  soil  and  climates, 

tion  than  had  been  common  before  his  time.    In  usually  erect,  but  sometimes  trailing,  twining,  or 

addition  to  his  operas  and  instrumental  compo-  climbing,  many  of  them  of  great  size.    The  leaves 

fiitions,  he  wrote  considerable  sacred  music.    He  are  alternate,  usually  compound^  and  have  two 

died  in  Venice.  early  deciduous  stipules  at  the  base  of  the  leaf- 

LEGBZS  DE  LATXTDE,   le-grA'  de  lA'tyd',  «^lk.    The  inflorescence  is  commonly  racemose. 

Claibe  Josephk  Hippolyte.    The  correct  name  The  calyx  is  inferior,  5-partedjtoothed  or  cleft, 

of   the   French  actress   better   known  as  Mile,  the  stents  often  unequal.     The  petals  are  6, 

Clairon  (q  v  )  or  by  abortion  fewer,  inserted  into  the  base  of 

____,J^'      _       ^,      -  ,,««^     V        A  the  calyx,  usually  imequal,  often  papilionaceous. 

LEOB08,    le-gry,    Alphonse    (1837-).     A  xhe  stamens  are  typically  10,  free  or  united  into 

French  painter,  bom  at  Dnon.    He  studied  under  ^  tube,  in  which  case  9  are  joined  by  their  fila- 

Lecoq  de  Boiabaudran,  and  flrstexhibited  a  por-  ments,  the  tenth  free,  otherwise  they  are  few  or 

trait  of  his  father    (1867).     Two  years  after-  nj^ny,  distinct  or  variously  united.     The  ovary 

wards  his   "Angelus"  was  highly  praised.     In  j^  i-celied,  in  some  cases  2.celled  by  a  sort  of 

1863  he  became  professor  of  etching  at  South  f^lse  partition,  generally  of  a  single  carpel;  the 

Kensington,  and  in   1876  was  appointed  Slade  ^^yle  simple,  proceeding  from  the  upper  margin, 

professor    of    fine   arts    at    University    College,  ^he  stigma  simple.    The  fruit  is  usually  a  pod  or 

London,  to  succeed  E.  J.  Poynter.     His  genre  lemime.     The  seeds  are   solitary  or  numerous, 

pictures    are    usually    of    French    rural    scenes,  o^^ionally   with   an   aril,    often   curved;     the 

painted  with  marked  realism;   and  his  portraits,  cotyledons  large  and  well  supplied  with  reserve 

such    as    those    of    Bunw-Jones,    Huxley,    and  material  for  the  young  plant.     There  are  three 

Browning,  are  notable.     He  also  became  known  suborders:       (1)   Papilionaoeo!,   with   papiliona- 

«s  an  etcher  and  modeler.  ceous  flowers;     (2)    Car«aip»«e«p,  with  irregular 

LEOBOS^    PiEBBE     (1656-1710).      A    French  flowers   and   spreading   petals;      (3)    Mimosece, 

sculptor,  born  in  Paris.    He  was  the  son  and  pu-  with  small  regular  flowers.    This. order  contains 

pil  of  Pierre  Legros   (1629-1714),  a  well-known  about  450  genera   and   7000   species,   of   which 

sculptor,  bom  at  Chartres,  who  was  profesQpr  about  5000  belong  to  the  suborder  Papilionacee. 

at  the  Academy  for  many  years.     Young  Pierre  They  are  spread  over  all  parts  of  the  world,  from 

studied  aftenvards  in  Italy.     On  his  return  to  the  equator  to  the  limits  of  vegetation,  but  their 

Paris  he  executed  several  statues  at  the  Tuile-  number  is  greatest  in  tropical  and  subtropical 

ries  and  at  Versailles,  but  as  he  was  not  en-  regions.    They  are  applied  to  a  great  variety  of 

couraged,  he  went  back  to  Rome,  where  most  of  purposes,  and  some  of  them  are  of  great  impor- 

his  works  are  to  be  found.    There  are  large  re-  tance  in  domestic  economy,  the  arts,  medicine, 

ligious  groups  by  him  in  the  Turin  Cathedral,  etc.     Many  species  are   interesting  on  account 

and  in  the  Church  of  Saint  John  Lateran,  and  of   their   beauty   of   form,    foliage,    or    flowers. 

Saint  Peter's  in  Rome.  They  show  artistic  talent.  The  structure  of  the  flower  indicates  that  the 

l)ut  very  little  taste.  Papihonaceae   at   least   are   designed   for   insect 

^^^L.„^    ,    *  w         *    ,«^     ,,  fertilization,  bees  being  the  agents.    When  a  bee 

LEOUMi;,   iCg/tim   or  l^gQm'  .  ( Fr.    Ugume,  ij  ^ts  upon  the  wings  and  keel  of  the  flowers,  as 

from  Lat.  legumen,  bean,  from  legere,  to  gather),  ^he  side  and  lower  petols  are  called,  the  weight 

A  dry,  dehiscent  fmit  which  consists  of  one  car-  thmsts  the  stigma  out  of  the  flower  in  contoct 

pel.  This  dehisces  (opens)  by  splitting  down  both  ^.jt],   ^he  pollen-laden  body  of  the  bee.     When 

sides,  as  in  the  pea,  bean,  etc.     It  is  character-  relieved  of  the  weight,  the  stigma  retums  to  its 

istic  of  the  Leguminosce  or  pea  family,  and  is  normal  position,  and  cross-pollination  is  usually 

commonly   spoken   of   simply   as   a   'pod-*      See  effected.  In  some  cases  the  returning  stigmas  may 

'F^vn.  receive  pollen  from  the  stamens  directly,  and  thus 

LEGU'iaN    (from  Lat.  legumen,  bean).     A  be  close  poUenized.     In  this  way  the  flower  has 

vegetable  proteid  of  the  albumin  group,  found  two  chances  of  fertilization.  The  Leguminose  are 

mainly  in  the  seeds  of  many  plants,  including  the  of  added  interest  on  account  of  their  ability  to 

leguminous  plants,  snch  as  peas,  beans,  and  len-  assimilate  free  atmospheric  nitrogen  through  the 

tils.  *  Its  exact  nature  is  not  known.    Ritthausen  small  tubercles  on  their  roots.     These  tubercles 

found  legumin  from   peas,  vetches,  lentils,  and  are  the  dwelling-places  of  myriads  of  peculiar 

field  beans  to  contain  the  elements  in  the  fol-  bacteria  which  enter  the  roots  through  root-hairs 

lowing  proportions:      Carbon,   51.48   per  cent.;  and  set  up  an  irritation  resulting  in  the  forma- 

hydrogen,   7.02  per  cent.;     nitrogen,   16.77   per  tion  of  galls.     In  these  the  bacteria  multiply 


« .  I.    , 

*  • 


USEFUL  LEGUMES 


8.  STRINa  BEAN  II 


LEGTJMINOSJB.                         101  LEHMANK. 

rapidly  and  are  supplied  with  their  nfiNsessarv  degree  of  B^,  and  the  school  of  technology,  with 

carbohydrates  by  the  plant,  and  in  turn  give  m-  highly  developed   courses   in   civil,   mechanical, 

trogen  to  their  hosts.    This  form  of  life  is  known  metallurgical  mining,  and  electrical  and  chemical 

as  symbiosis   (q.v.),  and  it  is  one  of  the  chief  engineermg^lectrometollurgy,  chemistry,  geology, 

reasons  why  plants  of  this  order  are  so  valuable  and  physics,  leading  to  the  corresponding  engineer- 

in  enriching  the  soil.     In  the  seeds  of  many  is  ing  degrees  and  B.S.     Graduate  courses  are  of- 

found  a  nitrogenous  substance   called   legumin  fered  in  both  departments,  conferring  the  master's 

(q.v.)  or  'vegetable  casein'  degree  in  art  and  science,  and  summer  schools  in 

The  discovery  that  leguminous  plants  assimi-  the  engineering  courses  form  part  of  the  required 

late  the  free  nitrogen  of  the  air  \hrough  their  studies.    The  college  buildings,  13  in  number,  in- 

root- tubercles  was  made  by  Hellriegel  (q.v.),  who  elude  Packer  Hall,  the  Packer  Memorial  Church, 

also  observed  the  presence  of  bacteria  in  the  three   well-equipped   laboratories   for   chemistry 

tubercles.     Other   investigators   esUblished  the  and    metallurgy,    physics,    and   electricity    and 

fact  of  the  symbiosis  of  the  bacteria  and  the  root-  steam  engineering,  the  Sayre  astronomical  ob- 

tubercles  and  worked  out  practical  methods  for  servatory   and    a    modem    gymnasium,    valued, 

the  inoculation  of  the  soil  with  bacterial  cul-  together  with  the  apparatus  and  grounds  of  seven 

tures  to  promote  the  growth  of  legumes  even  on  acres,  at  $1,250,000.     The  productive  funds  in 

a  large  scale.     (See  the  articles  (Tloveb;  Gbeen  1903   amounted  to  $1,250,000,  and  the  annual 

Manubino;    Root-Tubebcles.)      The    principal  income  to  $100,000.    The  university  had  an  at- 

genera  of  the  order  are:  Mimosew,  Acacia,  Mi-  tendance  of  581  students,  a  faculty  of  62  instruc- 

mosa;  CcBsalpineas,  Bauhinia,  Cereis,  Casalpinia,  tors,  and  a  library  of  117,000  volumes. 

Hsmatoxylon,  Cassia,  Ceratonia,  and  Tamarin-  LEHMAN,  Ift^m&n,  Liza  (Mrs.  Hebbebt  Bed- 

dus;     PapilionacecBt     Onobrychis,     Desmodium,  fobd).    An  English  concert  vocalist  and  composer, 

Arachis,  Robinia,  Lupinus,  Astragalus,  Qytisus,  bom  in  London.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Riidolph 

Ulex,    Lotus,    Anthyilis,    Medicago,    Trifolium,  Lehman,  a  well-known  artist;  and  her  mother  (who 

Vicia,    Lathyrus,    Phaseolus,    Indigofera,    Gly-  was  the  daughter  of  Robert  Chambers,  co-founder 

cyrrhiza,  Amorpha,  Crotalaria,  Dall^rgia,  Ptero-  of  Chamhera*^  Journal)  was  a  composer,  writing 

carpus,  etc.  under  the  pseudonym  of  A.  L.     Liza  Lehman 

Fossil  representatives  of  this  family  are  com-  studied  voice   culture   under   Randegger    (Lon- 

mon  in  the  Cretaceous  rocks  of  Greenland  and  don)   and  Raunkilde   (Rome) ;  and  composition 

in  the  Tertiary  deposits  of  Europe  and  America,  under    Freudenberg    (Weisbaden)    and   Hamish 

LEHiaH,  lenil.    A  river  of  eastern  Pennsyl-  MacCmm    (London).     Her  d6but  as  a  vocalist 

vania.    It  rises  a  few  miles  east  of  Wilkesbafre  S**  *V^^^?^22  ^^^^^y  Popular  Concerts  on 

and    flows    southeast,    breaking    in    picturesque  November  23,  1886,  and  she  afterwards  met  with 

gorges  through  the  Blue  Mountain  range,  titf  it  remarkable  success  throughout  Great  Britoin  and 

reaches  Allentown,  Lehigh  County,  where  it  turns  Gennany.  In  1894  she  married  Mr.  Herbert  Bed- 

northeast,  and  enters  the  Delaware  at  Easton,  f?'d  (a  composer  of  considerable  merit)  and  re- 

after  a  course  of  about  120  miles  (Map:  Penn'  *'^«J  ^"-^^^  ^<>,^^^*^  ^^«-^-     ^er  most  successful 

sylvania.  F  2).     It  is  followed  for  the  greater  ^^'^^  'JP^^^*  ^^^'  T^ ^^l  Persian  Oardet^  the 

part  of  its  course  by  the  Lehigh  Valley  Railroad,  ^o^^^'  taken  from  the  Ruhatyat  of  Omar  Khay- 

knd  passes  through  a  region  rich  in  anthracite  y*?'  consisting  of  a  connected  group  of  solos 

coal  knd  iron,  for  which  it  is  an  important  out-  5,"^  P*'^  ,«^"«»-    ^ext  followed  a  songc^cle  from 

let.     By  means  of  locks  and  dams  it  has  been  Tennyson  s  In  Memartam,  and  in  1901  another 

opened    for    slack-water    navigation    as    far    as  ««"«,  ^^^^^  f^^^^   ^^^^^"^   Cfcatn      None   of 

\Vhitehaven,  84  miles  from  its  mouth.  ^^""i*^^'  T^^^  ^*5  ^^^  ^^VTt''  ""^  *^-®  ^^•^* 

Garden.     Her  work  is  marked  by  originality  of 

LEHIGHTON,  le'hf-ttin.    A  borough  in  Car-  form  and  expression,  and  a  refinement  of  senti- 

bon   County,   Pa.,   84   miles   north   by   west  of  ment   which   betrays   strongly   the    influence   of 

Philadelphia;  on  the  Lehigh  River,  and  on  the  Schumann. 

Lehigh  Valley  and  the  Central  of  New  Jersey  LEHMANN,,  Henbi  (1814-82).  A  French 
railroads  (Map:  Pennsylvania,  F  3).  It  is  of  historical  and  portrait  painter,  bom  at  Kiel, 
considerable  importance  as  an  industrial  centre,  Schleswig,  April  14,  1814.  He  was  a  pupil  of  his 
Btoves,  brick,  leather,  car-springs,  furniture,  and  father,  Leo  Lehmann,  and  Ingres.  He  opened  a 
flour  being  manufactured.  The  fair  grounds  of  studio  in  Paris  in  1847.  The  subjects  of  his  first 
the  County  Industrial  Society  are  here.  Lehigh-  paintings  were  scriptural.  He  took  first-class 
ton  owns  .the  electric-light  plant,  which,  how-  medals  in  1840,  1848,  1855;  received  the  cross  of 
ever,  is  leased  to  private  parties  for  operation,  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1846,  and  was  made  pro- 
Population,  in  1890,  2959;  in  1900,  4629.  feasor  of  the  Ecole  des  Beaux- Arts  (1861).    His 

LEHIOH  UNIVERSITY.     An  unsectarian  principal  works  include:  "Tobias  and  the  Angel" 

institution  of  higher  learning  at  South  Bethle-  (1835);    "Jephtha's   Daughter"    (1836);    'T>on 

hem.  Pa.,  founded  in  1865  by  Judge  Asa  Packer  Diego"  (1836)  ;  portrait  of  Charles  VII.,  of  Louis 

(q.v.),  of  Mauch* Chunk,  with  a  gift  of  $500,000  VIII.;  "Saint  Catharine  Bome  to  the  Tomb  by 

-_j    lie *l J     Aj    i A^j    i_    loAA  Angola*'     MQ^n\.     'TTomlof  »'    "Onh-lia"     MfllA^  • 


Packer  was  to  afford  the  young  men  of  the  Le-  paintings  in  the  chapels  of  the  Church  of  Saint 

high  Valley  a  complete  technical  education  for  Merry,  on  the  ceiling  of  the  Great  Hall  in  the 

the  professions  represented  in  the  development  Palais  de  Justice,  and  in  the  Throne  Hall,  Luxem- 

of  the   peculiar   resources   of  the   region.     The  bourg  Palace.    He  painted  a  portrait  of  himself 

university  is  organized  in  two  departments:  the  ^o'  *^c  Uffizi  Gallery,  Florence.                « 

school  of  general  literature,  comprising  a  classi-  LEHJCANK^  Lilli    (1848^).     An  eminent 

cal  and  a  Latin-scientific  course,  leading  to  the  German  dramatic  soprano,  bom  in  WQrzburg. 


103  IiEEBIfc 

Her  first  leflsons  were  from  her  mother,  who  was  LBHB,  Uii,  PaulErnxst  (1835^).  A  French 

a  harp-phiyer  and  prima  donna  under  Spohr  at  jurist,  bom  at  Saint  Di6  (Vosges).    He  studied 

Cassel.    After  singing  small  parts  on  the  stage,  m  Strassburg,  where  he  became  secretary-general 

she  made  her  d^but  in  Berlin  as  a  light  soprano  of  the  Consistory  for  the  Evangelical  Church  of 

in  Meyerbeer's  Da»  Feldlager  in  Hchleaien  in  the  Augsburg  Confession.     In  1870  he  was  ap- 

1870,  and  became  so  successful  that  she  was  ap-  pointed  professor  of  comparative  jurisprudence 

pointed    Imperial    chamber-singer    in    1876,    in  at  the  University  of  Lausanne,  Switserland.    He 

which  year  she  sang  the  bird-music  in  Siegfried,  contributed  especially  to  the  knowledge  of  foreign 

and  took  the  part  of  one  of  the  Rhine-daughters  law  by  the  publication  of  Elements  de  droit  civil 

in   the   Nibelungen   trilogy   at   Bayreuth.      She  germanique  {1ST S)  ;  Elements  de  droit  civil  rus9e 

sang  in  London  in  1884,  and  came  to  New  York,  i.    (1877),   ii.    (1800)  ;   EUmenta  de  droit  civil 

where  she  was  engaged  as  principal  soprano  at  eepagnol,  i.    (1880),  ii.    (1890);   and  El&mente 

the   Metropolitan   Opera   House.      In    1888   she  de  droit  civil  anglais   (1885). 

was  married  to  the  tenor  Paul  Kalisch.     Her  lEHBS,  Iftrs,  Kabl    (1802-78).     A  German 

voice  was  of  superb  quality  and  volume,  and  ^^^.^j  gchotar/bom  at  KSnigsberg.    He  studied 

ained  for  her  the  reputation  of  being  one  of  at  the  universit^  of  his  native  city,  and  wa»  made 

the  greatest  Wagnerian  singers  of  her  day     She  f,^^   y,^^'  j^    1335      His    most   valuable 

was  unsurpassed  in  the  rOles  of  Brttnhilde  and  P^^,^     .^   ^^   Aristarchi    Studiis    Bomericis,    a 

^'  comprehensive  treatise  on  early  Homeric  criti- 

LEHMANN,  Max  (1845—).    A  German  his-  cism  (1833;  3d  ed.  1882).    Of  his  other  writings, 

torian,  bom  in  Berlin  and  educated  at  Konigs-  mention    should    be    made    of    his    Quasstiones 

berg,  Bonn,  and  Berlin.     In   1879  he  began  to  Epica    (1837);   Herodiani  Tria  Scripta  Minora 

teach  in  the  Berlin  Military  Academy;   in  1887  (1848);   Populdre  Aufsiitze  aua  dem  AUertum, 

was  made  a  member  of  the  Prussian  Academy,  vorzugsweise  zur  Ethik  und  Religion  der  Oriechen 

and  a  year  later  went  to  Marburg  as  professor  of  (1856;  2d  ed.  enlarged,  1875)  ;  and  Die  Pindar- 

history.     In    1892   he   was  appointed  to  a  like  acholien  (1873),  an  investigation  into  the  sources 

chair  at  Leipzig,  and  in  1903  became  professor  of  the  remaining  scholia.    Consult  Kammer,  Karl 

of  medifeval  and  modem  history  at  Gdttingen.  Lehra  (Berlin,  1879). 

He  wrote:  Das  Aufgehot  zur  Jleerfahrt  Ottoa  II,  t-b-t^  i.  nr  /i.reft  loao^  a  * 
nach  Italien  (1869)  ;  Der  Krieg  von  1870  his  zur  ^^i, pP'  Michael  (1769.1822)  An  Ameri- 
Einschlieaaung  von  Metz  {1972)  ;  Kneseheck  und  ^^  politician,  bora  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  of 
Schon:  Beitrdge  zur  Geachichte  der  Freiheits-  Pennsylvania-Dutch  parentage.  A  Republican  of 
kriege  (1875);  Stein,  Scharnhorat  und  Schon  ^^^  "^"[^^  radical  type,  and  at  first  an  ardent 
(1877);  the  excellent  biography  Scharnhorat  B^PPorter  of  Jefferson,  he  b^an  his  political 
( 1886-87) ;  and  Friedrich  der  Qroaae  ( 1894) .  ^^^^^  ^s  a  member  of  the  Pennsylvania  Leg- 
•  «— ...I****  ^  ^  .,«^^  .  islature,  from  which,  in  1798,  he  was  trans- 
LEHMANN,  Rudolph  Chambers  (1850—).  f^^^^  to  Congress.  He  was  reelected  in 
An  English  lawyer,  journalist,  and  author,  born  iqqq  ^^^  1802,  and  soon  attracted  atten- 
near  Sheffield.  He  graduated  at  Trinity  College,  ^ion  by  his  extreme  views.  In  1802  he  be- 
Cambridge,  became  a  barrister  of  the  Inner  came  associated  with  William  Duane  (q. v.),  who. 
Temple  in  1880,  and  took  a  promment  part  m  ^^^h  his  journal,  the  Aurora,  was  beginning  to 
Liberal  politics.  From  1890  he  was  a  member  make  things  imcomfortable  for  the  Jefferson  Ad- 
of  the  staff  of  Punch,  and  in  1901  was  editor  ministration.'  In  1803  he  opposed  the  bill  for 
of  thfe  London  Daily  Newa.  He  became  known  ^he  creation  of  Louisiana  Territory,  drawn  prob- 
also  as  an  authority  on  rowing,  published  a  vol-  ^bly  by  Jefferson  and  Madison,  as  conferring 
ume  on  that  subject  (in  the  Isthmian  Library,  'royal'  power  upon  the  Govemor.  He  was  the 
vol.  iv.,  1897),  and  was  elected  secretary  of  the  official  mouthpiece  of  the  Duane  faction  in  its- 
Amateur  Rowing  Association.  Further  publica-  successful  fight  against  the  McKean -Dallas  partv, 
tions  by  him  include  a  Digeat  of  Overruled  Cases  the  'quids'  as  the  Aurora  called  them,  and,  in 
(with  Dale,  1887);  The  BilUhury  Election  spite  of  great  opposition,  was  triumphantly  re- 
(1892) ;  Mr,  Punches  PHze  Novela  (1893),  lit-  turned  to  Confrress  in  1804.  On  the  floor  of  the 
erary  satires  originally  printed  in  the  periodical;  House  he  reechoed  the  philippics  of  the  Aurora 
Anni  Fugacea  (1901);  and  Adventurea  of  Pick-  against  Gallatin,  who  had  become  the  special 
lock  Hole»  {1901),  object  of  Duane's  enmity.  In  1808  he  waa 
LEHOUX,  Ic-oo',  PlERBE  Adbien  Pascal  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate,  where  he 
(1844—).  A  French  historical  painter,  bora  in  continued  his  hostility  to  Gallatin  and  Madison 
Paris.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Cabanel.  His  works  to  such  an  extent  as  almost  to  nullify  the  Ad- 
include:  "mmon  prfes  du  corps  d'Antigone"  ministration  policy.  In  1813,  with  William 
(1870)  ;  "Saint  Laurent  martyr"  (1874),  in  the  Branch  Giles  (q.v.)  and  Samuel  Smith,  he  joined 
Luxembourg,  and  *1Jlysse  et  fcl^maque"  ( 1891 ) .  the  Federalists  in  refusing  to  confirm  the  nom- 
His  work  is  characterized,  by  correct  technique  ination  of  Gallatin  to  the  Russian  mission  with 
and  pood  color.  He  received' a  first-class  medal,  J.  A.  Bayard  and  John  Quincy  Adams.  In  Feb- 
and  the  Prix  du  Salon  in  1874.  raary,  1814,  he  resigned  his  seat  in  the  Senate 


,,-       T              /lojcrojN        k    ri  to  become  postmaster  at  Philadelphia,  to  which 

•   '  ,^''   '^r^VJ^^t^*^\.,A^^^*^J  post  he  had  l,een  appointed  by  Cftdeon  Granger 

ewT;^om.<<t,  bora  at  Schotten  Hesse  and  ediirated  ^       ^     ^      Postmaster-General.     The   appoint- 

**i  ?'-^T'';,."*T*r^''*  "<*  ^^STVT  'T».  "•■  ment    made  in  the  face  of  the  President's  op- 

Ul  hKienthlA^hr^^roie ^SrhntzzolluvdPrei.  ^^^        ^^^^^^^   ;„   Cxranper's   dismissal,    and 

handel  (im)-.Etsenhahntor,f,re>,enuvdEisen.  j*;  j^i^tion   which   required  the  confirmation   of 

bahnmonopol    (1879)  ■    Pohtjche  Oekon^xexn  «tmasters  in  the  future. 

gedrangfer    Faaaunq     (2d    ed.    1892)  ;  Grundoe-  *^ 

'griffe'^nd     Grundlagen     der     Volkairirfachaft  LEIBL,  ll'b'l,  Wn^HELM  (1844-1900).    A  Ger- 

(1894) ;  and  Produktion  und  Konsumtion  in  der  man  genre  painter,  born  in  Cologne.     He  was  a 

Volkstoirtschaft  (1895,  edited  by  Frankenstein),  pupil   of  Piloty  and  Ramberg  at  the  Munich 


1 


IiEIBIfc  108  LEIBNITZ. 

Academy,  then  studied  in  Paris,  where  he  was  at  both  Dresden  and  Vienna  projects  for  the 
influenced  by  Courbet.  His  highly  prized  scenes  establishment  of  similar  bodies.  It  was  to  him, 
from  peasant  life,  marked  by  strong  realistic  likewise,  that  Peter  the  Great  owed  the  plan  of 
characterization  of  the  rustic  types  and  excellent  the  since  celebrated  Academy  of  Saint  Peters- 
modeling  of  the  heads,  are  represented  to  great  burg.  The  Czar  bestowed  on  Leibnitz  a  pension 
advantage  in  the  National  Gallery  in  Berlin,  by  and  the  title  of  privy  councilor.  In  17 14  Leib- 
''Peasant  Women  of  Dachau  Conversing,*'  "A  nitz  wrote  the  Mon<idologie  in  French  for  Prince 
Huntsman/'  and  "The  Two  Poachers;"  in  the  Eugene  of  Savoy.  Toward  the  close  of  his  life 
New  Pinakothek,  Mimich,  by  ''Interior  of  Peas-  Leibnitz  spent  some  time  in  further  work  on 
ant's  Home"  and  "In  a  Small  Town;"  and  in  the  the  annals  of  the  House  of  Brunswick,  and  was 
Dresden  Gallery  by  "Peasant  Girls  Knitting."  drawn  into  a  philosophical  controversy  with 
At  the  art  exhibition  of  1895  in  Berlin  the  great  Samuel  Clarke  (q.v.).  Before  the  close  of  the 
gold  medal  was  awarded  to  him.  controversy  he  died  rather  unexpectedly  at  Han- 
LEIBKITZ,  Wnits  (Ger.,  Leibniz),  Gott-  over  NovT*^^^'*'  ^^l^'  A  monument  has  been 
FBIED  WiLHELM  VON  (1646-1716).  A  German  """^^^  ^.,^V^,  *°^  Hanover,  and  m  1883  a  statue 
philosopher  and  mathematician,  bom  in  Leipzig,  was  imveiled  m  Leipzig. 

His  father,  who  was  professor  of  law  at  the  uni-  ,  Leibnitz  was  eminent  in  history,  divinity,  phi- 
versity,  died  when  Leibnitz  was  six  years  old.  losophy,  political  studies,  experimental  science, 
He  studied  at  the  Nikolaiachule  of  his  native  mathematics,  muung  enpneenng,  and  even 
eity,  under  Thomasius;  entered  the  university  belles-lettres.  But  it  w  chiefly  through  his  phil- 
with  unusual  preparation,  in  his  fifteenth  year,  osophical  reputation  that  he  lives  m  history, 
and  selected  the  law  as  his  profession,  but  de-  He  was  greatly  influenced  by  the  Cartesian  phi- 
voted  himself  also  to  philosophy  and  literature.  losopJiy;  but  he  differed  from  Descartes  both 
When  seventeen  years  old  he  defended  a  remark-  }»  ^»8  method  and  m  some  of  his  principles, 
able  thesis  entitled  De  principio  Individui,  and  i?  epistemolo^  Leibnitz  ^-as  an  opponent  of 
during  the  following  summer  he  spent  some  **^?  doctrine  that  the  mind,  at  birth,  is  a 
time  at  the  University  of  Jena,  studying  mathe-  <«^'»  ^9^>  »  ^ank  tablet  to  be  written  on 
roatics.  In  1664  he  published  Specimen  Difficult  ^l  experience.  He  mamtamed,  on  the  contraij. 
tatis  in  Jure,  and  In  1666  Are  Comhinatoria,  that,  although  we  are  not  born  with  ready-made 
In  that  year  he  presented  himself  for  the  degree  Imowledge  m  the  sense  of  clear,  distinct  ideas, 
in  law.  In  con^quence  of  his  youth,  however,  still  there  are  "small,  dark  notions  of  the  soul," 
he  was  not  permitted  to  take  it  at  Leipzig,  which  are  n^  the  mere  passive  receptions  of  im- 
but  a  few  months  later,  November,  1666,  he  P«8«'ons.  Iliere  may  be  perceptions  of  which  we 
received  the  degree  of  doctor  juris  from  Alt-  *7  ^«*  ?^«^«'  ?^  ^J^'f  ^^  "^  aware  of  them- 
dorf.  After  pursuing  further  studies  he  had  ««1^^?-  Indeed,  in  the  last  resort,  Leibnitz  denies 
the  good  fortune  to  become  a  kind  of  prot6g6  "^^'^^  «'  everything  which  is  not  a  percipient 
of  Siron  von  Boyneburg,  ex-Prime  Minister  to  «r.  a  perception  The  peweption  may  be  very 
the  Elector  of  Mainz.  At  Boyneburg's  sugges-  F*"^'^^'  ?°  **  °«^,*«,,^  8elf-c«nscious,  or  it  may 
tion.  he  dedicated  to  the  Elector  an  essay,  Nova  be  conscious  of  itself  In  the  latter  case  it  is 
Meihodu8  IH8cend€B  Docend<Bque  Jurisprudentiw  ^?"«?  apperception.  Growth  in  know  edge  con- 
( 1667 ) .  This  gained  an  appointment  for  Leib-  «'/^?  ^'^  ^^^  P^«^«?  «*  clarification  and  distinction 
nitz  in  the  Elector's  service,  leibnitz  now  (1668-  «'  '^^^\  ,f«?»«  ."»  ?«*  fundamentally  different 
69)  set  to  work  to  reform  the  Corpus  Juris  ^«J?.  intellect;  it  is  only  confused  intellect, 
(q.v.).  Meanwhile  he  published  several  theologi-  Nothing  comes  to  the  soul  from  without.  Every- 
cal  treatises.  In  1670,  at  the  age  of  twenty-four,  \^'''?  '^  seems  to  acquire  in  the  process  of  learn- 
he  was  appointed  assessor  on  the  bench  of  the  J^^,!*  originally  possessed  in  obscure  form.  Vir- 
upper  court  of  appeals,  which  was  the  supreme  Jr^^l^*''''^^^''"^.''"  ideas  are  innate  m  the  sense 
court  of  the  electoiite.  In  1672  he  accompanied  ♦^*^  ^^^^  ^7^*  ^^^^^''^l  ^ut  the  explicit  con- 
Bovneburg's  sons  to  Paris,  and  there  submitted  sciousness  of  them  is  acquired.  That  which  has 
to  *I^i8  XIV.  a  plan  for  the  invasion  of  Egypt,  presentations  is  called  by  Leibnitz  a  inonad  or  a 
Leibnitz's  real  intention  in  this  memorandum  ^"'J^'  J"?^  ^^""f.  ^^  '^  ^^"^  /  self-contained 
was  to  divert  Louis's  attention  from  plans  system  of  perceptions,  not  infiuenceable  from 
against  Germany.  From  Paris  he  went  to  Lon-  ^T'^^^^^  It  is  described  as  having  no  windows 
don;  both  in  Paris  and  in  London  he  formed  JJ''°"«^  ^*»^^J  '^  can  look  out  upon  the  rest  of 
the  acquaintance  of  the  most  eminent  philoso-  ^^^.^  H^^Y^^^f;  ^"^  *»  mirroring  the  whole  universe 
pbers.  among  them  Newton,  Huygens,  and  >nthin  itself.  But  because  each  monad  mirrors 
Malebrancbe.  In  1676  Leibnitz  entered  the  serv-  ^^^  whole  universe,  each  is  in  so  far  like  the 
ice  of  the  Duke  of  Brunswick-Llineburg  as  libra-  others ;  the  perceptions  m  each  are  precisely 
Tian  and  privy  councilor.  After  a  tour  of  his-  ^^^^^  in  content;  the  only  difference  is  that  these 
torical  exploration,  he  prepared  a  series  of  works  perceptions  may  vary  indefinitely  in  clearness 
illustrating  the  history  of  the  House  of  Bruns-  and  distinctness.  Those  monads  in  which  all 
wick.  He  undertook  likewise  the  scientific  di-  perceptions  are  obscure  are  called  matter;  from 
rection  and  organization  of  the  mines  in  the  matter  up  to  God  there  is  no  difference  in  kind, 
Harz.  into  which  he  introduced  many  improve-  merely  a  difference  in  degree  of  clearness  and 
ments;  he  took  an  active  part  in  negotiations  distinctness  of  presentations.  Monads  are  found 
for  Church  unions,  and  in  the  theological  discus-  in  all  stages  of  clearness  of  presentation,  and 
-sions  connected  therewith,  which  formed  the  sub-  each  monad  tends  toward  clarification  and  dis- 
ject of  a  protracted  correspondence  with  Bossuet  tinction  of  these  presentations.  Those  presenta- 
and  with  F^lisson.  His  private  studies,  however,  tions  which  are  merely  clear,  but  not  distinct, 
were  chiefly  philoaophical  and  philoloprical.  He  i.e.  which  are  not  confused  with  others,  but  are 
was  chief  organizer  and  first  president  of  the  not  adequately  known  in  themselves,  are  objects 
Soeieiy  of  Scienees  of  Berlin,  which  later  be-  of  empirical  or  contingent  knowledge;  those 
came  the  Berlin  Academy;    and  he  originated  preaentations  which  are  both  clear  and  distinct 


LEIBNITZ.  104  LEICESTEB. 

are  objectQ  of  rational  or  necessary  knowledge,  earlier  on  the  Continent.  With  this  change  of 
The  validity  of  rational  knowledge  is  guarant^d  '  notation  the  so-called  fluxional  calculus  dis- 
hy the  principle  of  contradiction;  that  of  appeared  and  the  dififerential  calculus  took  its 
empirical  knowledge  by  the  principle  of  suffi-  place. 

cient  reason,  which  Leibnitz  was  the  first  to  The  further  mathematical  work  of  Leibnitz 
introduce  into  a  system  of  philosophy.  In  was  not  of  a  high  order.  His  contributions  to 
other  words^  necessary  truths  are  analytical,  analytic  geometry  were  noteworthy  only  for  lay- 
contingent  truths  synthetical.  Tlie  latter  must  ing  the  foimdation  (1692)  for  the  theory  of 
have  authentication  from  without;  an  adequate  envelopes,  and  for  introducing  the  terms  'co- 
reason  must  be  given  for  their  validity.  The  ordinates'  and  'axes  of  codrdmates.'  He  con- 
former  are  authenticated  by  the  fact  that  it  is  tributed  a  little  to  the  theory  of  mechanics,  but 
impossible  to  think  their  opposites.  The  changes  his  work  was  often  inaccurate,  and  he  made  na 
that  take  place  at  the  same  time  in  various  great  discoveries. 

monads  have  no  influence  on  each  other.  There  In  addition  to  Leibnitz's  works  already  re- 
is  no  interaction.  But  there  is  a  preSstablished  ferred  to,  special  mention  should  be  made  of 
harmony  of  such  sort  that  presentations  in  one  Syat^me  nouveau  de  la  nature  (1665)  ;  Principes 
monad  correspond  to  those  in  another.  The  rela-  de  la  nature  et  de  la  grdce  (1719)  ;  Nouveaux 
tion  between  any  two  monads  is  likened  to  that  essais  sur  Ventendement  humain  (1765)  ;  and 
between  two  clocks  keeping  perfect  time.  They  A  Collection  of  Learned  Papers  Which  Passed 
do  not  influence  each  other's  movements,  but  Between  the  Late  Mr.  Leibnitz  and  Dr,  Clarke 
they  keep  together.  This  correspondence  is  due  in  the  Years  1715  and  1716  (London,  1717). 
to  the  fact  that  God,  the  monad  of  monads.  His  Latin  and  French  philosophical  works  have 
created  all  other  monads  in  such  a  way  that  in  been  many  times  collected,  edited,  and  published, 
their  subsequent  course  of  development  their  The  publishing  of  a  complete  edition  of  all  Leib- 
changes  should  harmonize.  These  monads  are  nitz's  works  was  undertaken  by  Pertz.  This 
immortal.  In  choosing  to  create  this  world  of  edition,  as  it  now  stands,  contains  4  vols,  of 
monads,  God  selected  the  best  of  all  possible  history  (Hanover,  1843-47);  7  vols,  of  mathe- 
worlds.  God's  wisdom  gave  Him  an  infinite  range  matics,  edited  by  Gerhardt  (Berlin  and  Halle, 
of  choice;  His  goodness  determined  the  selection  1849-63);  but  of  the  philosophical  portion 
He  made.  This  is  Leibnitz's  peculiar  optimism,  only  one  volume  appeared.  In  the  Journal  of 
which  does  not  assert  that  everything  is  perfectly  Speculative  Philosophy  are  to  be  found  transla- 
good,  but  that  the  world  as  a  whole  is  the  best  tions  of  the  Monadologie,  and  many  of  the  lesser 
of  all  possible  worlds.  In  this  way  Leibnitz  writings;  and  some  of  the  important  philosophi- 
sought  to  justify  God  in  creating  a  world  with  cal  works  have  been  translated  by  G.  M.  Duncan 
evil  in  it.    This  is  Leibnitz's  theodicy.  (New  Haven,  1890)  ;  the  'Nouveaux  essais  by  A. 

His  mathematical  work  is  worth  special  treat-  G.   Langley    (London,    1894)  ;    Th^   Monadology 

ment.    He  began  his  work  on  the  calculus  (q.v.)  and  Other  Philosophical  WritingSf  Eng.  by  R. 

about  the  time  of  his  settling  in  Hanover  in  1676,  I^tta  (Oxford,  1898) . 

and  two  years  later  he  had  developed  it  into  The  literature  on  Leibnitz  is  immense.  The 
a  fairly  complete  discipline.  It  was  not,  however,  followinj?  works  deserve  special  mention:  Dill- 
until  six  years  after  this  that  he  published  mann,  Eine  neue  Darstellung  der  Leihnizschen. 
(1684)  anything  upon  the  subject.  Two  years  Monadenlehre  (Leipzig,  1891);  Feuerbach,  Dar- 
earlier  (1682)  he  and  Mencke  founded  the  Acta  stellung,  Entwickelung  und  Kritik  der  Leibniz- 
Eruditorum,  and  it  was  in  this  celebrated  jour-  schen  Philosophic  (Ansbach,  1837) ;  Nourrisson, 
nal  that  most  of  his  mathematical  memoirs  ap-  La  philosophic  de  Leibniz  (Paris,  1860)  ;  R. 
peared  (1682-92).  The  first  one  on  the  new  cal-  Zimmermann,  Leibnizs  Uonadologie  (Vienna, 
cuius  was  his  2V^ot?a  Methodus  pro  Minimis  et  1847);  Merz,  Leibnitz  (London,  1884);  Har- 
Maximis  (1684).  Newton  (q.v.)  had  known  and  nack,  Leibnizs  Bedeutung  in  der  Oeschichte  der 
used  the  principles  of  the  fluxional  calculus  as  Mathematik  (Stade,  1887).  See,  also,  HOffding, 
early  as  1665,  and  had  made  them  public,  al-  History  of  Modem  Philosophy  (London,  1900), 
though  not  in  print,  in  1669.  Leibnitz  had  access  and  Dewey,  Leibnitz's  New  Essays  Concerning 
to  certain  letters  of  Newton's  in  1676.  He  also  the  Human  Understanding  (Chicago,  1888). 
had  the  opportunity  of  knowing  of  the  theory  Many  biographies  of  Leibnitz  have  been  written, 
when  he  was  in  London  in  1673,  and  with  the  Among  these  may  be  named  Guhrauer,  Gottfried 
mathematical  acquaintances  he  met  there  it  Wilhelm  Freiherr  von  Leibniz  (Breslau,  1842- 
might  be  expected  that  the  new  theory  would  be  46;  Eng.  trans.  Boston,  1845)  ;  Pfleiderer, 
discussed.  There  is,  however,  no  exact  evidence  0,  W.  Leibniz  als  Patriot,  Staatsmann  und 
that  he  knew  anything  of  Newton's  discovery  at  Bildungstrdger  (Leipzig,  1870). 
the  time  he  began  his  own  work  It  should,  how-  LEICESTEB,  l^s't^r.  The  capital  of  Leices- 
ever,  be  sUted  that  the  germs  of  the  theory  of  the  tershire,  England,  on  the  Soar,  100  miles  north- 
calculus  are  to  be  found  m  the  wprks  of  Fermat,  northwest  of  London  (Map:  England,  E  4).  It 
Wallis,  and  Cavahen,  all  of  which  were  well  jg  a  well-built  town,  with  spacious  and  regular 
known  at  that  time  in  the  mathematical  world,  streets,   interesting  municipal  buildings,  educa- 

The  essential  differences  in  the  two  systems  lie  tional  and  benevolent  institutions,  and  numerous 

m  the  notation  and  the  method  of  attack.    New-  churches,  one  of  wHich,  Saint  Nicholas,  is  partly 

ton  used  x  where  Leibnitz  used  dx,  and  based  his  built  of  bricks  from  the  old  Roman  wall.    It  is  a 

treatment  on  the  notion  of  velocity  of  material  progressive  municipality,  and  owns  or  maintains 

substances  where  the  latter  proceeded  from  the  an  excellent  water-supply,  gas  and  electric-light 

concept  of   the   infinitesimal.     As   mathematics  plants,  markets,  abattoirs,  baths,  bathing-places, 

developed,  the  differential  notation  proved  greatly  libraries,  technical  schools,  an  art  gallery,  arti- 

superior  to  the  fiuxional,  and  in  the  first  quarter  sans'  dwellings,  garden  allotments,  four"  parks, 

of  the  nineteenth  century  it  was  adopted  in  Eng-  eight  recreation-grounds,  and  two  public  gymna- 

land,  as  it  had  ht^m,  adonted  a  hundred  years  slums,  three  sewage  farms,  an  isolation  hospital,. 


LEICS^TBB.                             105  LEICHHARDT. 

a  lunatic  asylum,  cemeteries,  a  fire-brigade,  and  soon  showed  forth  glaringly,  and  he  lost  town 

an  effective  police  force.    Manufactures  of  boots  after  town,  so  that  tne  I>utch  were  glad  when  in 

and  shoes,  and  woolen  and  hosiery  goods,  lace-  1587   he  was  recallftd.     In   1588   Elizabeth  ap- 

making,  wool-combing,  and  dyeing  are  extensively  pointed  him  commander  of  the  forces  assembled 

carried  on.    Leicester  lies  near  a  coal-field,  and  to   oppose   the    Spanish   invasion,   but   he   died 

is  the  centre  of  a  famous  agricultural  and  wool-  soon  after,  on  September  4,  1588.    Leicester  was 

raising  district.    An  early  British  city,  the  capi-  a  shallow  and  vam  man,  the  interest  in  whom  is 

tal  of  the  Coritani,  it  was  known  to  the  Romans  due  almost  entirely  to  his   intimacy  with  the 

as  Rate.    It  was  one  of  the  five  Danish  burghs,  great  English  Queen.     Consult  Froude,  History 

and  from  680  to  874  the  seat  of  a  bishopric.  The  of  England  from  the  Fall  of  Wolsey  to  the  Defeat 

Mount  or  Castle  View,  an  artificial  earthwork  on  of  the  Spanish  Armada  ( 12  vols.,  2d  ed.,  London, 

which  stood  the  donjon  or  keep,  and  the  great  1893). 

banqueting-hall,    modernized    and    used-   as    an  t  •oTrmamvoatm'o       a      •  i     j           i>     ^« 

«»iie  court,  ai;  all  that  nmain.  of  the  Norman  „  LEICESTEBSHmE.     An  inland  county  of 

CMtle.  disinantled  by  Charles  I.,  in  1645.    The  I^Mand.  south  of  the  counties  of  Derby  and 

ruins  of  the  Abbey  of  Saint  Mary  Pr6-'of  the  ?^°SW*i?i  mI**'- *  ?oS"'I5/^ ',  CTP"'*^"' 

Meadow'-where  Cardinal  Wolsey  died  in  1630,  »  l^i^\f  ^'Si" '  ^"^ A^h  434,000   (Map:  Eng- 

•tiU  exist     Numerous  municipal  charters  and  '".?,*'  E^iiain^B^  ftT     Th!  W^'nH  ^v^ 

privileges,    the    first    granted  ^y    King    John  J"?!*  «^d«n«  860  feet     The  Soar  and  Avon, 

knd  thriast  by  Queen*Elizabethf  governed  the  tributaries  respectively  of  the  Trent  and  Severn, 

town  prior  to  the  Municipal  Coi^p^rations  Act  "^^  ^^  "^f  "'«"•    ^}  '"  f  »°"^  "»  *-^  ^?''> 

Population,  in  1891,  m,MO;  in  1901,  211,600.  *""^  granite,  slate,  and  freestone  are  quarried. 

CoMult:  Jihnstone,  Hisi^  of  Leicestei-  ( 1892)  ;  ^^  ">l}."'^  '?«"»  "*  ^»'y»»f  ^f^  "'  u^'l'^' 

"Leicester    as    a    Municimility,"    in    Uunicipai  «nd  while  barley,  wh«it  and  oats  are  cultivated. 

Journal,    viii.    878    (Lonlion.' 1899) ;    BateJon.  the  chief  agricultural  branches  are  grazing,  stock- 

Stevens<^n  and  Stocks,  Kecordi  0/ <fce  Borouyfc  o/  '"""8'   ^d   daiiy-f arming,     Stilton   cheese   is 

ie.ce.«er  (Cambridge  1901).                                '^  chiefly  made  m  this  county,  the  local  breed  of 

..«i«..n.«iim<.       .\       ^     I     .r^.,..        ..v  shcep  18  notcd  for  its  fine  wool.    The  principal 

I^CESTEB.     A  tragedy  by  William  Dun-  manufactures   are   hosiery,   agricultural    imple- 

lap  (1794),  said  to  have  been  the  first  American  menU,   and   pottery.     Capital,   Leicester.     The 

tragedy  put  on  the  stager.    It  is  also  called  The  early  inhabitants  were  the  Oltio  Coritani,  who 

Fatal  Deception.  were  conquered  by  the  Romans.  Later  the  region 

IiEICESTEB,     RoBEBT     Dudlet,     Earl     of  was  part  of  the  Mercian  Kingdom,  until  subdued 

(c.  1632-88).    A  favorite  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  He  by  the  Danes,  and  afterwards  by  the  Normans. 

^S^K**'*K?^*'.,**''  ^^   John   Dudley.   Duke   of  ujiOBSTEB  SQTTABB.     A  London  square, 

Northumberland,  and  received  a  very  G:ood  edu-  -          r    t   -a     ^^T^  'j     ^*^«v/«  ou««*c, 

li.*U«      A*  -«  «o -!*,««-.  K^  ,^.«o  f-ti- 4^  n««,^  formerly  Leicester  Fields,  laid  out  m  the  latter 

cation.     At  an  early  age  he  was  taken  to  Court,  .   of  the  seventeenth  eenturv      Manv  French 

where  he  met  the  Princess  (later  Queen)   Eliza-  PS^^fL*  \«  ^  IT"      century.     Many  drench 

\^*u     T«  iKRA  !.«  «,«-  *»o*J«.i  »»ki;^i»  i«  A«,«  Huguenots  made  their  residence  there  after  the 

^^L  J   .Ih    «^%rj^«  to  w                h.^^l  revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes  in  1685,  and  it 

RoDsart,  and,  as  far  as  we  know,  lived  happily  .    ^.-n  „  -v«««i-»  f^^^i^^  /«.i«*4^^*     c.»;i^  tt««— . 

with  he^.    After  the  death  of  Edward  VL  in  1553,  "J*'iLfJ^rtJ"**S?J  S^   J^J*\^rf^ 

T\,,A\^^  ^iA^A  ;«  ♦!««  •4^#».»«4>  4^^  «io««  !»:«  ^i^^^-^  ^^^  Lciccstcr  House  once  stood  on   it,   and  in 

S^i  5  ^tA  T.™  P~^P  J  J?.„  ♦i..^„!  w  the  latter  Queen  Elizabeth  of  Bohemia  died  in 
i:^^'  1.  ^  ^  ^  Ia  °  *^  T  ^  ^  1862.  Reynolds,  Hogarth,  Hunter,  and  Newton 
7^"^^^  ,^"  ?''v^r^*>."'5„*  *i«r'^.^w  »ved  in  the  neighbor^,  and  their  busts  adorn 
*^M!f^  "i  Elizabeth  in  1558,  Dudley  the  square.  During  the  seventeenth  century  it 
rapidly  advanced  a^d  became  the  Queen's  fa  f^q^ntly  served  as  a  dueling-ground.  ' 
vorite,  and  for  a  long  time  it  was  thought  ^  "^  ®® 
they  would  marry.  Nevertheless,  Elizabeth  al-  LEICHHABDT,  llK^ilrt,  Ludwio  (1813- 
lowed  Dudley  little  or  no  influence  in  polit-  48?).  A  German  explorer,  bom  at  Trebatsch, 
ical  affairs.  The  intimacy  between  Elizabeth  Province  of  Brandenburg,  Prussia.  After  study- 
and  Dudley  gave  rise  to  several  rumors  of  a  ing  at  GOttingen  and  Berlin,  he  traveled  in  Italy, 
scandalous  nature,  and  when  in  1560  Lady  Amy  France,  and  England,  and  in  1841  went  to  Aus- 
was  found  dead  from  a  fall  down  a  flight  of  tralia.  Here  he  at  once  began  the  geological  in- 
stairs,  the  belief  spread  that  she  had  been  mur-  vestigations  which  he  later  described  in  his  Con- 
dered,  though  as  a  matter  of  fact  it  was  prob-  trihutions  to  the  Geology  of  AiLstralia,  In  1844 
ably  an  accident.  Scott's  Kenilxcorth  is  based  he  set  out  on  his  second  expedition  to  Australia, 
on  the  popular  rumors  of  the  time.  In  1563  it  and  with  about  seven  companions  traveled  from 
was  suggested  that  Dudley  should  marry  Mary,  Moreton  Bay,  on  the  eastern  coast,  through 
Que«n  of  Scots,  and  he  was  made  Earl  of  Leices-  Queensland,  to  Port  Essington,  in  the  extreme 
ter;  but  in  1565  the  Scottish  Queen  married  north  of  the  continent.  After  accomplishing  this 
Damley.  Meanwhile  I^icester's  future  was  journey,  in  which  he  covered  about  2000  miles, 
darkened  by  the  fact  that  Elizabeth  realized  the  in  sixteen  months,  Leichhardt  returned  to  Sydney 
impracticability  of  marrying  him,  for  he  was  and  published  the  results  of  his  expediition  in 
very  unpopular  and  opposed  by  all  the  old  no-  his  Journal  of  an  Overland  Expedition  in  Atis- 
bility.  In  1671  he  married  the  widow  of  John,  tralia  from  Moreton  Bay  to  Port  Essington 
second  Baron  of  Sheffield,  but  afterwards  refused  (1846).  At  the  close  of  that  year  he  started 
to  acknowledge  her  as  his  wife,  and  in  1578  mar-  on  his  last  trip,  in  which  he  proposed  to  ^o  from 
ried  Lettice  Knollys,  Countess  of  Essex,  at  the  Moreton  Bay  across  the  central  part  of  the  con- 
news  of  which  the  Queen  was  very  an^ry.  When  tinent  from  east  to  west.  The  last  information 
in  1585  Elizabeth  decided  to  aid  the  Netherlands  received  from  bim  was  sent  from  Macpherson's 
in  their  struggle  for  independence  from  Spanish  Station  on  the  Cogoon  River,  on  April  3,  1848. 
rule,  Leicester  received  command  of  the  expedi-  No  less  than  Ave  relief  expeditions  were  organ- 
tion,  and  in  the  following  year  the  States-General  ized  in  1851-65,  but  these  failed  to  discover  a 
elected  him  Governor.    His  incapacity,  however,  trace  of  the  lost  explorer,  whose  disappearance 


s 


LEICHHABDT.                          106  LSIQHTOH. 

remains  unexplained.    A  district  or  grand  divi-  Nebraska  (1869);  Contributiona  to  the  Esfftinct 

sion  of  Queensland,  a  county  of  New  South  Wales,  Vertebrate   Fauna   of    ths    Western    Territories 

and  a  town  in  Cumberland  County,  N.  S.  W.,  not  (1873) ;   The  Fresh-Water  Rhisopods  of  North 

far  from  Sydney,  were  named  in  his  honor.    Con-  America   (1879)  ;  Treatise  on  Human  Anatomy 

BMlt  the  study  by  Zuchold  (Leipzig,  1856).  (1861-89).    Dr.  Leidy  was  an  honorary  member 

•r -n-r-rk-ra-M-    i,/j          a     -i.       x  xi.    xt  xu    i     J  of  morc  than  Bixty-five  scientific  societies  of  the 

LEIDEN,  ll'den.    A  city  of  the  Netherlands.  ^^-^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^^her  countries.    Consult  the 

bee  LEYDEN.  article  by   Frazer  in  vol.   ix.  of  the  American 

LEIDEliTSOST,  llMen-fr68t,  Johann  Gott-  Geologist   (Minneapolis,  1892),  also  reprinted  as 

LOB (17 15-94).  A  German  scientist  and  professor  a  monograph;  the  memoirs  by  H.  C.  Chapman,  in 

of  medicine.     He  was  bom  at  Rosperwenda,  was  the  Proceedings  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sci- 

educated  in  Giessen,  Leipzig,  and  Halle,  and  in  ences;  by  Ruschenberger,  in  those  of  the  American 

1743  became  professor  at  Duisburg.    He  is  best  Philosophical  Society  (1891)  ;  by  Geikie,  in  those 

known  from  his  book  De  Aquce  Communis  Con-  of  the  Geological  Society  of  London  (1892) ;  and 

nullis  Qualitatibus  (1756)  and  for  his  Opuscula  in  the  publications  of  the  Royal  Microscopical 

Physico-Chemica  et  Medica  (1797).    In  the  for-  Society,  London  (1891),  and  the  American  Jour- 

mer  he  describes  the  experiment,  sometimes  called  fial  of  Arts  and  Sciences  ( 1891 ) . 

after  him,  in  which  he  dropped  water  on  a  hot  leIP  (Uf)   ES^CSON.     See  Ebicson,  Leip. 

plate,  and  proved  the  spheroid  shape  of  the  drop  -«--•-            4  j.         •     ▼           i.-       ■«     i     j 

and  the  presence  of  a  layer  of  vapor  between  LEIGH,  Ig.    A  town  m  Lancashire,  England, 

drop  and  plate.  ^^   miles   west   of   Manchester.     Silk,   cambric, 

--,--._    ,.,,'      T              /looonix       A    A- 4.'  muslin,  fustian,  and  agricultural  implements  are 

^'FPT'  ^'^^'  Joseph    (1823-91).     A  distin-  the  leading  manufactures;  there  are  glass-works, 

guished  American  naturalist,  born  m  Philadel-  ^„^   ^   ^^^   vicinity  are   productive   coal-mines 

phia.  Pa.    He  obtained  his  degree  m  medicme  at  ^jj^        England,  D  3).    The  town  owns  its  gas, 

the  University  of  Pennsylvanui  in  1844,  executed  ^^^^^  ^^  electric-lighting  works,  baths,  mar- 

the  dissections  and  drawmgs  for  the  work  on  ^^^^  ^^d  cemetery,  and  maintains  a  free  libraiy, 

Terrestrval  andAtr-BreathtngMollusksof  the  hospital,  and  fire  brigade.     Sewage  is  chemically 

United  States  (Boston,  1845),  by  Amos  Binney,  ^^^^^^  ^^^  utilized.     The  town  dates  from  the 

was  appointed  chairman  of  the  Board  of  9^?J^"  twelfth  century,  but  was  not  incorporated  until 

of  the  Academy  of  Natural   Sciences  m   1846,  jqqq      Population,    in    1891,    30,900;    in    1901, 

and  became  demonstrator  of  anatomy  in  the  Uni-  ^q  qqq^ 

versity  of  Pennsvlvania.     In   1853  he  was  ap-  1—J^— „^^,   ,  ,.         .                    ,,^^^  ,«.«v 

pointed  full  prof^sor  of  anatomy  in  the  Medical  ,  I-EIOHTOK,  la'ton,  Alexandbb  ( 1568-1649) . 

School  of  the  university,  and  in  1882  professor  An  English  sectary.    He  was  bom  at  Edinburgh, 

of  biology  in  the  Faculty  of  Philosophy.^   He  was  Scotland;  was  educated  at  Saint  Andrews;  and 

also  the  first  director  of  the  biological  depart-  "^  1613  became  a  Presbyterian  preacher  m  Lon- 

ment  of  the  university,  organized  in  1885;  and  don,  practicing  medicme  at  the  same  time.     He 

for  a  time  occupied  the  chair  of  natural  history  published :  Speculum  Belli  Sacrt,  or  The  Looking- 

in  Swarthmorc  College.     In  1881  he  was  elected  Olass  of  the  Holy  War    (1624),  an  attack  on 

president  of  the  Academy  of  Natural   Sciences  Romanism;  and  an  Appeal  to  the  Parliament^ 

at  Philadelphia,  and   in   1885  president  of  the  Eton's  Plea  Against  the  Prelacie    (1628).     The 

Wagner  Free  Institute  of  Science  in  that  city,  latter   was   deemed   libelous    in   respect   of   the 

He  received  the  Walker  grand  honorary  prize  of  King,  Queen,  and  bishops,  and  Leighton  was  twi<» 

the  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History  in  1880,  sentenced  by  the  Star  Chamber  to  be  whipped 

and,  for  distinguished  contributions  to  the  sci-'  publicly,  to  lose  both  ears,  to  stand  twice  in  the 

ence    of    paleontology,    the    Sir    Charles    Lvell  P"lory,  to  be  branded   on  the   cheek  with   the 

medal  of  the  Royal  Geological  Society  of  London  l?<^<^ers  S.  S.  (sower  of  sedition),  to  pay  a  fine  of 

in  1884,  and  the  Cuvier  medal  of  the  Institut  ^_^^'SI}?^'  *°S.  ®  x    '  PJ'"PS*"*^1   imprisonment   m 

de   France   in    1888.     His   contributions   to  the  ^^e  Fleet.    The  Long  Parliament  released  him  in 

natural  sciences  included  comparative  anatomy,  l^^^*  after  he  had  been  confined  f^  eleven  years, 

botany,    mineralogy,    geology,    and    microscopic  He  received  a  pecuniary  indemnity,  and  in  1642 

zoology,  helminthology,  and  more  especially  pa-  was  made  keeper  of  Lambeth  Palace  as  a  State 

leontoiogy.     His   researches  in  connection  with  pnson,  where  he  died. 

the  fossil  horse  and  camel,  published  in  the  Pro-  LEIGHTON,  Fbedebick,  Lord  (1830-96).  An 
ceedings  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  and  English  historical  painter.  He  was  bom  at 
of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  from  1847  to  1891,  Scarborough,  December  3,  1830,  and  spent  much 
were  of  acknowledged  service  to  Darwin  and  Sir  of  his  youth  in  travel.  His  father,  a  physician 
Charles  Lvell.  He  also  discovered  (1846)  the  of  means,  enabled  him  to  prosecute  very  ex- 
hog  to  be  the  host  by  which  the  parasite  Trichina  tensive  studies  in  painting.  He  began  at  four- 
spiralis  is  introduced  into  the  human  system,  teen  in  Florence,  continuing  in  Frankfort,  Brus- 
His  writings  include  numerous  papers  contributed  sels,  Paris,  and  Rome,  his  chief  master  having 
to  the  Transactions  of  the  American  Philosophical  been  Steinle  at  Frankfort.  His  first  picture. 
Society,  the  publications  of  the  Wagner  Free  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy,  "Cimabue's 
Institute  of  Science,  Smithsonian  publications  Madonna  Carried  in  Triumph  Through  Florence" 
under  the  auspices  of  the  United  States  Geo-  (1855),  made  a  great  impression  and  was  pur- 
logical  Surveys,  and  the  Journal  and  Pro-  chased  by  the  Queen.  After  this  he  spent  four 
ceedings  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences —  years  in  Paris,  studying  part  of  the  time  under 
in  all,  upward  of  1000;  A  Flora  and  Fauna  Ary  Scheflfer.  In  1858  he  joined  for  a  short 
Within  Living  Animals  (1851)  ;  Description  of  time  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood,  hia 
the  Remains  of  Extinct  Mammalia  and  Che-  'Tjcmon  Tree"  and  "Byzantine  Wellhead"  receiv- 
lonia  from  Nebraska  Territory  (1852)  ;  Cre-  ing  the  enthusiastic  praises  of  Ruskin.  He  soon 
taceoi^s  Reptiles  of  the  United  States  (1865)  ;  ceased  this  manner,  and  in  1866  his  "Venus  Dis- 
The  Eoftinet  Mammalia  Fauna  of  Dakota  and  robing  for  a  Bath,"  one  of  his  most  admirable 


LEIOHTON. 


107 


LEIPZIG. 


pictures,  secured  his  election  as  associate  of  the 
Royal  Academy.  He  became  a  member  in  1869, 
and  president  in  1878,  fulfilling  the  public  func- 
tions with  especial  grace.  Although  a  bachelor, 
he  entertained  royally  in  his  fine  house  at  Ken- 
sington. He  received  first-class  medals  at  Ant- 
werp in  1886,  and  Paris  1889,  was  an  honorary 
member  of  many  foreign  academies  and  orders, 
and  received  honorary  degrees  from  Oxford, 
Cambridge,  and  Edinburgh.  In  1886  he  was  made 
a  baronet,  and  on  January  24,  1896,  he  was 
raised  to  the  peerage  as  Baron  Leighton  of 
8tretton.  He  died  on  the  following  day  in  Lon- 
don, and  was  buried  in  Saint  Paul's  Cathedral. 

Lciglilon  was  a  clever  rather  than  a  great 
artist.  His  work  is  finished  and  painstaking,  the 
result  of  study  and  cultivated  taste,  rather  than 
genius.  His  art  is  the  equivalent  of  the  classical 
art  of  Ingres,  softened  by  a  sort  of  romantic 
feeling.  His  earlier  works  (before  1866)  in- 
clude "Paolo  and  Francesca,"  the  "Odalisque," 
"Dante  at  Verona,"  "Orpheus  and  Eurydice." 
Among  the  most  important  of  his  later  paintings 
are:  "Hercules  Wrestling  with  Death"  (1871); 
the  "Condottiere;"  "Summer  Moon;"  "Damne- 
phoria"  (1876)  ;  portrait  of  Sir  Richard  Burton 
(1876);  "Music  Lesson"  (1877);  "Biondina" 
(1879);  his  own  portrait  (1880),  in  the  Uffizi 
Gallery,  Florence;  "Wedded"  (1882);  "Last 
Watch  of  Hero"  (1887)  ;  "Captive  Andromache" 
(1888);  "Bath  of  Psvche"  (1890),  Millbank 
Museum:  "Rizpah" ( 1893 )  ;  "Phoenicians  Trading 
with  Britons,"  a  decoration  for  the  Royal  Ex- 
chan<>e.  He  painted  a  triptych  representing 
"Music,"  for  the  Marquand  residence,  New  York, 
and  the  Metropolitan  Museum  possesses  his 
"Lachrymse."  Leighton  also  attempted  a  few 
pieces  of  sculpture  with  success,  the  best  of 
which  are  "Athlete  Struggling  with  a  Python" 
(1877)  and  a  "Slu^rd,"  both  in  Millbank  Mu- 
seum. He  also  designed  illustrations  to  George 
Eliot's  Romola  and  DalzieVs  Bible,  His  Ad- 
dresses to  the  Students  of  the  Royal  Academy 
were  published  in  1896.  Consult  his  biography, 
by  Mrs.  Lang  (London,  1885)  ;  Rhys  (ib.,  1895). 

LEIGHTON,  RoBEBT  (1611-84).  Archbishop 
of  Glasgow.  He  was  born  probably  in  Lon- 
don in  1611.  He  entered  Edinburgh  Univer- 
sitv  in  1627,  took  his  degree  of  M.A.  in  1631, 
and  afterwards  proceeded  to  France.  Returning 
to  Scotland,  he  was  appointed,  in  1641,  to  the 
parish  of  Newbattle,  near  Edinburgh;  but  he 
was  not  militant  enough  to  please  his  fierce  co- 
presb^'tera,  while  they  appeared  to  him,  who  had 
studied  far  more  deeply  than  any  Scotchman  of 
his  time  the  various  ecclesiastical  politics  of 
Christendom,  truculent  about  trifles.  In  1652  he 
resigned  his  charade,  and  in  the  following  year 
was  elected  principal  of  the  University  of .  Edin- 
bur<»h,  a  dignity  which  he  retained  for  ten  years. 
After  the  restoration  of  Charles  II.,  Tjcighton, 
who  had  long  separated  himself  from  the  Pres- 
byterian party,  was,  with  much  reluctance,  in- 
duced to  accept  a  bishopric.  He  chose  Dunblane, 
because  it  was  small  and  poor.  Unfortunately  for 
his  peace,  the  men  with  whom  he  was  now  allied 
were  even  more  intolerant  and  unscrupulous 
than  the  Presbyterians.  Twice  he  proceeded  to 
London  (in  1665  and  1669)  to  implore  the  King 
to  adopt  a  milder  course.  Nothing  was  really 
done,  though  much  was  promised,  and  Leigh- 
ton had  to  endure  the  misery  of  seeing  an 
ecclesiastical  system  which  he  believed  to  be 
Vol.  Xli.-v". 


intrinsically  the  best  perverted  and  himself 
made  the  accomplice.  In  1670,  chi  the  depri- 
vation of  Dr.  Alexander  Burnet,  he  was  made 
Archbishop  of  Glasgow,  an  office  which  he  accepted 
only  on  the  condition  that  he  should  be  assisted 
in  his  attempts  to  carry  out  a  liberal  measure 
for  "the  comprehension  of  the  Presbyterians."  His 
efiorts,  however,  were  vain;  the  high-handed 
tyranny  of  his  colleagues  w*a8  renewed,  and 
Leighton  resigned  in  1674.  After  a  short  resi- 
dence in  Edinburgh,  he  went  to  live  with  his 
sister  at  Broadhurst,  in  Horsted  Keynes,  Sussex, 
where  he  spent  the  rest  of  his  days  in  retire- 
ment. He  died  June  25,  1684.  Leighton's  com- 
plete works  (he  published  nothing  during  his 
lifetime)  are  to  be  found  in  an  edition  published 
in  London  (ed.  by  West,  7  vols.,  1869-75)  ;  a 
volume  of  selections  by  Blair  appeared  in  1883. 
The  most  admired  of  his  writings  is  his  com- 
mentary on  First  Peter.  Consult  his  biography 
by  West  and  Blair  in  the  editions  mentioned 
above.  A  Leighton  bibliography,  compiled  by 
Blair,  is  in  the  British  and  Foreign  Evangelical 
Review  for  July,  1883. 

LEINSTEBy  len'st?r.  One  of  the  four  prov- 
inces of  Ireland,  occupying  the  southeast  portion 
of  the  country,  and  bounded  on  the  east  by  Saint 
George's  Channel  and  the  Irish  Sea  (Map:  Ire- 
land, D  3).  Area,  7622  square  miles;  divided 
into  the  counties  of  Dublin,  Meath,  Louth,  Kil- 
dare,  Carlow,  Kilkenny,  Wexford,  Wicklow,  West 
Meath,  Longford,  King's,  and  Queen's  (qq.v). 
Population,  in  1841,  1,982,169;  in  1901,  1,150,480. 

LEIPA,.  or  B5HHISCH-LEIPA,  beamish 
li^p&  (Bohemian  veskd-Lipa).  A  town  of  Bo- 
hemia, Austria,  42  miles  north-northeast  of 
Prague  (Map:  Austria,  D  1).  Its  industries 
include  brewing,  sugar-refiniqg,  dyeing,  and  the 
manufacture  of  machinery.  Population,  in  1900, 
10,674,  mostly  Germans. 

liEIPO^A  (Neo-Lat.,  probably  from  the  native 
name).  An  Australian  megapdde,  called  'native 
pheasant'  and  *mallee-bird'  by  the  country  peo- 
ple.   See  Mound-Bird. 

LEIPZIG,  lip'tslK,  or  LEIPSIC,  llp'slk.  The 
largest  city  in  Saxony,  and  the  fourth  city  in  size 
in  the  German  Empire,  situated  on  the  Elster, 
Pleisse,  and  Parthe,  74  miles  by  rail  northwest 
of  Dresden  (Map:  Germany,  E  3).  Leipzig  lies 
in  a  rich  and  extensive  plain.  Its  fortifica- 
tions no  longer  exist,  having  given  way  to 
pleasant  promenades.  The  mean  annual  tem- 
perature is  46.7°  F. ;  mean  rainfall  22  inches. 

In  the  old  town,  which  has  become  more  and 
more  exclusively  the  business  section,  are  many 
ancient  buildings  and  narrow  streets,  diversi- 
fied by  handsome  modem  edifices  in  the  Re- 
naissance style.  Here  quaint,  shop-lined  courts 
serve  to  connect  streets  and  shorten  distances. 
This  section  is  surrounded  by  finely  built  modem 
districts,  forming  both  an  inner  and  outer  circle 
of  suburbs,  beautified  by  spacious  avenues  and 
promenades.  Beyond  these  suburbs  are  still  other 
suburban  areas,  which  have  been  legally  a 
part  of  the  city  since  1892.  The  spacious 
thoroughfare  called  the  Brtthl  crowns  the  north- 
cm  part  of  the  old  town.  In  the  vicinity 
are  the  monument  to  Hahnemann,  of  homoeo- 
pathic fame,  and  the  monument,  with  the  Polish 
eagle,  on  the  spot  where  Poniatowski  w^as 
drowned  at  the  beginning  of  Napoleon's  retreat 
in  1813.    Along  the  avenues  in  the  old  town  are 


LETPZIQ.                                108  LEIPZIO. 

large  squares,  the  most  important  of  which  is  inent  in  the  art  and  music  trade  of  Europe.    Its 

the  imposing  Augustusplatz,  surrounded  by  the  commercial   importance   is   due   in   part   to   its 

university,  post-office,  theatre,  and  museum— one  favorable   situation  between  the   Eloe   and   the 

of  the  largest  squares  in  Germany.    In  the  Johan-  Rhine  basins,  and  between  the  Thuringian  moun- 

nisplatz    rises    the    Reformation    monument    to  tains  and  the  Erzgebirge.    It  holds  famous  fairs 

Luther  and  Melanchthon,  unveiled  in  1883  on  the  at  New  Year's,  Easter,  and  Michaelmas,  with 

four  hundredth  anniversary  of  Luther's  birth.    In  furs,  glass,  doth,  and  leather  as  the  principal 

•  the  market-place  in  the  centre  of  the  old  part  lines  of  trade,  the  fur  sales  alone  amounting  an- 

of  the  town  stands*  the  great  war  monument  by  nually  to  some  $5,000,000.    Leipzig  is  in  fact  a 

Siemering,  with  bronze  figures,  unveiled  in  1888.  world-market  for  furs.    These  historic  fairs  rep- 

Architecturally  the  chuiches  of  Leipzig  have  resent  a  large  volume  of  business,  but  are  not  so 

little  to  offer.    The  Thomaskirche  has  more  than  important  or  celebrated  as  in  former  centuries. 

a  local  fame  for  the  weekly  motets  sung  by  a  Among    the    countries    importing    from    Leipzig 

choir  of  boys.    This  church  dates  from  1222,  and  the  United   States   ranks   first.     The  American 

was  rebuilt  in  1496.    The  University  or  Pauline  imports  embrace  furs  and  hides,  books,  leather 

Church  was  dedicated  by  Luther.     During  the  gloves  and  leather,  chemicals  and  volatile  oils, 

reconstruction  of  the  Church  of  Saint  John,  about  bristles,  woolen  goods,  carpets,  and  musical  and 

1895,   the  tomb  of   Bach   was   discovered.     His  other  instruments. 

remains  as  well  as  those  of  the  poet  Gellert  re-  Leipzig  is  famous  for  its  educational  advan- 
pose  in  the  new  church.  Leipzig  has  an  Anglo-  tages.  Besides  its  university  (see  Leipzig,  Uni- 
American  church,  dedicated  in  1885.  Among  the  vebsitt  of)  ,  there  are  a  municipal  gymnasium 
prominent  secular  edifices,  the  several  university  founded  in  1221,  among  whose  celebrated  'cantors' 
buildings  are  of  particular  interest.  Among  was  Bach ;  another  municipal  gymnasium,  dating 
these  are  the  extensive  Augusteum  with  an  aula  from  1511;  also  a  royal  and  a  'real'  gymna- 
and  fine  reliefs;  the  Fridericianum,  built  in  1843;  slum;  a  royal  art  academy;  an  industrial  school; 
the  Mauricianum,  dating  from  1649 ;  and  the  im-  a  royal  builder's  school ;  and  a  municipal  indus- 
mense  Albertinum.  The  university  library,  con-  trial  school.  The  first  commercial  high  school 
taining  about  500,000  volumes,  was  completed  in  in  Germany  was  founded  in  1898  in  Leipzig.  Be- 
1891.  The  imposing  new  Gewandhaus,  with  a  sides  the  university  library  there  is  the  niunici- 
large  concert-room,  is  enriched  with  sculptures  pal  library  with  over  110,000  volumes  and  1500 
by  Schilling.  In  front  stands  the  statue  of  Men-  MSS.  The  museum  of  the  book  trade  is  per- 
delssohn,  vmo  was  the  conductor  of  the  Gewand-  haps  the  most  valuable  of  its  kind  in  existence, 
haus  concerts  for  several  years.  The  old  Gewand-  The  Grassi  Museum  contains  art-industrial  and 
haus,  or  Hall  of  the  Cloth-Merchants,  where  he  ethnographical  collections;  also  a  fine  Historical 
directed,  is  now  used  for  business  purposes.  The  Museum  of  Music;  and  the  Permanent  Exhibition 
splendid  Imperial  Supreme  Court  building  was  of  Machinery  and  Furniture.  The  important 
completed  in  1895.  It  consists  of  a  central  ^ifice,  collections  of  the  Leipzig  Museum  include  some 
crowned  by  a  copper  dome,  224  feet  high,  and  noteworthy  sculptures  —  Thorwaldsen's  "Gany- 
of  wings  appropriately  adorned  with  columns  and  mede,"  Hildebrand's  "Adam,"  Klinger's  "Cassan- 
sculptures.  Other  conspicuous  edifices  are  the  dra"  and  "Salome "  and  Schilling's  "Phidias.** 
German  Renaissance  Booksellers'  Exchange,  with  Among  its  valuable  pictures  are  Preller's  car- 
archives  and  a  library;  the  elegant  new  Re-  toons  representing  scenes  from  the  Odyssey,  sev- 
naissance  Stock  Exchange,  with  an  immense  hall ;  eral  examples  of  Lenbach  and  Bocklin,  and  Dela- 
and  the  Crystal  Palace,  used  for  entertainment  roche's  "Napoleon  at  Fontainebleau."  These 
purposes,  in  the  vicinity  stands  the  curious  old  collections  contain  more  than  750  oil  paintings, 
Katliaus,  built  in  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  275  sculptures,  and  100  cartoons  and  aquarelles, 
century.  The  K5nigshaus  in  the  market-place  is  The  Royal  Academy  of  Plastic  Arts  dates  from 
associated  with  memories  of  Napoleon,  Charles  1764.  Leipzig  abounds  in  admirable  organiza- 
XII.,  and  Peter  the  Great.  In  the  old  Castle  of  tions  for  the  advancement  of  knowledge.  There 
Pleissenburg,  formerly  a  citadel  and  destroyed  are  the  Historical  Society,  with  relics  of  the  fa- 
in later  years,  Luther  and  Eck  held  their  dSs-  mous  battlefield;  the  Academy  of  Art;  School  of 
nutations,  and  Pappenheim  died.  The  Museum  Industrial  Art;  the  Technical  School;  and  the 
building  was  completed  in  1858,  and  is  oma-  celebrated  Royal  Conservatory  of  Music,  founded 
mented  with  statues.  The  splendid  new  theatre  in  1887,  and  attended  by  over  600  students.  In 
WHS  finished  in  1868  in  the  Renaissance  style,  the  new  Gewandhaus  weekly  concerts  are  given 
Amon^  all  the  literary  associations  of  Leipzig  in  winter. 

no  other  is  so  famous  as  Auerbach's  cellar,  with  Leipzig  has  been  since  1879  the  seat  of  the 

its  curious  vaulted  ceiling  and  mural  paintings—  supreme  law  court  of  the  Empire.    It  has  the  seat 

the  scene  of  a  part  of  Goethe's  Faust.     Among  also  of  the   Imperial   Discipline   Court,   and   of 

the    monuments    not   already   mentioned    are    a  numerous  important  institutions  of  the  Kingdom 

bronze  statue  of  Leibnitz,  who  was  bom  in  Leip-  of  Saxony.    The  city  government  is  administered 

zig,   and  the  new  monument  to  Bismarck,  and  by  an  over-burgomaster,  a  burgomaster,  a  police 

the  one  to  Schumann,  who  lived  here  for  fourteen  director,  about  25  magistrates  and  some  75  coun- 

years.  cilmen.      The   annual   budget   balances   at   over 

Leipzig  is  the  centre  of  the  German  book  trade,  $5  000,000.    The  city  debt  amounts  to  some  $12.- 

and  is  famous  for  its  book-making  industry.  Other  600,000.     There   is   spent   annually   for   schools 

of  its  leading  industries  are  wood-carving  and  about  $1,000,000,  and  for  the  sick*  and  the  poor 

paper-making.     Still  other*  products  are  machin-  about  $450,000.    There  are  two  municipal  as  well 

ery,  leather,  textile  goods,  pianos,  tobacco  and  as  other  gas  companies.    The  water-works  belong^ 

cigars,  chemicals,  and  foodstuffs.     Leipzig  leads  to  the  city.     Since  1897  all  the  street  railways 

in  the  book-selling  and  publishing  trade  of  the  have  been  electric.     Among  the  many  excellent 

world,   over   500   publishing  firms  having  their  hospitals   the  most   prominent   perhaps   is   that 

headquarters  here.     The  city  is  also  very  prom-  of  Saint  John's,  built  in  1872.     The  municipal 


LEIPZia.  109 

tMikery  is  one  of  the  features  of  the  city.  The  east  of  the  town  and  at  a  distance  of  some  four 
environs,  attractive  for  their  fine  woods  and  miles  was  the  main  force  tmder  Napoleon,  num- 
meadows,  are  famous  as  having  heen  the  scene  of  bering  about  130,000  men,  with  700  cannon,  and 
the  great  battle  of  Leipzig  (see  Leipzio,  Battles  stretching  in  a  ffreat  semicircle  between  the 
OF).  In  1900  the  population  was  455,089,  nearly  villages  of  Markkleeberg  and  Holzhauaen.  The 
all  Evangelical.  extreme  right  of  the  line  was  held  by  the  Poles 
The  town  of  Leipzig  arose  about  the  beginning  under  Poniatowski,  with  the  corps  of  Augereau 
of  the  eleventh  century,  close  to  a  Slavic  settle-  and  Oudinot  in  the  centre,  and  Victor  and 
ment  called  Lipzi  (afterward  Lipzk,  Lipzik),  a  Lauriston  on  the  left.  The  Old  and  Young  Guard 
name  derived  from  Lipa,  a  linden-tree.  It  ob-  and  the  cavalry  under  Murat  and  Latour- 
tained  municipal  rights  in  the  twelfth  century  Maubourg  were  held  in  reserve.  Napoleon  direct- 
and  soon  became  a  flourishing  seat  of  commerce,  ed  the  battle  in  person  from  the  hillock  of  Wa- 
lt came  under  the  dominion  of  the  House  of  Wet-  chau.  To  the  west  of  the  town  was  a  force  of 
tin,  and  after  the  partition  of  the  Saxon  terri-  10,000  men  under  Bertrand  at  Lindenau,  guard- 
tories  in  1485  belonged  to  the  Albertine  line,  ing  the  only  line  of  retreat  to  France,  and  to  the 
Leipzig  suffered  terribly  in  the  Thirty  Years'  north  30,000  men  under  Marmont  at  M5ckem,  in- 
War,  tended  to  prevent  the  junction  of  the  Army  of 
LBIP25IG,  Battles  of.  Leipzig  was  the  scene  Silesia  under  BlUcher  and  the  Army  of  the  North 
of  three  noteworthy  battles,  two  in  the  Thirty  ^?der  Bemadotte  with  the  mam  army  of  the 
Years'  War  (q.v.),  and  one  in  the  Napoleonic  Alhes  advancmg  from  Bohemia  Marshal  Ney 
wars.  (1)  The  first  battle  of  Leipzig  (or  Brei-  held  the  general  command  over  the  forces  of  Ber- 
tenfeld,  from  the  plain  on  which  it  was  fought,  ^™°£,^*°^  Marmont.  Schwarzenberg,  who  had 
about  a  mile  from  the  city)  was  the  first  great  200,000  men  at  his  disposal,  made  the  costly  mis- 
battle  in  Germany  of  Gustavus  Adolphus  (q.v.).  ^a^e  of  directing  an  attack  on  Napoleon's  extreme 
The  Elector  of  Saxony,  John  George  I.  (q.v.),  r>g*»^'  ^^^d  for  this  purpose  a  force  of  35,000  men 
was  vacillating  between  the  Imperial  side  and  fu^  detail^  to  operate  in  the  swampy  ground  to 
that  of  his  fellow-Protestants  when  Tilly  (q.v.),  ^^^  west  of  the  Pleisse  m  what  turned  out  to  be 
the  Imperial  general,  invaded  Saxony  and  took  »  veritable  cuicfe  sac,  while  at  the  same  time  the 
Leipzig  The  Elector  closed  an  alliance  with  f«^tre  of  the  Allies  was  greatly  weakened.  The 
Gustavus,  who  on  the  7th  (new  style,  17th)  of  ^^}^^  began  about  9  o'clock  m  the  morning  of 
September,  1631,  joined  battle  with  Tilly.  The  October  16th  with  a  tremendous  cannonade. 
Imperial  army  numbered  about  44,000  men,  that  ^^»ch  caused  fearful  havoc  m  both  armies, 
of  Gustavus  about  20,000,  Swedes  and  Saxons.  ?^^^8  to  their  compact  formation.  The  fight- 
Tilly  succeeded  in  routing  the  Saxon  troops,  but  "JK  was  desperate  along  the  entire  line.  The 
succumbed  to  the  valor  of  the  Swedes  and  the  village  of  Markkleeberg  was  taken  four  times 
genius  of  their  commander.  The  Imperial  army  Jj  the  Prussians  under  Kleist  and  retaken 
lost  from  7000  to  10,000  men, while  the  loss  on  the  ^y  Poniatowski;  at  Wachau  the  Russians  under 
part  of  the  Protestant  forces  was  about  2700,  of  Barclay  de  Tolly  fought  with  consummate 
whom  only  700  were  Swedish  troops.  The  battle  courage,  but  after  six  charges  were  driven 
of  Leipzig  or  Breitenfeld  is  important  in  military  ^ack  with  loss.  An  attempt  to  turn  the  French 
history  as  decisively  demonstrating  the  superior-  *eft  likewise  failed.  Pursuing  his  advantage, 
i^  of  mobility  over  weight  in  battle.  More  im-  Napoleon  directed  a  fierce  cannon  fire  against 
portant  still  was  its  effect  upon  the, progress  of  the  enemy's  centre,  and  followed  this  up  with 
the  Thirty  Years'  War.  It  was  the  first  serious  »  charge  of  8000  cavalry  supported  by  the 
check  which  triumphant  Catholicism  had  as  yet  IP^^^t^y,  ^^^V^  ^^  Victor  and  Lauriston.  The 
encountered.  French  horse  broke  through  the  first  lines  of  the 
(2)  The  second  battle  of  Leipzig  or  Breiten-  enemy  and  advanced  almost  to  the  foot  of  the 
feld  was  won  by  the  Swedes  under  Torstenson  hi"  from  which  the  Emperor  Alexander  and 
against  the  Imperialists,  October  23  (new  style,  Frederick  William  III.  of  Prussia  were  watching 
November  2),  1642.  the  progress  of  the  battle.  Here,  however,  the 
^  (3)  The  most  celebrated  of  the  battles  around  Cossacks  and  the  infantrv  of  the  guard  made  a 
Leipzig  was  that  fought  between  the  French  desperate  stand,  and  the  French,  threatened 
under  Napoleon  and  an  allied  army  of  Austrians,  hesides  by  a  renewed  attack  on  their  right,  de- 
Russians,  Prussians,  and  Swedes  under  the  su-  I'vered  by  the  Ailstrian  troops,  who  had  finally 
ereme  command  of  Prince  Schwarzenberg.  Octo-  ^een  recalled  from  their  useless  expedition  to 
er  16-19,  1813.  It  marked  the  triumphant  issue  t^?  .o^n^r  side  of  the  Pleisse,  retreated  to  their 
of  the  Prussian  War  of  Liberation,  and  is  known  original  position.  Had  Napoleon  received  re^n- 
as  the  Battle  of  the  Nations  from  the  number  of  forcenients  in  time  from  Ney,  the  victory  would 
nationalities  that  participated  in  the  contest,  '^ave  been  assured ;  but  Ney,  after  dispatching 
German,  Spanish.  Italian,  Portuguese,  and  Polish  J^e  of  Marmont  s  corps  to  the  support  of  Napo- 
contingents  fought  in  the  ranks  of  the  French  ^^^^*  recalled  it  on  becoming  aware  of  the 
army.  At  Dresden,  on  August  26-27,  1813,  Na-  approach  of  Blficher,  with  the  result  that 
poleon  had  won  his  last  great  victory  in  Ger-  valuable  time  was  lost  in  marching  and  counter- 
many,  and  this  had  been  followed  bv  a  series  of  marching,  and  this  division  was  able  to  render 
conflicts.  Culm,  Gross-Beren,  and  Katzbach  f'^  neither  to  Napoleon  nor  Marmont.  The 
among  others,  in  which  separate  corps  of  the  **tter,  who  had  now  about  20.000  men  at  his  dis- 
French  army  met  with  disaster.  Napoleon  took  Po«al  was  attacked  in  his  position  at  MSckem  by 
his  last  stand  at  Leipzig  as  the  most  favor-  the  superior  force  of  Blficher.  and  after  desperate 
able  situation  from  which  to  threaten  the  in-  fighting,  in  which  the  French  lost  4000  men  and 
dividual  armies  that  were  converging  on  his  the  Prussians  6500,  was  compelled  to  retreat, 
position  from  Bohemia,  Silesia,  and  the  North.  At  Lindenau,  Bertrand  held  his  own  against  the 
The  disposition  of  the  French  forces  on  the  first  Austrians  under  Gyulai. 
day  of  the  battle  was  as  follows :    To  the  south-  On  the  17th,  a  Sunday,  there  was  no  fighting 


110  Lsipzia. 

except  to  the  north  of  the  town,  where  Blttcher  hospitals.  The  battle  of  Leipzig  effectively  shat- 
forced  his  way  nearer  to  the  town  walls.  Napo-  tered  the  power  of  Napoleon,  and  though  bis 
leon  proposed  an  armistice  to  the  Austrian  genius  never  shone  more  brightly  than  in  his 
Emperor,  but  received  no  answer  from  the  Allies,  masterly  retreat  across  Germany  and  his  defense 
who  were  encouraged  by  Bldcher's  victory  and  of  the  frontier  of  France^  his  fall  had  been 
expected  to  renew  the  contest  on  the  following  rendered  inevitable  by  the  issue  of  this  battle, 
day  with  their  forces  increased  to  about  280,000  Consult:  Jomini,  Life  of  Napoleon,  vol.  iv. 
men  by  the  arrival  of  a  Russian  army  of  40,000  (New  York,  1864)  ;  Gerlach,  Die  8chlacht  bei 
men  under  Bennigsen,  two  Austrian  divisions  Leipzig  (new  ed.,  Leipzig,  1892). 
imder  Colloredo,  and  the  Army  of  the  North  LEIPZIG,  Colloquy  of.  An  attempt  in  the 
under  Bernadotte.  Though  all  hope  of  victory  first  half  of  the  seventeenth  century  to  reconcile 
was  gone.  Napoleon,  whose  forces  after  the  ar-  Lutherans  and  Calvinists.  A  conference  was 
rival  of  Regnier  amounted  to  about  150,000  proposed  by  the  theologians  of  Hesse  and  Bran- 
troops,  inexplicably  nefflected  the  opportunity  denburg  to  those  of  Leipzig.  The  Elector  John 
to  effect  hia  retreat  by  the  way  of  Lindenau,  and  George  of  Saxony  having  sanctioned  the  plan  of  a 
contented  himself  with  drawing  his  lines  closer  private  conference,  the  meetings  commenced 
to  the  town,  swinging  his  army  slightly  to  the  UbltqIi  3, 1631,  at  the  residence  of  the  upper  Court 
north  so  as  to  form  a  curve  facing  almost  due  preacher,  and,  under  his  presidency,  were  held 
east.  To  the  north  on  his  extreme  left  was  ^aily  untU  March  23d.  The  Confession  of  Augs- 
Ney,  between  whom  and  Macdonald  was  the  ^urg  was  adopted  as  a  basis,  and  every  article 
corps  of  Regnier  with  the  Saxon  troops;  the  examined  separately.  They  agreed  on  articles 
centre  was  held  by  Victor,  Lauriston,  and  Auge-  y,  to  vii.  and  xii.  to  xxviii.,  but  differed  as 
reau,  with  the  Old  and  the  Young  Guard  and  to  iii.,  the  Lutherans  maintaining  that  not  only 
Murat's  cavalry;  on  the  right  were  the  Poles  the  divine  but  the  human  nature  of  Christ  poa- 
under  Poniatowski.  The  battle  of  the  18th  in-  gessed  omniscience,  omnipotence,  etc.,  by  virtue 
volved  no  remarkable  principles  of  strategy  on  of  the  union  of  the  two  natures  in  His  person, 
either  side,  but  developed  into  a  murderous  con-  an^  that  the  glory  which  Christ  received  was 
flict  between  dense  bodies  of  men  crowded  Quiy  by  His  human  nature ;  the  Reformed  theolo- 
together  in  the  streets  of  the  numerous  villages  gians,  on  the  contrary,  denied  that  Christ,  as 
surrounding  Leipzig,  and  exposed  for  hours  to  man,  wvls  omniscient  and  omnipresent.  On  the 
the  devastating  fire  of  artillery.  On  the  right  tenth  article  they  could  not  agree,  the  Keformed 
and  centre  the  French  held  their  own  against  denying  the  physical  participation  in  the  body 
the  divisions  of  Colloredo,  Kleist,  and  Witt-  and  blood  of  Christ  in  the  eucharist,  and  as- 
genstoin,  the  fighting  being  especially  obstinate  serting  a  spiritual  participation  by  faith.  On 
around  the  villages  of  Probstheida,  where  the  article  concerning  election,  the  Reformed 
Napoleon  held  command.  The  village  of  Stot-  based  election  on  the  will  of  God,  and  reproba- 
teritz  was  bravely  defended  by  Macdonald  against  tion  on  the  unbelief  of  man;  while  the  Lutherans 
the  troops  of  Bennigsen.  But  on  the  left  Ney  regarded  election  as  the  result  of  God's 
could  not  hold  out  against  the  forces  of  Blttcher,  prescience  of  the  faith  of  the  elect.  No  decided 
Bagration,  and  Bernadotte,  and  at  a  critical  and  permanent  benefit  resulted  from  the  colloquy, 
moment  the  Saxons  in  Regnier's  corps  stotioned  LEIPZIG,  Uiovkiisitt  of.  After  Berlin  and 
at  Paunsdorf  went  over  to  the  enemy,  ^ey  was  ^^^^  the  largest  university  of  Germanv,  and 
forced  to  fall  back  on  the  to..;n,  m  spite  of  ^^  to  H^delblrg  the  oldest  within  the  ^limits 
reenforcements  dispatched  by  Mpoleon.  The  ^^  ^^^  ^^  ^^^^  ^  .^^  j^  ^^  ^^^^ 
retreat    however    was  stubboni,  though  m  the  j-^j^^^    g^    ^j^^    secession    of    the    German    stu- 

4^f .. ""/ 1^  *f^."^^^^T^  "^T"  .^^'  ^^^  ""    !^  ""^  dents  from  Prague  as  one  of  the  results  of  the 

Sclumfeld  being  taken  and  retaken  seven  times,  g^^^^^  agitation  there.     (See  Prague,  Univeb- 

^V^^  T.'^'^i'"^"  the  French  retreated  mto  the  sixy  op.)  The  reorganization  of  that  university 
city,  hard  pressed  by  the  enemy.  There  was  ^  ^^^ '.^  ^^^^^  ^f^^^^  Bohemian  and  at  thi 
heavy  fightmg  in  the  suburbs  and  at  the  gates  ^  ^^  ^j  the  German  element  led  to  the  seces- 
far  into  the  night,  and  the  contest  was  resumed  ^j^^  ^^  the  Germans,  most  of  whom,  with  forty 
m  the  early  morning  of  October  19th.  On  the  teachers,  accepted  the  invitation  of  Frederick  the 
part  of  the  French  no  adequate  preparations  Quarrelsome  of  Meissen,  and  his  brother  William, 
had  been  made  for  effecting  a  safe  retreat,  ^nd  settled  at  Leipzig,  establishing  there  a  uni- 
and  as  division  after  division  of  the  ex-  yersity  modeled  on  that  of  Prague.  Two  colleges 
hausted  troops  abandoned  the  defense  of  the  or  houses,  the  collegium  majn^  and  the.  collegium 
town  to  join  in  the  line  of  march,  the  streets  fninus,  were  provided  by  the  rulers,  and  the 
of  Leipzig  became  choked  with  fugitives,  the  students  were  divided  into  four  nations— Meissen, 
only  means  of  escape  from  the  town  being  by  Saxony,  Bavaria,  and  Poland.  The  humanistic 
a  .solitary  bridpe  across  the  Elster.  Owing  to  movement  here  was  earlv  popular,  and  later  the 
a  misunderstanding  of  orders,  this  bridge  was  Reformation  affected  the^  university  greatly,  as  it 
blown  up  by  a  French  sergeant  before  the  rear  came  under  the  influence  of  Melanchthon  -about 
guard  had  crossed,  and  15,000  men  were  left  in  1539.  The  promulgation  of  the  statutes  of  1559, 
the  hands  of  the  enemy.  Large  numbers  were  which  greatly  lowered  the  standards  of  the  in- 
drowned  in  attempting  to  swim  the  Elster,  among  stitution,  closed  the  period  of  prosperity,  and 
these  being  Prince  Poniatowski.  At  noon  the  the  university  changed  little  from  that  time  till 
allied  monarchs  made  their  entry  into  Leipzig.  1830.  As  a  result,  this  was  a  time  of  almost 
The  losses  of  the  Allies  in  the  battle  are  e«ti-  entire  stagnation.  Since  the  thorough  reorgani- 
roated  at  about  53,000  in  dead  and  wounded,  zation  in  the  latter  year,  however,  Leipzig  has 
of  which  the  Prussians  lost  16,600.  the  Austrians  taken  the  high  rank  it  now  holds  among  the 
14,500,  and  the  Russians  21,900.  The  French  German  universities.  It  had  in  1901  K  budget 
lost  15,000  in  dead.  15,000  wounded.  25,000  of  nearly  2,500,000  marks  and  over  3700  stu- 
prisoners,   and  23,000   men  left  behind   in   the  dents  in  theology,  law,  medicine,  and  philosophy. 


LEIPZIG.  Ill 

the  greater  number  being  in  law  and  philosopby.  give  him  authority  to  act  as  Govemori  demanded 

Besides  a  large  number  of  university  institutions,  possession  of  the  fort  and  of  the  government, 

clinics,   museums,  collections,   laboratories,  and  With  this  demand  Leisler  refused  to  comply,  and 

the  like,  there  are  a  number  .of  private  institutes  some  blood  was  shed  before  Sloughter  himself 

and  clinics  available  for  students.     The  library  arrived  in  March.    As  soon  as  he  was  convinced 

contains  500,000  volumes  and  5000  MSS.   A  new  of  the   new  Governor's   authority,   Leisler  «ur- 

governing  body  for  the  university,  the  syndicate,  rendered;  but,  at  the  instigation  of  Leisler's  ene- 

WBs  established  in  1893.  mies,  Sloughter  convened  a  special  commission  of 

LEI8EWITZ,      ll'zc-vits,      Johann     Anton  oyer  and  terminer,  which  condemned  Leisler,  his 

(1752-1806).     A  German  dramatic  poet,  born  in  son-in-law  Milboume,  and  eight  others  to  death. 

Hanover.     He  went  to  Gottingen  in   1770,  and  The  prisoners  were  reprieved  for  a  time,  but  at 

became  a  member  of  the  circle  of  poets  called  length  Sloughter  was  prevailed  upon  to  sign  the 

Dcr  Hamftwnd,  which  included  Stolbergand  Voss,  ^f*^^?:*"*°*®  of  Leisler  and  Milbourne,  and  on 

and    contributed   two   poems   to   the    Giittingen  f^fy   \1»   l^^l*  ^^^7  ^ere  hanged.     Four  years 

Musenalmanach  for  1775,  both  essentially  dra-  later,  however,  the  son  of  Leisler  prosecuted  an 

matic    and    democratic    in   tone.      In    1775,    at  aPP«»J  in  England,  and  succeeded  in  getting  the 

Brunswick,  and  later  at  Berlin  and  Weimar,  he  confiscated  estates  restored  and  the  bill  of  at- 

met  and  soon  counted  among  his  friends  Eschen-  tainder  reversed.    Lpon  no  other  subject  m  New 

burg,  Mendelssohn,  Lessing,  Nicolai,  Herder,  and  }ork  colonial  history  has  there  been  more  dif- 

Goethe.     His   single   complete  play,  Julius  von  lerence  of  opinion  than  upon  that  of  Leisler's 

Tarent    (1776),  was  written  in  Lessing»s  style  character  and  government,  and  historians  have 

and  with   much   of  the  latter's   dramatic   tech-  J^^t  yet  come  to  an  agreement  upon  the  matter. 

nique.    The  play  was  a  favorite  of  Schiller,  and  Consult:  Hoffman,  TAe  AdmxnxstraUonof  Jacob 

was  frequently  acted  in  Germany.  LctsZer  (in   vol.    ^aii     of    Sparks's    "Libraiy   of 

<r -Bi-ra-r -n-B  *  1-/1-      t  /  *  1  cm  v       a     v  American  Biography,"  Boston,  1844)  ;  Brodhead, 

XEISLEB,  hs^er   Jacob  (M691)      A  char-  ^j,,        „^  ,j|  ^^JJ;  „^  Acu,  Torfc     New  York 

acter  promment  in  the  history  of  colonial  New  1953.71)  'and  voL  ii.  of.  the  Documentary  Bu,- 

^''^hJ^''  "*'!  '^™  >n  Frankfort,  Germany,  and  ^  ^f  ^^^  g^^^^  ^^  ^.^^  y^^  (Albany,  1849-61) . 
m  1660  came  to  New  Amsterdam  as  a  soldier  m  '  \  jj  / 

the     Dutch     West     India     Company's     service.        LEIST,    list,    Bubkabd   Wilhelm    (1819—). 

Leisler*s   importance   in   history   is   due   to   the  A  German  jurist,  bom  at  Western,  in  Hanover, 

part    he    played    in    New    York    affairs    in    the  H®    was    educated    at    Gottingen,    Heidelberg, 

three   years    following   the   English    Revolution  and  Berlin;  was  made  professor  of  civil  law  at 

m    1688.      On    May    13,    1689,    the    New    York  Basel    (1846),    and    later    at    Rostock    (1847), 

militia,  following  the  example  of  Massachusetts,  whence  he  went  to  the  University  of  Jena  ( 1853) . 

which  had  imprisoned  Andros,  rose  against  Lieu-  ^  P^P>1  o^  Savigny,  he  combined  the  historical 

tenant-Governor  Nicholson,  and- the  three  roval  method  with  analysis,  and  after  studies  on  the 

councilors  resident  in  New  York  seized  the  Gov-  fundamental  material  of  law,  especially  Roman 

emnient  for   William   and   [Mary,   and   chose   a  ^^w,  made  valuable  researches  in  the  hypothetical 

committee  of  safety,  at  the  head  of  which  was  ^cld  of  Indogermanic  law.     His  more  imporUnt 

Leisler,  who  was  appointed  commander  of  the  writings  are:   D%€  Bonorum   Possessto,  ihre  ge- 

fort-    Leisler  at  once  set  vigorously  to  work  put-  schichtUche  Entxcickelung  und  heutige  Geliung 

ting  the  town  in  condition  to  resist  an  expected  (1844-48)  ;  Civilistische  Htudien  auf  dem  Gcbiet 

attack  from  the  French.     One  of  his  acts  was  dogmatischer   Analyse    (1854-77);    Mancipation 

to   construct   a   new   half -moon   battery   on   the  i^nd  Eigentumstradition  (1865);   Versuche  einer 

spot   which    has   since   taken   the   name   of   the  Geschichte  der  romischen  Rcchtssysteme  (1850); 

Battery.    On  December  9th  a  letter  from  the  new  ^^  romische  Erhrcchtshesitz  (1871)  ;  Altarischcs 

Government  in  England  addressed  to  Nicholson,  «^"«  Qentium  (1889)  ;  and  Altarisches  Jus  Civile 

or,  "in  his  absence,  to  such  as  for  the  time  being  (1894-96). 

take  care  for  preserving  the  peace  and  admin-        LEITH,  leth.  An  important  town  of  Scotland, 

istering  the  laws  in  the  said  Province  of  New  on  the  Firth  of  Forth,  two  miles  north  of  Edin- 

York,"  was   delivered   to   Leisler.     Taking  this  burgh,  with  which  it  is  connected  by  a  continuous 

letter  as  his  autliority,  Leisler  assumed  the  title  line  of  houses,  and  of  which  it  is  the  seaport 

of    Lieutenant-Governor,    appointed    a    council,  (Map:   Scotland,  £  4).     Tlie  town  is  irregular 

chose   Jacob   Milbourne   as   secretary,    and   pro-  and  dingy,  especially  in  the  older  and  central 

oeeded  to  carry  on  the  government  partly  in  ac-  parts,  but  the  Trinity  House,  custom-house,  towTi 

cordance  with  the  old  Dongan  charter.    A  num-  hall,  royal  exchanfje,  com  exchange,  and  banks 

ber  of  the  most  influential  inhabitants,  especially  are  handsome  buildings.    The  city  has  a  (Jovem- 

those    who    had    held    office    under   the   Andros  ment  navigation  school.     West  of  the  town   i<% 

vggiuie,  opposed  Leisler,  and  some  of  them  fled  to  Leith  fort,  an  important  artillery  station,  and  tlie 

Albany,  which  for  a  time  held  out  against  his  fishing  village  of  Newhaven  is  situated  within 

authority,  but  after  the  destruction  of  Schenec-  the  port  boundaries.     Leith  combines  with  Edin- 

tady,  February  19,  1690,  by  the  French  and  In-  burgh   in   the  provision   of  water   and  gas;    it 

dians,  submitted  to  him.     Tlius  for  a  time  he  maintains    electric    lighting,    baths,    municipal 

was  supreme  in  the  Colony;    and  some  of  his  lodging-house,    artisans'    dwelling,    fire    brigade, 

most  violent  enemies  were  imprisoned.     In  May,  slaughter-houses,  and  public  parks.     The  harbor 

1690,  by  his  invitation,  the  first  intercolonial  extends  by  means  of  two  piers  upward  of  a  mile 
congress  that  had  ever  assembled  met  in  New  into  the  firth,  and  has  a  depth  of  about  25  feet 
York,  and  planned  an  expedition  against  Canada,  at  high  water.  There  are  six  dry  docks  and  an 
which,  however,  was  unsuccessful.     In  January,  equal  number  of   wet  docks.     The   total   water 

1691,  Captain  Ingoldsby,  who  sailed  from  Eng-  area  of  the  docks  and  harbor  is  80  acres.  Rail- 
land  with  Sloughter,  the  new  Governor,  but  had  way  communication  is  continued  from  the  various 
been  separated  from  him  at  sea,  arrived  in  the  Leith  stations  to  the  quays,  and  even  to  the  ex- 
Colony,   and,   although  his  commission  did  not  tremity  of  the  western  pier,  and  across  the  har- 


1 


112 


LEITXOTIV. 


bor  by  an  iron  swing-bridge.  The  chief  manu- 
factures are  ships,  machinery,  sailcloth,  ropes, 
ale,  rectified  spirits,  soap,  bottles,  and  flour. 
The  trade  of  the  port  is  chiefly  in  colonial  and 
foreign  produce,  but  is  also  extensive  in  coal  and 
iron  exports.  Grain,  timber,  and  wine  are  among 
the  -leading  imports.  A  large  part  of  the  Con- 
tinental trade  is  with  Hamburg  and  Danish, 
Dutch,  and  Belgian  ports.  An  average  of  4250 
ships  enter  and  clear  annually  a  gross  tonnage  of 
3,000,000.  Its  own  shipping  comprises  about  200 
vessels,  with  a  total  of  about  115,000  tons.  Leith 
is  an  ancient  town,  and  its  histoiy  is  largely  con- 
nected with  that  of  Edinburgh.  It  "buildit  ane 
verry  monstruous  Great  ship,  ye  Michael,"  in 
1511,  for  James  IV.  It  was  walled  and  fortified 
in  1549.  Some  of  the  walls  and  a  Saxon  archway 
remain  of  the  citadel  built  in  1650  by  Oliver 
Cromwell's  forces,  and  destroyed  after  the  Res- 
toration. Population,  in  1891,  68,700;  in  1901, 
76,600.  Consult  Stevenson,  Annala  of  Edinburgh 
and  Leith  (Edinburgh,  1839). 

LEITH  A,  WUl,  a  river  of  Austria-Hungary, 
an  affluent  of  the  Danube.  It  is  formed  by  the 
junction  of  two  little  streams,  the  Schwarza  and 
Pitten,  near  Wiener-Neustadt,  in  Lower  Austria, 
and  flows  in  a  northeastern  direction,  separating 
(for  a  short  distance)  Austria  from  Hungary 
(whence  their  respective  names  Cisleithania  and 
Transleithania )  (Map:  Austria,  E  2).  Passing 
into  Hungary,  the  Leitha  turns  southeast  and 
joins  the  Danube  at  Altenburg.  The  total  length 
of  the  river,  from  the  source  of  the  Schwarza,  is 
over  110  miles. 

LEITMEBITZ,  llt'm@r-lts.  An  old  town  of 
Bohemia,  Austria,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Elbe 
(which  here  becomes  navigable),  S'^  miles  north- 
northwest  of  Prague  (Map:  Austria,  D  1).  It 
has  a  seventeenth-century  cathedral,  an  epis- 
copal palace,  and  an  old  Rathaus,  now  used  as  a 
court-house,  and  a  new  Rathaus.  The  educational 
institutions  include  a  higher  gymnasium,  a  train- 
ing-school for  teachers,  and  a  school  of  theology. 
Leitmeritz  is  an  active  industrial  town,  having 
breweries,  and  manufactures  of  glass,  leather, 
etc.  It  carries  on  a  flourishing  trade  in  wine  and 
fruit.  Population,  in  1890,  11,342;  in  1900,  13.- 
075. 

LEITMOTIV,  llt'md-tef  (Ger.,  leading  mo- 
tive). A  term  made  popular  mainly  by  Wagner, 
and  applied  to  the  musical  phrases  which  con- 
stitute the  basic  material  out  of  which  he  con- 
structed his  musical  dramas  (q.v.).  Previously 
Weber  had  used  so-called  typical  phrases  -  {q.v.) , 
the  object  of  which  was  to  recall  a  similar 
situation.  In  the  works  of  his  second  period 
{Dutchman,  Tannhduser,  Lohengrin),  Wagner 
makes  extensive  use  of  the  typical  phrase.  The 
phrase  characterizing  the  Dutchman  or  Lohen- 


grin's warning  phrase  are  heard  repeatedly,  but 
they  undergo  no  organic  changes,  i.e.  they  are 
always  literal  repetitions,  even  if  the  instru- 
mentation is  varied.  It  was  in  Florence  that 
Wagner  first  conceived  the  idea  of  expressing 
the  chief  personages  and  situations  of  his  dramas 
by  means  of  typical  phrases.  Any  changes  of 
states  of  the  persons  were  to  be  represented  b^ 
corresponding  changes  of  the  fundamental  typi- 
cal phrase.  The  whole  music  was  to  be  the- 
matically  developed  from  these  simple  motives, 
which  he  thus  very  happily  characterized  as 
leading  motives,  W^hereas  the  typical  phrase  re- 
called only  similar  situations,  the  leitmotiv  char- 
acterizes, i.e.  represents,  essential  qualities  of 
persons,  things,  and  even  abstract  thoughts. 
Wagner's  genius  for  musical  characterization  en- 
abled him  to  invent  pregnant  motives.  Thus  he 
is  enabled  to  give  typical  musical  representations 
of  individual  persons  (Siegfried,  Hunding,  Kun- 
dry),  whole  classes  of  persons  ( Mastersingers, 
giants,  Nibelungs),  forces  of  nature  (storm,  fire, 
forest-sounds),  mental  states  (Brflnnhilde's  ec- 
stasy, pleading.  Mime's  plotting,  Kundry's  long- 
ing), general  emotions  (love,  sympathy,  compas- 
sion). From  these  latter  it  is  but  a  step  to  the 
representation  of  symbolism  (love-potion.  Tarn- 
helmet,  Ring),  and  general  abstractions  (Wal- 
hall,  fate,  curse,  grail).  The  leading  motives  do 
not  occur  as  mere  literal  quotations;  they  under- 
go vital  changes,  so  as  to  adapt  themselves  to  the 
most  exacting  demands  of  the  dramatic  situation. 
To  produce  these  changes  Wagner  has  recourse 
to  all  the  technical  devices  known  to  musical  art : 
change  of  harmony,  rhythm,  melodic  intervals, 
diminution,  extension,  "inversion,  contrapuntal 
combination  of  two  or  more  themes.  Another  im- 
portant means  to  vary  the  expression  or  emo- 
tional character  of  the  leitmotiv  is  the  master's 
marvelous  and  unerring  instinct  for  instrumental 
color.  As  an  example  the  following  motive  of 
the  young  Siegfried  may  be  taken  (Ex.  1).  In 
Qotterddmmerung,  when  Siegfried  has  become 
a  mature  man,  his  motive  is  as  follows — a  form 
clearly  evolved  from  the  motive  in  Siegfried  { Ex. 
2) .  Compare  also  the  following  variations  of  the 
Sword-motive  (Ex.  3).  The  reader  is  also  re- 
ferred to  the  Walhalla-motiv  as  it  first  occurs  at 
the  opening  of  scene  two  in  Rheingold  and  the 
form  in  which  it  appears  in  the  closing  bars  of 
Ootterddmmerung.  Through  this  employment  of 
the  leitmotiv  Wagner  is  enabled  to  attain  perfect 
dramatic  unity.  Hence  there  are  no  closes  or 
cadences  within  an  act.  The  leitmotivs  make 
their  appearance  one  after  another,  are  logically 
developed,  run  through  every  act  until  the  cli- 
max is  reached  at  the  end  of  the  drama.  The 
final  scene  of  OdtterdSmmerung,  for  instance,  is 
absolutely  unintelligible,  unless  the  hearer  has 


(■x.1) 


"■^       ^p.         080, 


J.    ^     J 


^^»*i^  ^»^i#<^»  ^^^»»^N#^#i< 


iiEinconv. 


^">    g^g 


113 

(«X.8) 


LE  JETTNE. 


^=^ 


]      \      ]      h 

-*= 1= h= h: 


followed  the  development  of  the  various  motives 
from  the  beginning  of  Rheingold.  Thus  it  is  seen 
how  the  principle  of  the  leitmotiv  gives  organic 
imity  not  only  to  a  single  drama,  but  even  to  a 
whole  cycle  of  dramas.  For  a  full  exposition  of 
this  subject,  consult:  Finck,  Wagner  and  His 
Works  (New  York,  1898)  ;  and  Wagner,  "Ueber 
die  Anwendung  def  Musik  auf  das  Drama/'  in 
ilessamelte  Rchriften  und  Dichtungen  (10  vols., 
Leipzig,  1897). 

LEITNEBy  l!t'n€r,  Gottlieb  Wilhelm  ( 1830- 
99).  A  German  Orientalist,  born  at  Peath,  Hun- 
gary. His  father,  a  (German  physician,  becoming 
involved  in  the  Revolution  of  1849,  went  to 
Turkey,  where  Gottlieb,  who  had  been  well  in- 
structed in  the  classics,  learned  Turkish,  Ar- 
abic, and  modem  Greek.  He  also  acquired 
English,  French,  and  Italian  at  the  British  Col- 
lege in  Malta,  and  was  interpreter  to  the  English 
commissariat  during  the  Crimean  War.  After 
the  war  he  went  to  London,  was  natural- 
ized as  a  British  subject,  and  accepted  an  ap- 
pointment aa  professor  of  Oriental  languages 
and  Mohammedan  law  in  King's  College.  In 
1864  he  was  appointed  director  of  a  college  at 
Lahore,  in  the  Punjab.  He  formed  many  so- 
cieties, schools,  public  li^^raries,  and  colleges  in 
India,  and  organized  the  Punjab  University  upon 
a  solid  basis.  He  also  found  time  to  engage  in 
the  exploration  of  Tibet  and  the  other  countries 
to  the  north  of  the  Himalayas,  and  aroused  inter- 
est in  Dardistan  and  its  languages.  He  extended 
his  researches  to  the  dialects  of  Kabul,  Kash- 
mir, and  Badakhshan,  and  sent  to  the  Vienna 
Exposition  an  extensive  collection  of  Central 
Asiatic  antiquities.  His  principal  work,  besides 
numerous  contributions  to  the  proceedings  of 
learned  societies  in  England  and  upon  the  Con- 
tinent, was  The  Languages  and  Races  of  Dar- 
distan   (1877). 

LEITBIM,  le'trlm.  A  county  in  the  Province 
of  Connaught,  Ireland,  which  to  the  north  has  a 
umall  coast-line,  on  the  Bay  of  Donegal  (Map: 
Ireland,  0  2).     Area,  619  square  miles,  half  of 


which  is  pasture  land.  Crops  of  potatoes,  oats, 
and  hay  are  raised,  and  some  coal  is  mined. 
Capital,  Carrick-on- Shannon.  Population,  in 
1841,  155,300;  in  1901,  69,200. 

LEIXNEB-GBttKBEBG,  lIks^nSrgr\m^ro, 
Otto  von  (1847 — ).  A  German  author.  He  was 
born  at  Saar,  Moravia;  studied  at  Gratz  and 
Munich;  and  from  1874-76  was  editorially  con- 
nected with  the  Oegenwartj  at  Berlin,  and  became 
well  known  as  a  critic  of  literature  and  art.  His 
first  considerable  work  was  an  Illustriete  Litter- 
aturgeschichte  (1879-82).  His  further  publica- 
tions include:  Oedichte  (1877);  Dammerungen 
(1886)  ;  Sosiale  Brief e  aus  Berlin  (1891)  ;  and 
Spriiche  aus  dem  Lehen  fUr  das  Lehen  (1895). 

LEJEAN,  le-zhliN',  Gutllaume  (1828-71).  A 
French  explorer  and  geographer,  bom  at  Plou6- 
gat  Gu^rand,  Finistftre.  He  devoted  himself  to 
the  study  of  Breton  history,  and  in  1850  pub- 
lished La  Bretagne,  son  histoire  et  ses  histonens. 
He  then  took  up  the  study  of  geography ;  traveled 
extensively  in  the  Balkans  (1857-58,  1867-70), 
and  in  Egypt  and  Northern  Africa  (1860)  ;  was 
consul  in  Abyssinia  (1862-63)  until  driven  out 
by  King  Theodore;  then  traveled  in  Western  Asia. 
He  wrote:  Ethnographic  der  europdischen  Turkei 

(in  Petermann's  Mitteilungen,  1861);  Voyage 
aux  deux  Nils  (1865-68)  ;  Theodore  11. ^  le  nouvel 
empire    d'Ahyssinie     et     les     int^^ts     frangais 

(1805);  and  Voifage  en  Ahyssinie  (1873).  He 
published  valuable  maps  of  European  Turkey 
and  of  the  Nile.  Consult  Cortarabert,  Lejean  et 
ses  voyages  (Paris,  1872). 

LE  JEITKE,  le  zh5n',  Paul  (1592-1664).  A 
French  Jesuit  missionary,  who,  in  1632,  went  to 
Canada.  In  the  same  year  he  wrote  a  Brieve 
relation  du  voyage  de  la  Nouvelle  France  (1632), 
the  first  of  the  collection  known  as  the  Relations 
des  J  ^suites  en  la  Nouvelle  France.  He  became 
superior  of  the  Jesuit  house  in  Quebec,  and  edited 
every  year  from  1633  till  1639  a  Relation  de  ce 
qui  s^est  passd  en  la  Nouf>elle  France  (Paris, 
1634-40).  On  his  return  to  France  in  1640  he 
was  made  procurateur  of  .foreign  missions. 


TiEKATN.  114    LELAND  STAN70BD  TTNIVEBSITY. 

LEKAINy   le-kftN^  Henbi  Louis    (1728-78).  ham  Lincoln   (1879);   TJie  Minor  Arts   (1880); 

A  French  tragedian.    He  was  born  in  Paris;  es-  The  Oypsiea  (1882) ;  JLlgonquin  Legends  of  yeu> 

tablished  a  private  theatre,  and  with  Voltaire's  England      (1884);     Autobiographical     Memoirs 

help  became  popular,  and  finally  appeared  at  the  (1893)  ;  Songs  of  the  Sea  and  Lays  of  the  Land 

Theatre   Francais.     His   voice   and   figure   were  (1895);  Hans  Breitmann  in  Tyrol  (1895);  One 

bad,  but  study  greatly  improved  the  former,  and  Hundred  Profitahle  Acts   (1897)  ;  and  The  Un- 

his  sympathetic  power  soon  won  him  great  sue-  published  Legends  of  Vergil    (1899).     His  last 

cess  and  a  place  among  the  most  famous  French  work   was   a   volume   of    Indian   folklore   verses 

tragic  actors.     His  M^moires  were  reprinted  in  (1903),  called  Kuloskap  the  Master,  and  Other 

Paris,  under  the   direction  of  Talma,   in    1828.  Algonkin  Poems.    This  was  done  in  collaboration 

L.  E.  L.     The  initials  and  nom-de-plume  of  ^^^^  ^r.  John  Tynely  Prince. 

Letitia  Elizabeth  Landon,  later  Mrs.  Maclean.  LELAND,   John    (1691-1766).     An   English 

LE'LAND,    Chables    Godfbet    (1824-1903).  divine  and  Christian  apologist.    He  was  born  at 

An  American  poet,  journalist,  humorist,  and  mis-  ^.'8?^'    »?    Lancashire;    became    a    Dissenting 

cellaneous  writer,  bom  in  Philadelphia,  August  "'^'i;^*^^   ?7o?"k    ""'  ^^r  1     "*   appeared   as   an 

16,  1824.     Some  years  before  his  ^aduation  at  J".^^,?"^  i°  ^733  by  publishing  a  reply  to  TmdaKs 

Princeton,    in    1845,    his    precocioul    talent   had  deistical  work    C^riat.ani^y  a«OW  a«  *^  C^^^^^^ 

found  voice  in  short  poems  contributed  to  the  J??":     ^f  }P\  *Tf,"  niT^w'^'i^^P^m^'    ^'^t 

newspapers.      After    graduation    he    studied    at  D^vtne  Authority  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament 

Heidelb^g,  Munich,  and  Paris,  and  was  one  of  ^*?^'l^    ^^?''^*  I^  J^V'^K.i^f^S^^,.'''^, 

the    AmeHcan    deputation    to   congratulate    the  ^?^^  ^T^'^T  ^X  "  ^^?J  ^**^^^  '^he  Moral 

French  Provisional  Government  on  the  Revolu-  ^^t'V^    ^^a  ^^^^  }^^''^''1'  i  ^^  ^^^l\ 

tion  of  1848,  in  the  course  of  which  he  joined  tacked  Henry  Dodwell  and  Bohn^roke.    His  best 

the   students  of  the   Latin   Quarter  behind   the  Y/''')' "  ^  ^^^'^  ^^  !/^f  ^r^^^^P^i  ^f?'^^^ 

Paris  barricades.     In  that  year  he  returned  to  ^'^^  ^«t?e  Appeared  m£?n^ia«^  (1754.66)    which 

Philadelphia,  studied  law,  was  admitted  to  the  ?°<^e  \^^^  »  ^^^^  ^.*  «??^J"  Christian  apologetic 

bar  in  1851,  continued  to  write  for  periodicals,  literature.     Consult  VVeld's  memoir  m  Leland's 

and  soon  devoted  himself  entirely  to  literature  ^"^"T^^i^^^^'^I.'-  a*.^  , 
and  to  editorial  and  journalistic  work.  He  made  ,  ^^?"^  ^\  LEYLAND,  John  (c.1606-52). 
a  special  study  of  Gypsy  language  and  history  ^^  English  antiquary.  After  a  thorough  study 
and  attained  much  reputation  both  as  a  German  jf  the  ancient  and  modem  languages  at  Cam- 
scholar  and  as  a  describer  of  German  and  Ger-  bridge,  Oxford,  and  Pans,  he  took  holy  orders, 
man-American  life.  Leland's  widely  read  Hans  ^"^  ^  1J33  received  from  Henry  VIII.  the 
Breitmann's  Ballads  tell,  in  the  patois  called  unique  office  of  King's  Antiquary.  In  this 
'Pennsylvania  Dutch,'  many  humorous  conceits  position  he  explored  the  antiquities  of  the  various 
and  droll  adventures  of  their  clo^vnish  hero.  Le-  religious  and  educational  institutions  of  the 
land  himself  was  sometimes  spoken  of  as  'Hans  Kingdom,  and  visited  every  nook  and  comer  of 
Breitmann.'  He  wrote,  however,  under  his  own  the  country  for  the  purpose  of  examining  the 
name.  Leland's  editorial  work  took  him  for  a  topography  as  well  as  the  archieological  relics, 
time  to  New  York,  but  he  returned  to  Philadel-  Though  a  laborious  historian,  he  was  credulous 
phia  in  1855,  and  in  1861  established  in  Boston  and  unsystematic.  His  principal  works  were: 
the  Continental  Magazine.  He  soon  retumed  to  ^  '^ew  Yeare's  Gift  to  King  Henry  VIIL  in 
Philadelphia,  however;  traveled  in  the  Middle  *^e  Slth  Yeare  of  His  Raygne  (1546);  Corn- 
West,  and  was  from  1869  to  1880  resident  chiefly  mentarii  de  Scriptoribus  BHtannicis  (2  vols., 
in  London,  pursuing  Gypsy  studies.  Returning  1709)  ;  Itinerary  of  England  (1710-12)  ;  and  De 
to  Philadelphia,  he  was  active  in  furthering  in-  Rebus  Britannids  Collectanea  (1715).  Some  of 
dustrial-art  education  in  the  public  schools,  and  bis  autographic  manuscripts  finally  made  their 
wrote  for  this  purpose  several  manuals,  after  way  into  the  Bodleian  Library,  Oxford;  others 
his  visit  to  the  United  States  in  1880;  but  into  the  British  Museum.  Later  historians  have 
thenceforward  he  lived  in  Europe  and  he  died  found  them  a  great  store  of  information.  His 
in  Florence,  Italy,  March  20,  1903.  His  labors  so  overtaxed  his  mind  that  during  the  last 
published  volumes  comprise,  among  others:  The  two  years  of  his  life  he  was  insane.  Consult 
Poetry  and  Mystery  of  Dreams  (1855)  ;  Meister  Burton,  Life  of  John  Leland  {the  First  English 
KarVs  Sketch  Book,  sketches  of  foreign  travel  Antiquary)  .with  Notes  and  a  Bibliography  of  His 
(1855)  ;  Pictures  of  Travel,  the  first  of  his  trans-  Works,  including  those  in  MS.,  printed  from  a 
lations  of  Heine  (1856);  Sunshine  in  Thought  hitherto  Unpublished  Work  (London,  1896). 
(1862)  ;  Hcine^s  Book  of  Songs  (1862)  ;  Legends  LELAND  STANFOBD  JUNIOB  UNI- 
of  Birds  (1864);  Hans  Breitmann*s  Ballads,  his  VEESITY.  A  co-educational  institution  of 
best  known  work;  Hans  Breitmann  About  Town  higher  learning  at  Palo  Alto,  Cal.,  founded  by 
and  Other  New  Ballads;  Hans  Breitmann  in  Poli-  Leland  Stanford  (q.v.)  and  his  wife,  Jane  Lath- 
tics;  Hans  Breitmann  and  His  Philosopede;  Hans  rop  Stanford,  in  memory  of  their  only  child, 
Breitmann's  Party,  with  Other  New  Ballads;  Leland  Stanford,  Jr.,  who  died  in  1884.  The 
Hans  Breitmann  as  an  Uhlan  (1867-70;  com-  grant  of  endowment  was  made  in  1885,  the  cor- 
plete  cd.,  Philadelphia,  1871;  London,  1872;  nerstone  of  the  first  building  was  laid  in  1887, 
new  ed.  1874)  ;  The  Music  Lesson  of  Confucius,  and  the  university  was  opened  to  students  in 
philosophic  verses  (1870);  Oaudeamus,  songs  1891.  The  original  endowment  consisted  of  about 
translated  from  the  German  (1871)  ;  Egyptian  90,000  acres  of  land  in  various  parts  of  Califor- 
Sketch  Book  (1873)  ;  English  Oypsics  and  Their  nia,  including  the  Palo  Alto  estate  of  some  9000 
Language  (1873)  ;  English  Oypsy  Songs  (1875,  acres,  constituting  the  site  of  the  university;  the 
in  collaboration)  ;  Fu-8ang,  or  the  Discovery  of  Vina  estate  of  59,000  .acres  in  Tehama  County; 
America  by  Chinese  Buddhist  Priests  in  the  Fifth  and  the  Gridley  estate  of  22.000  acres  in  Butte 
Century  (1875);  Johnnykin  and  the  Ooblins  County.  By  the  will  of  Mr.  Stanford  the  nni- 
(1876) ;  Pidgin-English  Singsong  (1876)  ;  Abra-  versity  received  $2,500,000,  and  after  his  death 


LELAND   STANFORD   JUNIOR   UNIVERSITY 


LEIiAlTD  STANFOBD  TJNIVEBSITY.      115  LELEWEL. 

Mrs.  Stanford  deeded  to  it  almost  the  whole  of  gether  with  the  necessary  minor  subjects,  he  is 

the  residue  of  the  estate,  including  the  Stanford  required  to  devote  about  a  third  of  his  under- 

residence  in  San  Francisco,  making  the  total  en-  graduate  course.    All  the  rest  of  the  undergrad- 

dowment  about  $30,000,000.     The  main  part  of  uate  work  is  elective,  but  the  professor  in  charge 

the  endowment  included  in  the  gifts  of  Mrs.  Stan-  of  the  major  subject  acts  as  the  student's  educa- 

ford  consists  of  interest-bearing  securities.    Dur-  tional  adviser.    In  the  matter  of  entrance  require- 

ing  several  years  a  suit  by  the  United  States  ments  the  attempt  has  been  made  from  the  outset 

Government  involving  such   securities  seriously  to  insist  upon  an  adequate  preparatory  training 

crippled  the  institution  and  threatened  its  ex-  without  prescribing  particular  subjects,  and  to 

istence,  but  was  finally  decided  in  favor  of  the  recognize  everything  of  disciplinary  value  in  the 

university.     It  was  for  the  most  part  relieved  schools.     The   only   prescribed   requirement   fqr 

from   the  taxation  of  its  property,  through  an  admission  is  English  composition,  counting  two 

amendment  to  the  State  Constitution  ratified  in  credits  of   the    15   necessary   for   full    standing. 

1900.      The   university   lies   33   miles   southeast  For  the  remaining  13  credits  the  student  may 

of   San    Francisco    in   the    Santa   Clara   Valley,  offer    the    requisite    number    selected    from    29 

its    site    covering    about    9000    acres,    affording  different  subjects,  to  which  values  are  assigned, 

views  of  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco,  the  ocean.  These  subjects  include,  besides  those  usually  re- 

and  the  Monte  JJiablo  and  Santa  Cruz  ranges,  quired  for  entrance  examinations,  Spanish,  the 

The  architecture  is  a  modification  of  the  style  natural  sciences,  physiography,  mechanical  and 

of  the  old  Spanish  missions.     The  central  build-  free-hand    drawing,    wood-working,    forge   work, 

ings,  of  buff  sandstone,  with  roofs  of  red  tile,  foundry  work,  and  machine-shop  work.    The  at- 

constitute  two  quadrangles,  one  surrounding  the  tendance  in  1906  was  1785,  of  whom  about  500 

other,  of  which  the  inner  was  completed  in  1891,  were  women.    There  were  118  graduate  students. 

and  contains  twelve  one-story  buildings  and  an  The  faculty  numbered  122.    The  library  in  1906 

imposing  court  586  feet  long  by  246  feet  wide,  numbered   100,000  volumes,  including  the  Hop- 

The  outer  quadrangle,  consisting  in  the  main  of  kins   railway   library,   a   valuable   Australasian 

two-story  buildings,  connected  by  an  arcade,  was  library,  and  the  Hildebrand  collection  of  works 

begun  in  1898.     Among  the  twelve  buildings  of  on  Germanic  philology  and  literature.     The  Le- 

this    quadrangle    are    the    Assembly    Hall,    the  land  Stanford  Junior  Museum  is  the  outgrowth 

temporary    Library,    the    Memorial    Arch,    and  of  collections  begun  by  the  son  of  the  founders. 

buildings  of  the  departments  of  Science,  Engi-  The   control   of   the  institution   is  vested  in   a 

neering,  Economics,  Historj-,  and  English.     The  board  of  fifteen  trustees  appointed  for  ten  years, 

museum,  chemistry  building,  dormitories,  gymna-  LEL'EQES  (Lat.,  from  Gk.  AiXrytf).    In  the 

sium,  and  University  Inn,  a  university  commons  Iliad,  a  tribe  in  southwestern  Troas,  allies  of  the 

leased    and    managed    by    the    students,    occupy  Trojans.     In  historic  times  the  name  seems  to 

deUrhed    structures.      The    grounds    about    the  have  been  applied  to  a  tribe  allied  to  the  Carians. 

university    are    re8er\ed    for   experimental    and  Herodotus  does  not  distinguish   between   them; 

ornamental   purposes  and  for  residences  of  the  others  declared  they  inhabited  the  coast  of  Asia 

faculty.     Considerable  damage  was  done  to  the  Minor  north  of  Ephesus,  while  the  Carians  dwelt 

university  buildings  by  the  earthquake  of  April,  to  the  south.     The  Carian  Philip  of  Theangela 

1906.     (See  San  Francisco  Eabthquake),    The  declared  the  Leleges  to  be  slaves  of  the  Carians. 

engineers'  report  showed  that  the  damage  was  Owing  probably  to  similarity  in  names,  or  pos- 

much    less   than    external    appearances   at   first  ^ibly  to  dim  reminiscences  of  historic  events,  a 

indicated.     None  of  the  buildings  of  the  inner  common   Greek  tradition   identified  the   Leleges 

quadrangle  was  injured.     The  four  corner  two-  (and  Carians)  with  the  pre-Greek  population  of 

story  buildings  and  the  one-story  physics  build-  the  islands  and  even  the  mainland.     Some  mod- 

ing  of  the  outer  quadrangle  and  the  chemistry  em  scholars  use  this  name,  like  that  of  the  Pelas- 

building  needed   partial    rebuilding.      The   new  gians,  to  denote  the  inhabitants  of  Greece  and 

unfinished  Library  and  Gymnasium  were  wrecked,  the  islands  in  the  Stone  Age,  and  in  pre-Myce- 

There  was  no  injury  to  books,  and  very  little  naean  times. 

to  apparatus  or  collections.  The  architectural  LELETJX,  le-l§',  Adolphb  (1812-91).  A 
features  suffered  most.  The  magnificent  Memo-  French  engraver  and  genre  painter.  He  was  born 
lial  Church,  a  structure  of  Moorish  Romanesque  in  Paris,  and  began  as  an  engraver  and  lithog- 
architecture,  and  the  Memorial  Arch,  decorated  rapher,  but  won  distinction  as  a  painter.  His 
by  a  frieze  designed  by  St.  Gaudens,  were  com-  pictures  represent  scenes  of  life  in  Brittany, 
pletely  wrecked.  Northern  Spain,  and  Algeria,  and  in  the  streets 
The  university  maintains  departments  of  of  Paris  during  the  Revolution  of  1848.  He  re- 
Greek,  Latin,  Germanic  languages,  Romance  Ian-  ceived  the  cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1855. 
guagps,  English,  philosophy,  psychology,  educa-  His  "Wedding  in  Brittany,"  and  "Mot  d*Ordre,** 
tion,  history,  economics  and  social  science,  law,  a  scene  of  the  barricades  of  1848,  are  in  the  Lux- 
drawing,  mathematics,  physics,  chemistry,  bot-  embourg. — His  brother  Abmand  (1818-85)  was 
any,  physiology,  hygiene,  zoology,  geology,  and  born  in  Paris,  studied  under  Ingres  and  in  Italy, 
mining,  and  civil,  mechanical,  and  electrical  but  turned  his  attention  to  genre  painting.  He 
eni^neering.  The  Seaside  Laboratory  of  Natural  had  a  finer  appreciation  of  picturesque  scenes 
History  at  Pacific  Grove,  on  the  Bay  of  Monterey,  than  Adolphe,but  less  humor  and  power  of  expres- 
is  a  branch  of  the  biological  work  of  the  uni-  sion.  He  took  a  first-class  medal  in  1859,  and 
vemity.  The  degrees  conferred  are  Bachelor  of  entered  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1860.  The  Lux- 
Artu,  Master  of  Arts,  Engineer,  Juris  Doctor,  and  embourg  Museum  contains  his  "Capuchin  Phar- 
Dootor  of  Philosophy.  No  honorary  degrees  are  macy  in  Rome,"  and  "Protestant  Marriage  in 
given.     Degrees  are  conferred  without  regard  to  Switzerland." 

the  time  spent,  whenever  the  requirements  are  LELEWEL,    l6F6v-5l,   Joacitim    (1786-1861). 

mot.     Each  student  selects  as  his  major  subject  A  Polish  historian,  bom  at  Warsaw.    He  studied 

the  work  of  some  one  department,  to  which,  to-  at  Vilna,  and  became  lecturer  of  history  at  the 


LELE 


116 


LEIKAITBB. 


university  in  1814.  Public  librarian  and  pro- 
fessor at  Warsaw  from  1818  to  1822,  he  returned 
that  year  to  Vilna,  to  his  old  chair.  In  1824  he 
was  dismissed  upon  suspicion  of  being  engaged  in 
secret  revolutionary  proceedings,  an^  in  1830 
was  elected  a  member  of  the  Polish  Diet.  He 
was  prominent  as  a  leader  in  the  Polish  insur- 
rection of  that  year,  became  a  member  of  the 
National  Government,  and  after  the  failure  of 
the  uprising  fled  to  France.  He  lived  in  Paris 
for  two  years,  and  was  then  banished  for  partici- 
pation in  several  Polish  conspiracies.  He  went 
to  Brussels  and  lived  there  in  great  priva- 
tion. His  writings  are  extensive  Itnd  of  high 
value.  Among  them  are  his  Numismatique  du 
tnoyen-dge  (Paris,  1835) ;  06ographie  dea  Arabea 
(Paris,  1851) ;  Giographie  du  moyen-dge  (Brus- 
sels, 1852-57)  ;  History  of  Poland  (1829) ;  Kegetir 
crated  Poland  (1836).  His  political  writings  in 
twenty  volumes,  entitled  Polaka,  appeared  in 
Posen  from  1853  to  1876. 

LELOIBy  le-lw^r^,  Jean  Baptists  Auouste 
<  1809-92).  A  French  historical  painter,  bom  in 
Paris.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Picot,  and  after  travels 
in  Italy  exhibited  at  the  Salon  of  1835.  His  other 
€arly  works  were  "Sainte  O&cile,"  "Ruth  et 
Naomi,"  "Marguerite  en  prison,"  "Jeunes  paysans 
au  has  de  la  vole  sacr^,"  and  "Homftre,"  now  at 
the  Luxembourg.  A  middle  period  is  occupied 
by  mural  paintings  in  several  Parisian  churcnes. 
Later  subjects  are:  a  portrait  of  Henri  de 
Chenneviftres,  "Daphnis  et  Chlo6,"  "Jeanne  d'Arc 
dans  sa  prison,"  "La  Madeleine  au  tombeau," 
"Saint  Vincent,"  "Jeanne  d*Arc  enfant,"  and 
^'Rinaldo  et  Armida." — His  son,  Louis  Au- 
ouste (1843-84),  won  the  second  prize  at  Rome 
in  1861  after  study  in  his  father's  atelier.  His 
early  works  were  religious  subjects,  but  later  he 
turned  to  genre,  and  was  an  excellent  painter  of 
aquarelle.  Among  his  paintings  are:  "Daniel 
dans  la  fosse  aux  lions"  (1864);  "La  fete  du 
grand-pftre"  (1875);  "S^r^nade"  and  "Les  fian- 
Cailles"  (1878),  all  aquarelles  exhibited  at  the 
Exposition  of  1878. — ^Another  son.  Maurice  (1853 
— ) ,  was  Alexandre's  pupil.  Besides  illustrations 
he  painted,  and  exhibited  at  the  Salon  and  the 
exhibits  of  the  Society  of  Aquarellists:  "Les 
marionettes"  (1876);  "Le  dernier  voyage  de 
Moliftre  a  Paris"  (1878);  and  "La  dernifere 
gerbe"   (1882). 

LELONGV  le-ldN',  Jacques  (1665-1709).  A 
French  cataloguer,  born  in  Paris.  He  studied 
at  Malta,  and  then  in  Paris.  Afterwards,  he  was 
appointed  librarian  at  the  Oratorium  of  Saint 
Honors  (1699).  His  reputation  rests  upon  one 
book,  La  bibliothique  de  la  France,  published 
after  his  death  (1719),  and  enriched  and  re- 
published in  1778.  It  is  a  catalogue  of  all  books 
and  manuscripts  relative  to  the  history  of 
France,  and  is  of  great  importance  to  the  student 
of  French  history.  He  also  arranged  a  catalogue 
of  all  the  editions  of  the  Bible,  Bibliotheca  Sacra 
(1709  and  1723). 

LE  LOTJTBEy  \e  loCtr',  Louis  Joseph 
(C.1690-C.1770).  A  French  missionary  to  the 
Micmacs  and  Vicar-CJeneral  of  Acadia.  He  was 
sent  to  Nova  Scotia  about  1741.  Through  the 
spiritual  hold  he  gained  upon  the  Indians  he  was 
enabled  to  direct  their  operations  against  the 
English  forts  and  settlements,  and  when  the 
country  was  taken  by  the  British,  he  contrived 
by  threats  of  excommunication,  or  of  massacre 
by  his  Indians,  to  terrify  the  simple  Acadians 


into  remaining  loyal  to  King  Louis,  and  covertly 
fighting  for  him  after  they  had  been  subjects  of 
King  George  for  a  generation.  The  misery  he 
brou£;ht  upon  the  people  reached  its  climax  when 
the  long-suffering  English  Government  ordered 
their  deportation  (1755).  The  Abb6  Le  Loutre 
had  sought  safety  in  flight  at  the  surrender  of 
Beaus6jour,*  but  he  was  coldly  received  by  the 
Bishop  and  brethren  at  Quebec,  and  the  ship  in 
which  he  sailed  for  France  was  captured  en 
route  by  the  English,  who  held  him  prisoner  for 
eight  years  in  the  Isle  of  Jersey.  On  his  re* 
lease  he  returned  to  his  native  land  and  died  in 
obscurity. 

LELY^  leai.  Sir  Peteb  (1618-80).  A  Dutch- 
English  portrait  painter  (Pieter  van  der  Faes), 
who  practiced  chiefly  in  England.  He  was  the  sou 
of  Johan  van  der  Faes,  alias  Lely,  a  captain  of 
foot  in  the  service  of  the  States-General.  He 
was  born  at  Soest — authorities  differ  whether  the 
town  in  Westphalia  or  the  village  near  Utrecht 
is  meant.  A  pupil  of  Pieter  de  Grebber  at 
Haarlem,  in  1641,  he  went  to  England  in  the 
train  of  William,  Prince  of  Orange,  where  his 
portraits  of  the  latter  and  his  bride.  Princess 
Mary,  made  him  well  known.  He  remained  in 
London,  and  in  August,  1647,  he  painted  the 
striking  portrait  of  Charles  I.,  now  in  Lion 
House,  Isleworth.  During  the  Commonwealth 
he  painted  the  portrait  of  Cromwell  (Pitti  Gal- 
lery, Florence),  and  at  the  Restoration  he  was 
made  Court  painter  by  Charles  II.  He  painted 
the  royal  family,  the  royal  mistresses  and  their 
children,  ministers,  and  generals.  He  was  cele- 
brated in  the  verses  of  Pope  and  other  contem- 
poraries, and  Pepys  notices  him  in  his  diary. 
Though  very  extravagant,  he  amassed  a  fortune, 
and  was  without  a  rival  until  the  arrival  of 
Kneller  (q.v.).  He  was  knighted  in  1679,  and 
died  in  London,  November  30,  1680. 

Lely's  early  works  are  modeled  on  Van  Dyck, 
and  are  clear  and  warm  in  color,  the  hands  being 
especially  well  drawn.  In  later  life,  when  he 
had  become  popular,  he  employed  assistants  for 
the  draperies  and  accessories,  and  his  art  de- 
generated. His  color  became  cold  and  heavy,  and 
his  style  mannered.  He  is  chiefly  famous  for  his 
portraits — ^the  fair  and  frail  beauties  of  the 
Court  of  Charles  II.  His  best  known  work  is 
the  series  of  "Beauties,"  originally  eleven  in 
number,  but  now  reduced  to  nine,  painted  for  the 
Duchess  of  York.  They  are  now  at  Hampton 
Court.  Another  well-known  series  is  that  of  the 
"Admirals,"  twelve  in  number,  painted  for  the 
Duke  of  York. 

LEMAIBEy  le-mftr^,  Jeanne  Madeleine 
CoLLE  (1845—-).  A  French  painter,  bom  at 
Sainte  Rosseline  (Var).  She  was  a  pupil  of  her 
aunt,  Mme.  Herbelin,  a  miniature  painter,  and 
afterwards  of  Chaplin.  Besides  her  portraits, 
her  floral  paintings  are  famous,  and  she  made  a 
great  success  at  the  Exposition  of  1878  with  her 
aquarelles.  Some  of  her  subjects  are:  "Improvi- 
satrice  v^nitienne"  and  "Diane  et  son  chien" 
(1869);  "La  sortie  de  I'^glise"  (1872);  ''Mile. 
Angot"  and  "La  Marguerite"  (1873);  "Colom- 
bine"  and  "Le  panier  de  roses"  (1874). 

LEMAItbE,  le-mA^r*,  Antotnb  Louis  Pros- 
per, known  as  Fr^d^bick  (1800-76).  A  cele- 
brated French  actor;  bom  at  Havre,  July  28, 
1800.  He  was  educated  at  the  Conservatoire, 
and  in  1820  after  acting  at  minor  playhouses  he 
appeared  at  the  Odton,  but  his  fame  began  when 


LBKAZTBB.                             117  LEMBEBG. 

in  1823  he  created  at  the  Ambigu  the  character  of  LE  MANS»  le  mVLs,    A  city  of  France.    See 

Robert  Macaire  in  the  melodrama  of  L'auherge  Mans,  Le. 

dea  Adrets,     His  vigorous  and  original  geniuB  ^  iuJlBS,  U  mftrz.    A  city  and  the  county 

■oon  made  him  the  idol  of  the  boulevards,  where  ^^zt^^rm^LXL  rvr,r«*^   Tr«J«    qk  J«sL«  ^Ti^fK 

he  was  the  leading  attraction  in  a  succession  of  ?f  ^^J  n^^S^?,'t^^ifv  '^l^ihl'^n^^^     riifr.?  i^H 

*u     *          rr^  Ai.^^^— ^«*:«^«i  «^««»«;«,4-a  ^«  *i»^  ov  east  01  oioux  City:  on  the  Illinois  Uentral  and 

^^}I^  J"  *•■••  <»»'«»*»•"»*'  restraints  of  the  ^l   Chicago.  Saint  Paul,  MinneapoUs  and  Omaha 

Theatre    Franca.8    »'S!Tf'  i^^^l^.v^.V-  railroads  IMap :  Iowa.  A  2).    It  is  the  seat  of 

conunodate  himself.    He  represente4  on  the  stage  ^    ^^       ^,  j^   (,  ,,^    ^  .^^  Evangelical), 

the  extreme  of  the   Romantic   School.     Besides  „„ ,  ,  „„  „  «„ki;«  1;l^*«t«     tk^^^  i^  o/^yi<!;^»...Kii 

hifl  Phftrnptpr  of  Robert  Maeaire   which  mve  the  *°^  "*®  *  public  library.     There  is  considerable 

nis  character  ot  Kohert  ^<»>'®' ™*^^^^«^^®  trade  with  the  surrounding  farming  and  stock- 

name  to  a  new  drama  of  which  Lemattre  was  ,„•  •  „   .„^-«„.    „„j    +v«   5»„„„*o«f«^^c    {n»i,i^.> 

joint  author  in  1834,  the  record  of  his  achieve-  ^    '°l/T  k""  '  1.*°^    n     f****^^*^^^^,^   ^'^^J."^* 

jwut,  «ubuvt   .11  Aow^,  viic  *^      **    *                 flour,  blank  books,  drills,  foundry  and  machine- 

inents  includes  Trente  ana  ou  la  vie  d*un  loueur  „i,*  ^^^^„«*„    kJ;«u    »i\^^^    -»+!      i>ri,.,,i»f;^» 

*.j.u      T>i.      c»  •  J,  nr    J.'      •      loftT     T\          »  shop   products,   brick,   ci^rs,   etc.     iropuiation, 

at   the    Porte    Samt-Martin    m    1827,    Dumas  s  .     {Qf£^   Anoa,  i^  looo   a\aa 

•gr                   jjt       J          ^    ^x^'       ^i.    i.1 tr--:**!'-    :-.  ^  1890,  40oO:   in  lUUU,  4140. 

2L«an  Off  ddsordre  et  g&nxe,  at  the  Vari^t^s  m  9          »               * 

1836,  Victor  Hugo's  Ruy  B2a«,  at  the  Renaissance  LEMATTE,  le-m&t^  JxcQtTES  Fban^ois  Feb- 

in  1838,  and  Don  Cisar  de  Bazan  and  Tousaaint  I7ANd  ( 1850— ) .  A  French  painter,  bom  at  Saint 

VOurerture  later  at  the  Porte  Saint-Martin.    His  Quentin.    He  w^as  a  pupil  of  Gabanel,  and  in  1870 

last  appearance  was   in    1873,   and   he  died   in  won  the  Prix  de  Rome,  and  made  his  first  appear- 

Paris  on  January  26,  1876.     His  career  has  re-  ance  at  the  Salon,  with  "Les  joueuses  d'osselets." 

cently  been  made  the  theme  of  a  play  by  Clyde  His  later  paintings  include:  "Ladryade"  (1872)  ; 

Fitch.     Consult:  Souvenira  de  Lemaiirej  puhl\6a  "L'enfant  A  Topine"   (1873);  and  the  powerful 

par  aon  fila   (Paris,  1879)  ;  Duval,  Lemaitre  et  "Oreste  tourment^  par  les  Furies"  (1876). 

•on  *emp«  (ib.,  1876)  ;  De  Mirecourt'Tr^d^^^^^^  LEMBCKE,     Ifimp'ke,     Chbistian     Ludwio 

Lemaltre/*   m   Lea  contemporaina    (ib.,    1856);  _^  ZT,  ^o^tz  A^.     atC  -  \,       \  t          *.  r^ 

l^wes.  On  Actora  and  the  Art  of  Acting  (New  Edvard(  1815-9,  )    A  Danish  poet,  born  at  Copen- 

York    1878)  hogen.     He  studied  theology,  became  rector  of  a 

__J__-aJ,'  —     T            /lorro     V        A           •       X  Latin  school  in  Schleswig  in  1850,  and  aftemards 

LEMAITBE,  Jules    (1853-).     An  eminent  ^^^\^^  at  Copenhagen,  where  he  opened  another 

French    critic    of    the    subjective    Impressionist  institution  of  the  same  kind.     He  wrote  several 

School.   He  was  bora  at  Venncey    If  iret) ,  began  poems,  among  which  is  the  popular  Vort  Moder- 

his  career  as  a  teacher  at  Havre  (1875-80),  then  J^^^^    (Our   Mother   Tongue),   but   he    is   best 

^^?«^o«f*    Algiers     (1880-82)     and    Besancon  known  by  his  translation  of  Shakespeare  (1861 - 

(1882-83),  and  was  professor  at  Grenoble  (1883-  7^)      jj^  ^Iso  translated  Byron    (1873-76). 
84).     He  was  already  author  of  two  volumes  of 

verse,  and  had  published  some  essays  and  stories,  LEHBEBG,  l^m^^rK  (Polish  Lvooxjo).  The 
when  he  resigned  his  post  and  gave  himself  alto-  capital  of  the  Crownland  of  Galicia,  Austria, 
gether  to  letters.  He  went  to  Paris  and  in  three  situated  on  the  small  stream  of  Peltew  in  a  deep 
months  won  by  essays  on  Ohnet,  Renan,  and  Zola  valley  in  a  mountainous  region,  212  miles  by 
a  place  that  he  has  never  since  been  in  danger  rail  east-southeast  of  Cracow  (Map:  Austria,  J 
of  losing.  His  Impreaaiona  du  thMtre  (9  vols.,  2).  It  is  the  third  city  in  size  of  Cisleithan  Aus- 
1888  et  seq.),  and  Contemporaina  (7  vols.,  1886  tria.  It  is  composed  of  the  small  old  town,  and 
et  sea.),  group  his  articles  in  two  constantly  of  the  four  suburbs  which  contain  most  of  the 
extenaing  series  that  treat  criticism  as  "a  repre-  prominent  buildings.  The  ramparts  have  been  re- 
sentation  of  the  world,  like  other  branches  of  placed  by  promenades,  but  the  city  has  latterly 
literature,  and  hence  by  its  nature,  as  relative,  as  been  equipped  with  a  citadel.  Lemberg  is  very 
vain,  and  therefore  as  interesting  as  they."  This  rich  in  ecclesiastical  edifices.  The  chief  among 
profession  of  literary  faith  shows  Lemattre  to  them  are  the  Roman  Catholic  cathedral,  built  in 
differ  from  Brunetiftre,  much  as  Sainte-Beuve  dif-  late-Gothic  style  in  1350-1479  and  adorned  with 
fered  from  Nisard  in  the  preceding  generation,  frescoes;  the  Dominican  church,  modeled  after 
The  same  unoonventionality  marks  Lemattre's  Saint  Peter's  at  Rome,  and  containing  a  monu- 
dramatic  essays,  some  of  which  have  been  notably  ment  to  the  Countess  of  Dunin-Borkowska  by 
sncceasful:  R4volt4e  (1889);  Diput4  Leveau  Thorwaldsen ;  the  Armenian  cathedral  in  the  Ar- 
(1891)  ;  Mariage  htanc  (1891)  ;  Lea  roia  (1893) ;  menian-Byzantine  style;  the  United  Greek  cathe- 
FUpote  (1893);  Myrrha  (1894);  Le  pardon  dral  in  the  basilica  style;  and  the  new 
(1895).  Three  volumes  of  collected  tales,  8^4-  synagogue.  Lemberg  has  also  eight  monasteries 
nua  (1886),  Dim  oontea  (1889)  and  Lea  roia  and  convents.  The  Rathaus,  built  in  1828-37,  is 
(1893),  cannot  be  said  to  have  added  anything  surmounted  by  a  tower  260  feet  high  and  con- 
to  his  reputation.  tains  an  industrial  museum.     Other  prominent 

ItEXAKy  1e-mflN^  Jacques  Edicond    ( 1829-  secular  buildings  are  the  hall  of  the  Landtag,  the 

84).    A  French  painter,  born  at  I'Aigle.    He  was  Polytechnic  Institute,  the  archiepiscopal  palace, 

a  pnpil  of  Pioot,  and  made  a  success  with  his  and  the  hospital.    Prominent  among  the  educa- 

frst  exhibit  at  the  Salon  in  1862,  'lies  loisirs  tional  institutions  of  Lemberg  is  the  university, 

de  Virgile."    His  more  important  paintings  up  founded  by  the  Emperor  Joseph  II.     The  most 

to  1878  are:  ''Mort  de  Vittoria  Colonna"  (1853),  noteworthy  of  the  other  educational  institutions 

DOW  at  Rome;  "Duel  de  Guise  et  de  Coligny"  are  the  royal  technical  high  school  (one  of  the  six 

(1B55)  ;  "Le  repos  de  la  Vierge"    (1857) ;  and  in  Austria)  with  an  attendance  of  700,  five  gym- 

"Une  matinito  ft  rhOtel  de  Rambouillet"  (1857).  nasia,   two  theological   seminaries,   a  school  of 

Afterwards  he  produced  chiefly  aquarelles,  such  agriculture  and  forestry,  a  normal  training  school, 

as  "Le  doge  de  G«nes  (1879)   and  "La  prise  de  and  several  special  schools.    The  Ossolinski  Na- 

possession  de  Cabors  par  les  Anglais"   (1880).  tional    Institute   contains   collections    of   Polish 

His  lar/fpe  historical  piece,  "Charlemagne  dictant  historical  and  lit€frary  antiquities,  portraits,  and 

— s  capitulaires,"  is  m  the  tribunal  of  Bayeux.  coins.     The  municipal  museum  has  art  and  in- 

TsKMAH,  Lake.    See  GEifEVA,  Lake.  dustrial  collections,  and  the  Dzieduszycki  Mu- 


■emn  is  important  to  the  student  of  ancient  gaia,  and  others)   aie  of  slight  worth.     Consult 

Galicia.     In  the  Skarbek  Theatre  Polish-Italian  Vauthier,  Etsai  »ur  Lemeroier  (Paris,  1886). 

operas  are  suns  and  Polish  dramas  performed.  rv-arM-s     /m     v         i<_               ^i.. 

Lemberg  is  the  seat  of  the  chief  Iconomic  or-  .^'™;^    l^"^   ^"Ti  ^"^\  *„,''''°8,  •*• 

ganizations  of  the  crownland,  and  of  archbUhops  f'"'^'  ^"i*"  1°'  f^^l^'  /'""J   ^''~',!  'T' 

5f  the  Roman  Catholic,  United  Greek,  and  Unitk  ?""*'"'  ^^t.  labh,  rabh.to  take) .   In  mathemat^ 

Armenian  churches.    It  has  large  banks  and  com-  "<=«'  *  ProP<»»tion  introduced  for  the  purpose  of 

mercial  institutions.     The  transportation  facili-  P"^"'^  another  proposition,  but  not  otfienvise 

ties  include  an  electric  railway.    Lembeig  manu-  '^"^^^  '"J^^  «>«  general  sequence.    For  exam- 

factures  farm  machinery,  boilers,  varioSs  other  P^*'  "?  treating  propositions  on  collineanty  in 

iron     products,     musicil     instruments,     brick,  geometry,    m    order   to   prove    Pa«;al  s    'mystic 

spirits,   flour,  etc.     The  trade,   veiy   Extensive  Ee»»F»"l  ttforem,  «The  opposite  sides  of  a  hcxa- 

during  the   iliddle   Ages,   was' almost   entirely  go?  ascribed  m  conic  intersect  m  three  collmear 

destroyed  by   the   fall   of   Poland.     Within   re-  P?>nts"  ,t  is  convenient  to  approach  the  proposi- 

cent    years    the    transit    trade    has    somewhat  *Zf'^5;?;f«^-„'}*JrJ!'?».l"!5^  "T*=  ^^^^ 

recovered.     The  chief  articles  of  commerce  are  31'''!^"^    i^  r^^/ a     r     „h'  r'   r       An 

agricultural  products  and  some  iron  manufao-  ''S.Li^^;  '5.>  *°"^  ^^  ^'  '""^  ^^  ^'  ""*^  ^^ 

tures.    The  important  fair  of  'the  three  Kings'  P        »Z'i,    _,,    *n  t.»    r-x. 

is  held  every  January.    Population,  in  1890.  127,-  ^  ££»  5?'  _•  E^  r^  —  i  » 

943;  in  1900,  159,618.     The  larger  part  of  the  C,BA.CB,ACsBA»C'B^~  *• 

inhabitants  are  Poles  and  Roman  Catholics,  but  This  latter  theorem  might,  in  this  treatment  of 

there   is  also  a   considerable  number  of  Jews,  collinearity,  be  called  a  lemma.    The  word  is  not, 

Germans,  and  Ruthenians.     The  foundation  of  however,    much   us4>d    at    present,    lemmas    not 

Lemberg  is  usually  attributed  to  the  Ruthenian  l>eing  distinguished  by  name  from  other  proposi- 

Prince  Daniel,  who  built  it  for  his  son  Leo,  in  tions  in  a  sefjuence. 

whose  honor  it  was  named.    Captured  by  Casimir  lemMNG    (Norw.,    Swed.,    Dan.    lemming, 

the  Great  m  1340.  it  received  Magdeburg  rights,  ,^       f^„„  j^.^^^     j^    .      to  maim,  but  more 

and  greatly  increased  in  importance  under  the  probably  from  Lapp  loumek,  Jumm.fc,  lemming). 

Polish  rule.    It  received  many  German  colonists,  ^j,  ^  4,         ghort-tailed  r4t  {Myode,  lemmi») 

"f^  ■     •<-  °  **K?-""^  *^  ^r""  '5TT  r"  of  the  subfamily  Arviculime,  inhabiting  the  cen- 

TL"'fi'*^P"^*''-''"%'1>^-|  "P»«??d  to  Austria  ^^j   n,ou„tain   chain   of   Norv>av   and*  Sweden, 

at  the  first  partition  of  Poland  in  1772.  Lemmings  are  about  five  inches  ling,  and  yellow- 

LEKBEBGy  Univebsity  of.'   The  third  in  size  ish-brown,  marked  with  darker  spots ;  and  their 

of  the  Austrian  universities.     As  the  centre  of  food   consists    largely   of   birch    shoots,   mosses, 

the   Polish   learning   in  Austria,   it   is   a  great  grass  roots  and  stalks,  etc.    In  winter  they  form 

factor    in    the    Polish    national    movement,    and  long  galleries  under  the  snow,  in  their  wanderings 

its  lectures,  formerly  given  in  German,  are  now  in  search  of  food.    They  make  a  nest  in  some  shel- 

all   or   nearly   all    in   Polish.     It  was   founded  tered  place  out  of  dry  grass  and  hair,  and  there 

in  1784  by  Emperor  Joseph  II.,  reorganized  in  the  young  are  born,  two  broods  annually,  with 

1817,  and  began  to  flourish  especially  after  1850.  about  five  at  a  birth. 

It  has  faculties  of  theology,  law,  and  philosophy,  The  circumstance  which  has  made  the  lemming 

besides    instructors    in    medicine.      Its    library,  famous  is  its  so-called  'migration,*  the  cause  of 

founded  in  1784,  contains  160,000  volumes.     Its  which  has  never  been  satisfactorily  explained.  At 

budget  for  1900  was  1,027,644  crowns,  and  the  intervals  ranging  from   five  to  twenty  or  more 

number  of  students  2060.  years,   lemmings   suddenly   appear   in  enormous 

TTPTMnr-p     i^»«ft^     T^»»   T).»»x«.««   T?»«-»,^««  uumbcrs  in  cultivated  districts  of  Norway  and 

liBjttEJbfc,   le-mar,  Jean   Baptiste  Raymond  o„.«j^„    «,k^«^  ^^ai^^^w^    +K^,r    a^    ««*   Vw.^»« 

T^^-,-^^    /loirnov       A    T31-      I.        4.V            i        i  owcaen,  where  oramarily    they    do    not    occur. 

fu^f^  ii             •         fTt  rJ        A    ,  5-  ;  traveling  seaward  and  not  deterred  by  any  ob- 

isher.     He  was  bom  at  Rochefort,  and  studied  ^^^^,      \^^^  ^^j^  ^^    ^^^^^  ^„j  ^^^^  ^j^^ 

in  Paris.  He  was  a  notaiy's  clerk  and  then  jj^  {„  -^^^^^  ^^  ^^^  ^  persistently  on- 
worked  in  a  department  of  the  Ministry  of  the  ^.Jj  ^^^j,  g^^,,'  ^^^  survivors  reach  the  sea. 
Marine  (1841-44).  In  1848  he  began  to  write  j„t„  '^^^^^  j^  }„„  ^„j  ^  ultimately  perish, 
for  La  Sematne,  La  Liberti,  and  Le  Courrter  j,  j  j^.,  ^i^tion  all  sorts  of  predatory 
FranvaxB.  and  soon  after  founded  La  Sylphxde  ^^j^J,  f„i,„„  f„  ^^^j,  „,^  ,3„3ti„^  „„  t^^ 
(1853),  and  M  Lecture  (1848)  Lnder  pscu-  „„„^^^,  abundance  of  food,  while  ien  also 
donyms  and  his  mvn  name  he  pub  .shed  the  erotic  g,a„  ^ter  them,  as  the  damage  they  inflict 
collections,  Poe*e«de  I'amour(  1860)    and  iet-  „„    Cultivated    fields    is    serious         (s4    Plate 

!'5?„1      f"*"    *    ,^^i          r*"*   f^ooil   "'"'■5  of  GOPHER.S.)      (2)   Besides  the  Norwegian  lem- 

(1871);    Le   monhn   de  ^Ij^eur    (1885);    and  mj„g,  several  related  animals  are  given  the  same 

Balzac,  sa  we,  son  ceuvre  (1891).  „g^-      ^^^  „f  these  (Myodes  Obinsis)   inhabits 

LEMIiBCIER,.  le-m&r'syft',  Jean  Lorrs  N£-  the  Arctic  regions  of  both  hemispheres  and  is 

POMUcftNE  (1771-1840).    A  French  dramatist  and  very  abundant  in  Northwestern  America.     It  is 

poet,  born  in  Paris.     Among  the  more  noted  of  bright  rusty-brown  in  color  and  is  not  Ifnown  to 

his  dramas  are  Tartufe  rivolutionnoire  (1795),  make    migrations.      Another    species     {Myodef 

Agamemnon     (1794),     Ophia     (1798),     Charle-  schisticolor)  inhabite  Siberia  and  is  plain  slate- 

magne,  Baudoin.  Saint  Louis,  names  that  suggest  gray.    A  closely  related  animal,  the  banded  lem- 

classic  and  historic  subjects.    He  was,  however,  a  ming  or  hare-tailed  rat  or  mouse,  is  Cuniculua 

reformer  a  little  before  the  due  time,  preferring  torqiiatva ;  it  is  found  in  the  Hudson  Bay  country 

Shakespeare  to  Racine,  and  making  experiments  and  Greenland,  and   is  remarkable  for  turning 

in  stage  natiiralism,  among  them  an  imitation  of  white  in  winter.    The  'false'  lemming  represents 

the  storm  scene  in  The  Tempest.    He  is  interest-  a  third  nearly  related  genus,  the  single  species  of 

ing  solely  as  n  forerunner  of  the  romantic  drama,  which,  Bynaptomys  Cooperi,  occurs  from  Indiana 

His  poems  (Panfcypocmtade.  1819;  Les  dpssfran-  and  Kansas  northwestward   to  Alaska.     Other 


1 


I  •  •• 


ro. 


119 


LE  KOIHS. 


American  rodents  known  as  'lemmings'  are  Lem^ 
mu»  trimucronatu9'  and  Dicrosionyx  RichardaofU. 
For  these  American  mice,  consult  Preble,  "A  Bio- 
logical Investigation  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Region/' 
yorth  American  Fauna,  No.  22  (Washington, 
1902) ,  and  other  publications  in  the  same  series. 

LEXOnAJT  EABTH.  A  soft,  yellowish- 
gray,  hydrous  aluminum  silicate  that  is  found  in 
amorphous  masses  on  the  island  of  Lemnos,  now 
Stalimene.  It  was  valued  as  a  medicine  among 
the  ancients,  who  stamped  it  with  the  head  of 
Diana,  the  tutelary  goddess  of  Lemnos ;  whence  it 
acquired  the  name  of  terra  sigillata  (sealed 
earth),  and  was  used  as  an  antidote  for  poison 
and  the  plague.  It  corresponds  to  the  mineral 
cimolite. 

liXMNIS^CATE  (Neo-Lat.  lentniacata,  from 
Lat.  lemniscatuSf  ribboned,  from  lemniscus,  from 
Ok.  XiifipifKos,  l^mniskos,  ribbon,  from  X^vot, 
UnoB,  wool).  A  curve  defined  as  the  locus  of  a 
point  which  moves  so  that  the  product  of  its  dis- 
tances from  two  fixed  points  is  constant  and  equal 
to  the  square  of  half  the  distance  between  the 
fixed  points.  It  may  also  be  defined  as  the  locus 
of  the  intersection  of  the  normals  from  the 
origin  with  the  tangents  to  an  equilateral  hyper- 


bola. If  the  equation  of  the  hyperbola  is  a^ — ^ 
=  a',  the  eouation  of  the  lemniscate  is 
<x*-f-y*)'  =  c^(jt«  — y»).  The  lemniscate  is  a 
special  case  of  the  Cassinian  ovals  (q.v.),  and 
its  shape  resembles  that  of  the  figure  8.  Its 
polar  equation  isp"  =  a'(cos"d —  sin*  e)  =  a*cos  28. 
The  curve  is  symmetric  with  respect  to 
both  codrdinate  axes,  tangent  to  the  asymptotes 
of  the  hyperbola  of  the  origin,  and  lies  be- 
tween the  lines  x  =  —a,  rr  =  a,  and  is  of  the 
fourth  order  and  of  the  eighth  class.  (See 
Ctbve.)  The  lemniscate  was  invented  by  Jakob 
Bernoulli  {Acta  Eruditorum,  1694).  Fagnano 
(1750)  discovered  its  principal  properties,  but 
the  analytic  theory  is  due  chiefly  to  Euler. 

The  curves  obtained  by  tracing  the  loci  of  the 
intersection  of  the  normals  from  the  origin  with 
the  tangents  of  curves,  other  than  hyperbolas, 
are  al»o  sometimes  called  lemniscates;  e.g.  the 
car\'e  resulting  in  case  the  ellipse  is  taken  as  the 
base  is  called  an  elliptic  lemniscate.  For  an  ex- 
tensive bibliography  of  the  lemniscate,  consult 
Brocard,  "Sotea  de  hihlioffraphie  dea  courhea  g^o- 
ftUtriquea  (Bar-le-Duc,  1897). 

LEKNItlS,  l^m'nl-TRfe,  Simon  (c.  15 10-60).  A 
German  humanist,  whose  real  name  was  Simon 
Lemm  Margadant;  from  this  family  name  he  was 
aometimes  called  Emporicus  or  Mercatorius.  He 
was  bom  at  Mflnsterthal;  probably  studied  at 
Munich  and  Ingolstadt  and  under  Melanchthon 
at  Wittenberg.  His  earliest  work,  published 
at  Wittenberg  in  1538,  Epigrammaton  Lihri 
Ihto,  united  invective  against  many  of  Luther's 


followers  with  eulogy  of  Luther's  enemy,  the 
Archbishop  and  Elector  Albrecht.  Lemnius  had 
to  leave  Wittenberg;  but  in  1538  he  published, 
probably  at  Halle,  a  third  book  of  Epigrammata. 
This  was  answered  by  Camerarius's  Elegice,  dBoro- 
piKoij  and  that  in  turn  by  an  Apologia  from  Lem- 
nius (1542).  But  his  bitterest  attack  was  in  the 
poem  Lata  Piacei  Juuenalia  Monaohopomomachict, 
which  is  of  uncertain  date.  In  1540  he  was  ap- 
pointed teacher  in  the  new  Nikolaischule  at  Chur, 
where  he  died  in  1550.  His  writings,  besides  those 
already  mentioned,  are:  Bucolicorum  JEdogca 
Quinque  and  Am^yrum,  Lihri  Quatuor  (1542); 
Hofneri  Odyaaea  fferoico  Versu  Facta,  Accedit 
Batrachamyomachia  (1549)  ;  and  another  version 
in  Latin  of  Dionysius's  Periegesia  (1543)  and  a 
Rhwteia,  printed  first  in  1874.  Ck)nsult:  Lessing, 
Kritiache  Brief e  (Berlin,  1753)  ;  Plattner,  in  his 
edition  of  the  Rkceteia  ( 1874)  ;  and  Strobel,  Neue 
Beitrdge  zur  Litteratur  (Nuremberg,  1792). 

LEH^OS    (Gk.    Aijfuw).     One  of  the  four 
Tliracian   islands   in  the   northern   part   of   the 
Grecian  Archipelago,  about  forty  miles  west  of  the 
entrance  to  the  Dardanelles.     It  is  irregular  in 
shape,  and  is  nearly  divided  by  two  deep  bays — 
Port  Paradise  on  the  north  and  Port  Saint  An- 
thony on  the   south.      Area,    150    square   miles. 
Population,  about  30,000.    It  is  hilly,  rather  bare 
of  wood,  but  produces  grain,  tobacco,  and  fruits. 
The  inhabitants  are   peaceable  and  prosperous. 
The  island  has  been  for  some  time  used  as  a  place 
of  exile  for  pol  i  tical  offenders  in  Turkey.   The  prin- 
cipal product  of  Lemnos  was  formerly  the  Lemnian 
earth  (q.v.),  used  in  ancient  and  mediaeval  times 
as  a  cure  for  wounds  and  serpent-bites,  and  until 
recently  highly  valued  by  both  Turks  and  Greeks, 
but  the  ceremonies  with  which  the  earth  was  ex- 
tracted  have   been  discontinued,   and   even   tho 
knowledge  of  the  earth  is  likely  to  be  forgotten. 
The  chief  town,  Kastro  (on  the  site  of  the  ancient 
Myrina),  has  a  population  of  3000.    It  furnishes 
excellent  sailors.   Owing  to  its  situation,  Lemnos 
long  remained  but  little  influenced  by  the  Greeks. 
Judging  from  an  inscription  found  on  the  isl- 
and,  the  pre-Hellenic  population   were  akin   to 
the   Etruscans.      It   was   conquered   for   Athens 
by  Miltiades,  the  tyrant  of  the  Chersonese,  oc- 
cupied   by   the    Persians,    and    again    seized    by 
the  Athenians   along  with   Imbros,  and   settled 
by    Athenian    colonists.      The    island    was    of  - 
great   importance   to   Athens,   as   its   possession 
secured    control    of    the    trade    from    the    Black 
Sea,  and  it  was  recognized  as  Athenian  territory 
by  the  Peace  of  Antalcidas.    During  the  Hellen- 
istic and  Roman  periods  the  island  was  not  prom- 
inent, and  it  continued  under  the  rule  of  the  em- 
perors of  Constantinople  until  the  capture  of  that 
city  by  the  Latin  crusaders,  when  it  passed  under 
the  control  of  the  Genoese  princes  of  Mitylene. 
Later  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Venetians,  and 
in  1478  was  surrendered  to  the  Turks.     The  an- 
cient writers  speak  of  the  island  as  volcanic  and 
Mount  Moschylos  as  active,  and  the  place  was  a 
centre  of  the  worship  of  Hephiestus.   At  present 
there  seem  to  be  no  evidences  of  volcanic  action, 
and  it  is  probable  that  the  volcano  has  sunk  in 
the  sea,  and  is  now  represented  by  a  shoal  ofT  the 
eastern  coast.     Consult:   Conze,  Reiaen  auf  den 
fnacln  dea  thrakiachen  Meerea  (Hanover,  1860)  ; 
Tozer,  lalanda  of  the  .Egean  (Oxford,  1890)  ;  de 
Launay,  Chez  lea  Greca  de  Turquie  (Paris,  1897). 

LE  HOINEy  \e  mwttn.     The  name  of  several 
French-Canadian  pioneers.     See  LbMotne. 


LE  KOINE.                             120  LEKON-OSASa 

LE  KOUTE,  Sir  James  MacPhehson  (1826  frost-free  counties  of  the  State.    The  soil  here 

— ).    A  Canadian  author  and  naturalist,  bom  in  is  less  suited  to  the  plant,  and  greater  skill  in 

Quebec.    He  was  educated  at  Le  Petit  S^minaire  mulching  and  fertilizing  Is  necessary.    Orchards 

de   Quebec,  and   was   admitted  to  the   bar   in  are  usually  planted  with  trees  grown  from  the 

1850.    In    1847    he    entered    public    service   as  bud  on  the  sour  orange  as  a  stock,  although 

Collector  of  Inland  Revenue  at  Quebec,  and  in  Citrus  trifoliata  can  be  used.    The  lemon  grows 

1869  he  became  inspector.    His  writings  on  early  from  cuttings,  as  do  the  lime  and  the  citron. 

Canadian  history  have  gained  him  a  reputatiofi  The  orchard  treatment  of  the  lemon  is  the  same 

for  carefulness  of  research  and  for  impartiality,  as  for  the  orange    (q.v.).     The   lemon  is  very 

He  devoted  much  time  to  the  study  of  natural  different  from  the  orange  in  its  habit  of  growth, 

history,   particularly  ornithology,   and  his  con-  being  more  inclined  to  assume  the  character  of 

tributions  in  this  field  also  have  acquired  more  the    pear,    producing   long   branches    with    the 

than  ordinary  reputation.     He  was  knighted  in  fruit  at  or  near  the  extremity.     Close  attention 

1897.    His  many  publicatioiis  include:     L'orni-  to  heading-in  is,  therefore,  a  necessity  in  order 

thologie  du  Canada  (1860);  Legendary  Lore  of  to  insure  the  fruit  against  injury  and  loss  by 

the  Lower  Saint  Lawrence  (1862) ;  Les  pickeries  the  wind,  as  well  as  for  ease  in  gathering  the 

du  Canada    (1863);    Maple  Leaves    (1863-94);  product. 

The  Tourist's  Note  Book   (1870);  Quebec,  Past  Since  the  lemon  naturally  ripens   in  winter, 

and  Present   (1876);   The  Scot  in  'Sew  France  since  fruits  allowed  to  mature  on  the  trees  do 

{\%19)  I  Chronicles  of  the  Saint  Lawrence  {l^l^)  \  not  keep  well,  and  since  the  great  demand  for 

Picturesque   Quebec    (1882);    Monographies   et  lemons  is  during  the  summer  months,  in  order 

esquisses    (1885);    Canadian   Heroines    (1887);  to  insure  a   supply  at   the   desired   season  the 

Birds  of  Quebec  ( 1891 )  ;  and  Conferences  et  mi-  fruit  is  gathered  when  it  has  attained  a  stand- 

motVe^;  Eistoire,  arch^ologie   (1882-90).  ard  size,  though  still  in  a*  partially  developed 

LEKOINNE,  Ic-mwan',  Joun  Emile    (1816-  ^^^'     ^^  i^   ^^P*  »^  dark,  cool   rooms,  where 

92).     A   French  editor  and  publicist,   bom  in  extremes  of  temperature  and  draughts  can  be 

London,  October  17,  1816.    He  was  educated  first  Prevented.    When  conditions  are  right  the  im- 

in  England,  then  in  France,  and  employed  in  the  fiature  fruit  ripens  slowly    loses  moisture,  and 

Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs.    In  1840  he  became  J^«."°d  becomes  then  tough  and  pliable.     Such 

editor  of  the  Journal  des  D^bats,  and  held  the  ff^'^^  ^^P  ^^^  ^^\P  ^^«^^-    ^^^^^  removed  from 

post    for    more    than    half    a    century,    writing  ^he    curing-room    they    are    assorted,    graded, 

especially  on  foreign  politics  and  English  insti-  JT^Pfu"^  '"^  ^'T'f  ^^'''  ^""^  ^t""^^^  *il  ^""^^ 

tutions.      He    displayed    great    satiric    powers,  j^^e  those   used   for  oranges      The   profit  from 

He  became  an  Academician  in  1875  and  life  mem-  ^f^^^.    culture     ia    large.      Lemon-growing    m 

ber  of  the  Senate  in  1880.     His  numerous  pub-  America   extended   so   rapidly   during   the   last 

lications  were  of  ephemeral  interest.    He  died  in  9"*^^I  ?'  the  nineteenth  century  that  the  home 

Paris  December  14,  1892.  ^«™*"d  *»  ^^«V  «"PPl»f^\    ^f VSln''**  t^""^®  ^T' 

_._,-_^--    ,  , ,       -             ,       ,                ,.  ages  an  annual  crop  of  about  1200  carloads.    See 

LEMON    (older   forms  also   lemmon,   Umon,  pj^^  ^f  citbus  Fbuits. 

lemond,   from    Fr.    Itmon,   ML.   Itmo,   from   Ar.  ^^^  ^^^   ,,            ,        .   ^       .«,.,. 

Uman,  from  Pers.  limun,  llmd,  lemon),  Citrus  MJMON,  ^Ubk  (1809-70).    An  English  jour- 

Medica,   var.    limon.     The   common    lemon-tree  "a^ist   and  author,  the  founder  wad  editor  of 

or  its  fruit.     The  tree  is  of  irregular  growth,  J'unch.    He  was  bora  m  London,  November  30, 

inclined  to  make  long  leaders,  clothed  sparselv  ^^9-    His   only   schooling   was   at   Cheam,    in 

with   foliage,  and  of  an  average  height  of   10  Surrey.  *  When  hardly  more  than  a  boy  he  began 

to   20   feet.    The   flowers   are   purplish   on   the  contributing  tales  and  verse  to  the  magazines, 

outside,  and  their  fragrance  is  less  marked  and  In   1835  the  first  of  his  many  popular  far<«8 

agreeable  than  that  of  the  orange.     The  fruit  was  performed  at  the  Strand  Theatre.     In  the 

is  botanically  a  berrv,  ellipsoidal  in  form,  and  course  of  his  long  career  he  was  connected  with 

usually  knobbed  at  the  apex  or  distal  end;   it  Household  Words,  Once  a  Week,  the  Illustrated 

13  of  a  light  yellow  color,  and  its  rind  is  well  ^'Ofidori    News,    and    the    London   Journal.    He 

charged   with   oil-glands   carrving  an   abundant  ^^ote  fairy  tales,  Christmas  stories,  and  longer 

store    of    oil.      Lemon    oil,    or    extract,    is    ex-  novels,   as   FaiiZfcner   Lyle    (1866)    and   Leyfon 

ti'nsively    derived    from   this    source,   either   by  ^«'^  (1867).    He  was  also  a  successful  lecturer 

expression   or    distillation,   the    former   process  and  amateur  actor.     In  conjunction  with  Henry 

being  the  common  one.     The  pulp  of  the  lemon  Mayhew  (q.v.)  he  founded  Punch,  the  first  num- 

is  light-colored  and  well  charged  with  a  juice  ^*^^   ^f  which   appeared   July    17,    1841.     From 

,  of  agreeable  flavor,  which  is  mainly  due  to  the  1843  till  his  death  he  was  sole  manager.     He 

citric  acid.     It  is  much  used  by  calico-printers  gathered  about  him  the  best  humorists  of  his 

to  discharge  colors,  to  produce  greater  clearness  ti™^,  among  whom  were   Douglas  Jerrold  and 

in  the  white  part  of  patterns  dved  with  dves  con-  Thackeray.     Under  his  management  Punch  ^- 

taining  iron.     Citric  acid  an*d   lemonjuice  are  <^?™  an  organ  of  immense  social  influence.     He 

also  made  from  it  in  commercial  quantities.  ^^^  at  Crawley,  in  Sussex,  May  23.  18 lO.     His 

The    lemon    is    found    wild    in    India,    from  well-known   Jest   Book    was    reprinted    for   the 

whence  it  was  early  transported  bv  the  Arabs.  Golden  Treasury  series  (1892).    Consult  Hatton, 

It   reached   Europe    probably   not  "^earlier   than  ^*^^  «   '^^^^  «»   *^^  North:  Reminiscences  of 

the  Crusades.     It  is  now  extensively  cultivated  I-^fnon   (London,  1871). 

in  Italy  and  the  adjacent  islands,  in  Spain  and  LEMON-QBASS  (so  called  from  the  lemon- 
Portugal.  In  the  United  States  it  is  planted  like  fragrance).  Andropogon  schosnanthus.  A 
in  Florida  and  California,  but  as  it  is  less  beautiful  perennial  grass,  three  or  four  feet  high, 
hardy  than  the  orange,  it  is  confined  to  a  with  a  panicle  mostly  leaning  to  one  side,  and 
more  restricted  area.  Since  the  severe  freeze  ppikelets  in  pairs,  or,  if  terminal,  in  threes.  It 
of  1894-95  lemon  culture  in  Florida  has  been  is  a  native  of  India,  Arabia,  etc.,  and  is  ex- 
almost    entirely    transferred    to    the    southern  tromely   abundant   in   many  places.    It  is  too 


LEXON-OSASa 


121 


LE  KOYNB. 


eoane  to  be  relished  by  cattle  except  when 
young,  and  is  therefore  often  burned  down. 
Kuropeans  in  India  make  an  agreeable  stomachic 
and  tonic  tea  of  the  fresh  leaves.  By  distilla- 
tion,  a  yellow  essential  oil,  with  a  strong  lemon- 
like smell,  is  obtained  (lemon-^ass  oil),  which 
is  employed  externally  as  a  stimulant  in  rheu- 
matic affections.  It  is  used  in  perfumery,  and 
is  often  called  oil  of  verbena  by  perfumers. 
Lemon-grass  has  been  introduced  into  the  West 
Indies,  Australia,  etc.     See  Andropogon. 

LEXON-JTTICE.  A  somewhat  turbid  sour 
liquid,  obtained  from  lemons  by  expression  and 
straining.  Its  acidity  is  due  to  the  presence 
of  citric  acid,  which  it  contains  both  free  and 
in  the  form  of  salts;  it  also  contains  some 
sugar,  gum,  and  inorganic  salts.  Its  physio- 
logical action  is  usually  the  same  as  that  of 
citric  acid,  to  which,  however,  it  is  generally 
preferred  as  a  remedy  for  scurvy.  Lemon-juice 
18  much  used  for  making  effervescent  drinks. 
SSee  Citric  Acid. 

LSKONHTEB,  \e-m6'nyi/,  Antoine  Louis 
Cauille  (1835—).  A  Belgian  novelist,  bom 
at  Ixelles,  near  Brussels.  His  earlier  writing 
was  in  the  field  of  art  criticism,  such  as  Lea 
Milona  de  Bruxellea  (1863-66),  Salon  de  Paris 
(1870),  and  Lea  peintrea  de  la  vie  (1888).  La 
Belgique  (1887)  received  a  prize  from  the  Bel- 
gian Government.  His  other  works  are  novels, 
mostly  of  the  Realistic  School,  such  as  Contea 
fiatnanda  et  toallona  (1873)  ;  Un  coin  de  village 
(1879);  Lea  chamiera,  based  on  the  battle  of 
Sedan  (1881);  Happe-Chair,  much  the  same 
story  as  Zola's  Oerminal  (1886)  ;  and  the  serial 
Venfant  du  crapaud,  the  publication  of  which 
in  Le  Oil  BUia  (1889)  was  stopped  and  its 
author  fined  one  thousand  francs  for  immorality. 
His  stories  for  children  include  B4h^  et  jou- 
jouw  (1880),  La  com^die  dea  joueta,  and  Lea 
kiatoirea  de  huit  hitea  et  uhe  poup^e  (1888). 
His  later  novel,  Au  oosur  fraia  de  la  forit  ( 1900) , 
has  none  of  the  brutality  of  his  earlier  work,  and 
is  marked  by  unusual  descriptive  power. 

IiB  KONNIEB,  Pierre  Charles  (1715-99). 
A  French  astronomer.  He  was  elected  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Academic  des  Sciences  in  1736,  and 
in  the  following  year  was  associated  with  Mau- 
pertuis  and  Clairaut,  at  Tome&,  in  measuring  a 
degree  of  the  meridian  in  Lapland,  within  the 
polar  circle.  In  1739  he  was  elected  honorary 
member  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  and 
for  twelve  years  was  its  senior  member.  In  1741 
he  published  Hiatoire  c4leate.  In  1746  and  1748 
he  made  some  successful  telescopic  observations 
in  relation  to  the  planets  Jupiter  and  Saturn, 
and  an  eclipse  of  the  sun.    He  held  the  chair  of 

f»hysic8  in  the  College  de  France  for  many  years. 
n  1746  he  published  Jnaf\tution»  aatronomiguea, 
an  elementary  work.  In  1748  he  went  to  Eng- 
land, and  thence  to  Scotland  to  observe  the  solar 
eclipse.  In  1771  he  published  Nautical  Aatron^ 
omy,  and  various  treatises  on  navigation,  mag- 
netism, and  the  variations  of  the  compass,  etc. 

ZiEKON  OHi.  A  volatile  oil  expressed  from 
lemon-peel  and  consisting  chiefly  oif  the  hydro- 
carbons citrene  (C,oH,«)  and  cymene  (C,oH,J, 
and  the  aldehyde  citral  or  geranial  (C,oH,aO). 
Oil  of  lemon  is  a  fragrant  yellow  liquid,  miscible 
in  all  proportions  with  absolute  alcohol  and 
glacial  acetic  acid.  It  is  principally  used  for 
the  purpose  of  communicating  an  agreeable  odor 


to  other  medicines,  although  it  is  sometimes 
taken  in  the  dose  of  two  or  three  drops  on  sugar 
as  a  carminative.  Because  of  its  agreeable  scent, 
it  is  often  added  to  evaporating  lotions  and  to 
ointments. 

LEMONSy  Salt  or.  A  name  commonly  but 
improperly  applied  to  acid  potassium  oxalate. 

LE  KOYKE,  le  mwlin,  Aktoine,  Sieur  de 
Chateauguay  (1683-1747).  A  Canadian  officer, 
and  the  youngest  of  the  sons  of  Charles  Le 
Moyne,  Sieur  de  Longueuil.  He  became  an  officer 
in  the  French  army,  and  in  1704  led  a  party 
of  settlers  to  the  Colony  of  Louisiana,  which 
had  been  founded  by  his  brother,  Iberville  (q.v.). 
During  the  next  two  years  he  served  under  his 
brother  against  the  English,  and  with  such  dis- 
tinction that  in  1717  he  was  given  command  of 
the  French  troops  in  Louisiana.  '  He  served 
against  the  Spaniards  in  the  Florida  campaign 
of  1719.  From  1720  to  1726  he  was  stationed 
at  Mobile,  then  recalled  to  France  and  sent  as 
Governor  to  Martinique,  and  later  to  Cayenne. 
He  was  made  Governor  of  Cape  Breton  in  1745, 
a  year  famous  in  the  annals  of  that  station  on 
accoimt  of  the  capture  of  the  fortress  of  Louis- 
burg  (q.v.)  by  the  New  England  forces  under 
William  Pepperell. 

LE  MOTKE^  Charles,  Sieur  de  Longueuil 
(1626-83).  A  Canadian  explorer.  He  was  bom 
in  Normandy,  and  when  fifteen  years  of  age 
emigrated  to  Canada,  where  he  and  his  family 
of  eleven  children  took  part  in  the  early  settle- 
ment of  the  country.  He  distinguished  himself 
in  the  Indian  wars,  where  he  passed  through 
many  thrilling  adventures,  and  for  his  services 
was  ennobled  hy  Louis  XIV.,  becoming  Seigneur 
de  Longueuil  in  1668,  and  later  receiving  the 
additional  title  of  Chftteauguay.  He  was  for 
many  years  Captain  of  Montreal.  He  died  at 
Villemarie,  Canada. 

LE  KOYKE,  Charles,  first  Baron  de  Lon- 
gueuil (1656-1729).  A  Canadian  soldier,  son  of 
Charles  Le  Moyne,  Sieur  de  Longueuil,  and 
brother  of  several  other  famous  soldiers  and 
explorers.  He  served  in  the  French  army  in 
Flanders,  but  becoming  interested  in  colonization, 
returned  to  Canada  in  1683,  and  devoted  himself 
to  developing  the  resources  of  that  country.  He 
took  a  prominent  part  in  the  defense  of  Quebec 
against  the  English  in  1690,  was  Governor  of 
Montreal  in  1700,  and  fought  against  Walker's 
expedition  of   1711,  in  which  year  he  was  ap- 

Eointed  commandant-general  of  Canada.  In  1726 
e  obtained  from  the  hostile  Iroquois  a  conces- 
sion to  rebuild  the  important  *fort  at  Niagara, 
commanding  the  lower  lakes,  and  was  engaged  in 
this  work  at  the  time  of  his  death. 

LE  MOYNE,  Jacql'ES,  Sieur  de  Sainte 
H^l^ne  (1659-90).  A  Canadian  army  officer,  and 
the  second  son  of  the  elder  (Carles  Le  Moyne. 
Sieur  de  Longueuil.  He  distinguished  himself 
in  an  expedition  against  the  English  posts  on 
Hudson  Bay  (1686),  on  which  occasion  three 
forts,  a  war-vessel,  and  the  Governor-General 
were  captured.  He  also  was  prominent  in  the 
massacre  at  Schenectady  in  1690,  and  was  mor- 
tally wounded  the  same  year  at  Quebec,  in 
defending  that  city  against  the  attack  of  the 
English  under  Admiral  Phipps. 

LE  MOTNE,  Jean  Baptiste,  Sieur  de  Bien- 
ville (1680-1768).    A  son  of  Charles  Le  Moyne, 


LE  KOTHIL 


122 


8ieur  de  Longueuil^  and  celebrated  aa  one  of  the 
colonizers  of  Louisiana.    See  Bienville. 

LE  MOYNE,  Joseph,  Sieur  de  S^rigny  ( 1668- 
1734).  A  Canadian  officer  and  explorer,  sixth 
son  of  Charles  Le  Moyne,  Sieur  de  Longueuil. 
He  served  against  the  English  in  the  Hudson 
Bay  country  in  the  early  part  of  his  career,  but 
the  French  possessions  to  the  south  were  the 
scene  of  his  most  noted  exploits.  He  went  with 
his  brother  Iberville  (q.v.)  to  Louisiana,  and 
made  a  study  of  the  Gulf  coast.  For  eallant 
action  against  the  Spaniards  at  Pensacola  and 
at  Mobile,  he  was  in  1723  promoted  to  be  rear- 
admiral  and  Governor  of  Kochefort,  in  France^ 
where  he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

LE  KOYNEy  Paul,  Sieur  de  Maricourt 
(1663-1704).  A  Canadian  soldier  and  explorer, 
fourth  son  of  Charles  Le  Moyne,  Sieur  de 
Longueuil.  He  became  an  officer  in  the  French 
army  of  Canada,  and  took  a  prominent  part  in 
colonial  affairs,  his  success  being  largely  due  to 
his  ability  to  deal  with  the  Indians.  He  saw 
active  service  against  the  English  in  the  Hud- 
Bon  Bay  expedition  of  1686  with  his  brother 
Iberville  (q.v.)>  and  in  the  attack  on  Quebec 
in  1600.  In  1701  he  negotiated  a  peace  wuth  the 
Iroquois  at  the  close  of  Frontenac's  expedition 
against  them.  He  was  killed  in  an  Iroquois  raid 
upon  the  stockade  fort  where  he  was  stationed. 

LE  KOYITE,  PiEBRE,  Sieur  d'Iberville  (1661- 
1706).  A  son  of  Charles  Le  Moyne,  Sieur  de 
Longueuil,  and  one  of  the  colonizers  of  Louisiana. 
See  Iberville. 


The  principal  river  of  Salvador, 
Central  America.  It  rises  in  Lake  Guija  on  the 
boundary  of  Guatemala,  and  flows  east  and  south 
through  a  fertile  and  well-populated  region, 
emptying  into  the  Pacific  Ocean  (Map:  Central 
America,  C  .S).  It  is  the  largest  river  on  the 
Pacific  coast  of  Central  America.  Its  length  is 
200  miles ;  it  is  navigable  for  100  miles  for  small 
steamers. 


ldm-pr$r^,  John  (c.1765- 
1824).  An  Ehglish  classical  scholar.  He  was 
born  in  the  island  of  Jersey,  and  studied  at  West- 
minster School  and  at  Pembroke  Cojlege,  Oxford, 
receiving  the  degree  of  B.A.  in  1790.  After 
taking  orders,  he  became  headmaster  of  schools 
in  Abington  and  Exeter,  and  later  rector  of 
Meeth  (1811)  and  of  Ne\vton-Petrock,  Devon- 
shire (1823).  He  is  best  known  as  the  author 
of  a  classical  dictionary,  the  Bihliotheca  Classica 
(Reading,  1788;  last  edition,  1888),  which  was 
afterwards  frequently  reprinted  in  England  and 
in  this  country.  It  was  founded  upon  Saba- 
tier*a  great  Dictionnaire  des  autcurs  classiquea 
(1766-90),  and  was  itself  used  by  Anthon  as  the 
basis  of  his  classical  dictionary.  Other  published 
works  of  Lempri^re  are:  Sermons  (1791)  ;  a 
translation  of  Herodotus,  first  volume  only 
(1792);  and  a  Dictionary  of  Universal  Biog- 
raphy (T^ondon,  1808),  enlarged  and  reprinted 
by  Lord  (New  York,  1825). 

LEMTJE  (Lat.  lemur,  ghost).  Of  the  many 
curious  animals  characteristic  of  Madagascar, 
lemurs  are  perhaps  the  most  interesting.  The 
name  was  originally  bestowed  by  Linnaeus  on 
account  of  the  nocturnal  habits  and  peculiar 
ghost-like  appearance  of  the  species  known  to 
him.  and  it  is  still  used  as  the  name  of  the 
typical  genus  of  the  group.    But  at  the  present 


time  it  is  not  easy  to  determine  whether  all  the 
animals  of  the  suborder  Lemuroidea  are  to  be 
called  lemurs  or  not.  The  lemuroids  (suborder 
Lemuroidea)  differ  from  all  the  other  primates 
in  certain  peculiarities  of  the  skull,  hands,  and 
feet,  and  in  the  simple  structure  of  the  brain, 
in  which  the  cerebral  hemispheres  are  little  con- 
voluted and  do  not  conceal  the  cerebellum.  Yet 
there  is  rudimentary  'simian  fissure.'  They 
stand  at  a  lower  level  than  other  primates.  The 
head  lacks  the  human  expression  of  the  anthro- 
poid apes  or  even  of  many  monkeys — is  more 
fox-like.  The  long  tail  in  such  as  have  it  is 
never  prehensible,  nor  is  there  ever  any  trace 
of  cheek-pouches  or  of  integumental  cal- 
losities. A  curious  contrast  exists  between  the 
monkeys  and  the  lemurs,  as  Beddard  points  out, 
in  respect  to  the  digits  of  the  hands  and  feet. 
In  the  former  it  is  the  hallux  or  pollex  which 
is  subject  to  great  variation,  but  in  the  lemurs 
the  thumb  and  great  toe  are  always  well  devel- 
oped, although  the  second  or  the  third  digit 
constantly  shows  some  abnormality,  such  as  the 
remarkable  elongation  of  the  third  digit  in  the 
aye-aye  (q.v.  for  illustration)  and  in  the  ab- 
sence of  the  index  in  the  potto.  In  all  lemurs, 
moreover,  a  sharp  claw  is  borne  upon  the  second 
toe,  unlike  the  other  fiat  'nails.'  The  dentition 
is  peculiar  in  the  way  the  incisors  ( four  in  each 
jaw)  are  enlarged  and  project  forward,  and  i|i 
the  incisor  form  of  the  lower  canines.  There 
are  also  important  peculiarities  in  the  visceral 
anatomy.  The  stomach  is  simple;  the  cspcum 
is  always  present  and  of  variable  lengths,  but 
never  has  a  vermiform  appendix.  Some  of  the 
arteries  break  up  into  'retia  mirabilia,'  not 
known  elsewhere  among  primates,  but  a  char- 
acteristic of  edentates;  and  a  still  more  remark- 
able contrast  with  other  primates  is  the  fact 
that  among  lemurs  the  placenta  is  non-decid- 
uate. 

The  geographical  distribution  of  the  lemurs  is 
extraordinary  and  has  given  rise  to  much  specu- 
lation. ( See  Lemuria.  )  Two-thirds  of  the  group 
are  confined  to  Madagascar  and  near-by  islands, 
where  their  perpetuation  as  a  race  may  be  due 
to  the  scarcity  of  carnivores;  the  remainder  be- 
long to  Ethiopia  and  the  Oriental  region;  but 
in  past  ages  they  were  widespread  in  Europe. 
Asia,  and  North  America.  The  Lemuroidea  fal) 
very  naturally  into  three  families,  Lemuridie, 
Tarsiids,  and  Chiromyidte.  The  last  two,  how- 
ever, contain  only  a  single  species  each,  the 
tarsier  and  the  aye-aye  (qq.v.),  and  these  are 
such  curious  animals  that  it  is  more  natural  not 
to  call  them  lemurs.  The  family  Lemuridas  in- 
cludes some  thirty-five  or  forty  species,  which 
are  quite  generally  grouped  in  four  subfamilies, 
of  which  the  first  includes  the  indris  and  avahis 
of  Madagascar;  the  second,  the  true  lemurs; 
the  third,  the  chirogales  of  Madagascar  and  the 
galagos  of  Africa;  and  the  fourth,  the  loris  of 
Ceylon,  India,  and  Southeastern  Asia,  and  the 
angwantibo  (or  awantibo)  and  potto  of  West 
Africa.  The  indris  is  one  of  the  largest  species, 
but  the  avahis  or  woolly  lemur  (Avakis  laniger) 
is  a  small,  solitary,  and  nocturnal  species,  slow 
in  its  movements  and  rarely  descending  to  the 
ground.  The  mouse-lemurs  or  chirogales  (genus 
Chirogaleus)  are  remarkable  little  creatures, 
long-tailed  and  nocturnal;  some  of  the  species 
build  nests  like  those  of  birds,  while  others  are 
notable  for  spending  the  diy  season  in  a  state 


138  LENA. 

• 

of  torpidity,  in  a  hollow  in  a  tree,  great  quanti-  point.  Flower,  Proceedings  of  the  Zodlogicat  BO" 

ties  of  accumulated  fat  providing  the  necessary  ciety  of  London  for  1900,  p.  231. 

nourishment.    The  galagos  (genus  Qala^o)  have  See   Pbihatbs;    Aye- Aye;    Gaiago;    Mouse- 

laree,  round,  naked  ears,  which  the  animal  can  Lehub;  Potto;  and  other  names  of  particular 

fold  at  will;   they  are  small,  beautiful,  afstive  species.    See  Plate  of  Lemubs. 

nocturnal  animals,  with  large  eyes,  long  tails,  Bibuogbaphy.       Grandidier     and    Milne-£d« 

and  soft  woolly  fur.    The  loris  and  pottos  are  wards,    "Mammals,"    in    Hivtoire   naturelle   de 

remarkable  for  the  slowness  of  their  movements  MadagoBcar  (Paris,  1875) ;  also  articles  in  the 

and  the  small  or  rudimentary  index-finger.  Proceedings  of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London 

The  true  lemurs  are  characterized  by  having  for  1864,  1865,  1867,  1873,  1879,  and  1895;  and 

thirty-six  teeth,  long  tails,  moderately  elongated  the  Traneaciione  of  the  same  society  for  1863, 

tarsus,  and  short  caecum.    They  are  confined  to  1869,  and  1872.    The  best  general  account  is  by 

Madagascar  and  the  adjacent  Comoro  Islands.  Lyddeker,  Royal  Natural  History ,  vol.  i.   (Lon- 

They  vary  in  size  from  that  of  a  cat  to  that  of  a  don,  1894). 

small  sQuirrel,  with  fox-like  faces  and  soft,  thick^  LSK^BES  (Lat.  nom.  pi.,  ghosts).    Among 

fur.     They  walk  on  the  ground  or  run  about  on  the  the  Romans  of  historic  times,  the  same  as  larva, 

limbs  of  trees  on  all  fours,  but  they  are  capable  that  is,  the  souls  of  the  departed,  especially  of 

of  very  agile  jumping.    They  are  diurnal,  but  ancestors  who  hovered  about  during  the  night  and 

most  active  toward  evening,  and  are  very  noisy,  required  propitiation.     It  is  very  probable  that 

as  they  go  about  in  small  troops;  only  two  or  the  word  is  derived  from  the  name  of  the  festival. 

three  species  are  nocturnal  or  solitary.     They  The  festival  called  Lemuria  was  held  on  May  9, 

are  omnivorous  and  eat  insects  and  birds'  eggs,  n,  and  13,  and  at  midnight  of  each  day  the  father 

as  well  as  buds  and  fruit.    At  rest,  the  tail  is  of  the  family,  with  special  ceremonies,  nine  times 

usually    coiled    around    the   body    for    warmth,  threw  black  beans  over  his  head,  thus,  as  was 

Only  one  or  two  young  are  bom  at  a  time,  and  supposed,  banning  the  ghosts  from  the  house  for 

they  are  carried  about  by  the  mother,  at  first  another  year.    Ovid  describes  Lemuria  in  Fasti 

on  her  front    (the  mammas  are  pectoral),